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Xie B.-B.,Shandong University | Qin Q.-L.,Shandong University | Shi M.,Shandong University | Chen L.-L.,Shandong University | And 16 more authors.
Genome Biology and Evolution | Year: 2014

Saprotrophy on plant biomass is a recently developed nutrition strategy for Trichoderma. However, the physiology and evolution of this new nutrition strategy is still elusive. We report the deep sequencing and analysis of the genome of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, an efficient cellulase producer. The 31.7-Mb genome, smallest among the sequenced Trichoderma species, encodes fewer nutritionrelated genes than saprotrophic T. reesei (Tr), including glycoside hydrolases and nonribosomal peptide synthetase-polyketide synthase. Homology and phylogenetic analyses suggest that a large number of nutrition-related genes, including GH18 chitinases, β-1,3/1,6-glucanases, cellulolytic enzymes, and hemicellulolytic enzymes, were lost in the commonancestor of T. longibrachiatum (Tl) and Tr.dN/dS (o) calculation indicates that all the nutrition-related genes analyzed are under purifying selection. Cellulolytic enzymes, the key enzymes for saprotrophy on plant biomass, are under stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr than in mycoparasitic species, suggesting that development of the nutrition strategy of saprotrophy on plant biomass has increased the selection pressure. In addition, aspartic proteases, serine proteases, and metalloproteases are subject to stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr, suggesting that these enzymes may also play important roles in the nutrition. This study provides insights into the physiology and evolution of the nutrition strategy of Trichoderma. © The Author(s) 2014.

Dong X.-W.,Shandong Normal University | Dong X.-W.,Shandong Tobacco Industry Corporation | Song X.-Y.,Shandong University | Song X.-Y.,University of Jinan | And 2 more authors.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2010

Trichokonin VI, a peptaibol-like antimicrobial peptides isolated from the cultured substrates of trichoderma koningii SMF2, has 20 amino acid residues. The conformational flexibility of trichokonin VI in organic solvents with different polarities, aqueous solvents and membrane mimic solvents was studied by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Trichokonin VI takes on a typical α-helical structure in different organic solvents, but helicity decreases in aqueous solvent. The helical content increases with increasing the concentration of TFE up to 30%. In phosphate buffered saline, the CD spectrum of trichokonin VI is concentration dependent, and the intensity of the peaks increases with increasing the concentration of trichokonin VI. SDS induces a significant transition towards a helix formation, and the CD spectra in membrane mimic solvents increase helicity compared with those recorded without membrane mimic solvents, suggesting the interaction of the peptides with the membrane.

Wang X.-F.,Qingzhou Tobacco Research Institute | Ren G.-W.,Qingzhou Tobacco Research Institute | Chen D.,Qingzhou Tobacco Research Institute | Zhou X.-S.,Shandong Tobacco Industry Corporation
Proceedings of the 2011 6th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, ICIEA 2011 | Year: 2011

The effects of irradiation at the doses of 150450Gy on inhibition of egg, larval, and pupae development of the Lasioderma serricorne were investigated. The results showed that the egg hatching can be inhibited completely at above 150Gy. The sterility of larvae can be achieved at doses tested. The irradiation have not distinctive effect on Lasioderma serricorne pupae, but can inhibit the oviposition of adults emerged, and irradiations above 150Gy can prevent reproduction of adults. © 2011 IEEE.

Luo Y.,Shandong University | Zhang D.-D.,Shandong University | Dong X.-W.,Shandong Tobacco Industry Corporation | Zhao P.-B.,Shandong University | And 7 more authors.
FEMS Microbiology Letters | Year: 2010

Trichoderma spp. are well-known biocontrol agents because of their antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal phytopathogens. However, the biochemical mechanism of their antiviral activity remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that Trichokonins, antimicrobial peptaibols isolated from Trichoderma pseudokoningii SMF2, could induce defense responses and systemic resistance in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. Samsun NN) against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection. Local Trichokonin (100 nM) treatment led to 54% lesion inhibition, 57% reduction in average lesion diameter and 30% reduction in average lesion area in systemic tissue of tobacco compared with control, indicating that Trichokonins induced resistance in tobacco against TMV infection. Trichokonin treatment increased the production of reactive oxygen species and phenolic compounds in tobacco. Additionally, application of Trichokonins significantly increased activities of pathogenesis-related enzymes PAL and POD, and upregulated the expression of several plant defense genes. These results suggested that multiple defense pathways in tobacco were involved in Trichokonin-mediated TMV resistance. We report on the antivirus mechanism of peptaibols, which sheds light on the potential of peptaibols in plant viral disease control. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

Xie B.-B.,Shandong University | Li D.,Shandong University | Shi W.-L.,Shandong University | Qin Q.-L.,Shandong University | And 10 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2015

Background: Alternative splicing is crucial for proteome diversity and functional complexity in higher organisms. However, the alternative splicing landscape in fungi is still elusive. Results: The transcriptome of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum was deep sequenced using Illumina Solexa technology. A total of 14305 splice junctions were discovered. Analyses of alternative splicing events revealed that the number of all alternative splicing events (10034), intron retentions (IR, 9369), alternative 5' splice sites (A5SS, 167), and alternative 3' splice sites (A3SS, 302) is 7.3, 7.4, 5.1, and 5.9-fold higher, respectively, than those observed in the fungus Aspergillus oryzae using Illumina Solexa technology. This unexpectedly high ratio of alternative splicing suggests that alternative splicing is important to the transcriptome diversity of T. longibrachiatum. Alternatively spliced introns had longer lengths, higher GC contents, and lower splice site scores than constitutive introns. Further analysis demonstrated that the isoform relative frequencies were correlated with the splice site scores of the isoforms. Moreover, comparative transcriptomics determined that most enzymes related to glycolysis and the citrate cycle and glyoxylate cycle as well as a few carbohydrate-active enzymes are transcriptionally regulated. Conclusions: This study, consisting of a comprehensive analysis of the alternative splicing landscape in the filamentous fungus T. longibrachiatum, revealed an unexpectedly high ratio of alternative splicing events and provided new insights into transcriptome diversity in fungi. © 2014 Xie et al.

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