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Zhao F.Y.,Shandong University of Technology | Hu F.,Shandong University of Technology | Han M.M.,Shandong University of Technology | Zhang S.Y.,Shandong Rice Research Institute | Liu W.,Shandong University of Technology
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2011

Changes of root growth and the expression of auxin and cell-cycle genes were analyzed in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Zhonghua No. 11) treated with Cd alone, Cd plus TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, an inhibitor of polar auxin transport) or IBA (indole-3-butytric acid) and Cd plus Tiron (a scavenger of O 2 ·- or DDC (sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, a superoxide dismutase inhibitor). It was shown that Cd-stimulated rice root growth can be further enhanced by Cd plus IBA or DDC treatments but can be significantly suppressed following Cd together with Tiron or TIBA application. A comprehensive expression analysis of auxin genes, such as OsPID, OsPINs (Pin-Formeds), OsARFs (auxin response factors), and core cell-cycle genes, such as CDKs and CYCs in differently treated roots was conducted by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that the expressions of 21 out of 35 tested auxin genes and 51 out of 63 tested cell-cycle genes were regulated by various treatments. Among the modified expression profiles of 72 genes, 53 and 59 genes were up- or down-regulated by auxin (including Cd plus TIBA or IBA treatments) and O 2 ·- (including Cd plus Tiron or DDC treatments), respectively. In the roots treated with Cd plus IBA or TIBA, the expressions of 39 genes changed differently from those under single Cd treated roots. Following Cd plus DDC or Tiron treatment, the transcripts of 36 genes were also altered differently from those under single Cd treatment. Obviously, auxin and O 2 ·- affected the expression of auxin and core cell-cycle genes under Cd stress. Taken together, our results indicated that in Cd-stressed rice plants, O 2 ·- and auxin were implicated in the redistribution of root growth and the expression of auxin and cell-cycle genes. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source


Tian S.,Shandong Agricultural University | Wang Y.,Shandong Rice Research Institute | Ning T.,Shandong Agricultural University | Zhao H.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Appropriate tillage plays an important role in mitigating the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) in regions with higher crop yields, but the emission situations of some reduced tillage systems such as subsoiling, harrow tillage and rotary tillage are not comprehensively studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the emission characteristics of GHG (CH4 and N2O) under four reduced tillage systems from October 2007 to August 2009 based on a 10-yr tillage experiment in the North China Plain, which included no-tillage (NT) and three reduced tillage systems of subsoil tillage (ST), harrow tillage (HT) and rotary tillage (RT), with the conventional tillage (CT) as the control. The soil under the five tillage systems was an absorption sink for CH4 and an emission source for N2O. The soil temperature positive impacted on the CH4 absorption by the soils of different tillage systems, while a significant negative correlation was observed between the absorption and soil moisture. The main driving factor for increased N2O emission was not the soil temperature but the soil moisture and the content of nitrate. In the two rotation cycle of wheat-maize system (10/2007-10/2008 and 10/2008-10/2009), averaged cumulative uptake fluxes of CH4 under CT, ST, HT, RT and NT systems were approximately 1.67, 1.72, 1.63, 1.77 and 1.17 t ha-1 year-1, respectively, and meanwhile, approximately 4.43, 4.38, 4.47, 4.30 and 4.61 t ha-1 year-1 of N2O were emitted from soil of these systems, respectively. Moreover, they also gained 33.73, 34.63, 32.62, 34.56 and 27.54 t ha-1 yields during two crop-rotation periods, respectively. Based on these comparisons, the rotary tillage and subsoiling mitigated the emissions of CH4 and N2O as well as improving crop productivity of a wheat-maize cropping system. © 2013 Tian et al. Source


Zhao F.Y.,Shandong University of Technology | Hu F.,Shandong University of Technology | Zhang S.Y.,Shandong Rice Research Institute | Wang K.,Shandong University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

This work aims to analyze the relationship between root growth, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), auxin signaling, and cell cycle-related gene expression in cadmium (Cd)-stressed rice. The role of MAPKs in auxin signal modification and cell cycle-related gene expression during root growth was investigated by disrupting MAPK signaling using the MAPKK inhibitor PD98059 (PD). Treatment with Cd caused a significant accumulation of Cd in the roots. A Cd-specific probe showed that Cd is mainly localized in the meristematic zone and vascular tissues. Perturbation of MAPK signaling using PD significantly suppressed root system growth under Cd stress. The transcription of six MAPK genes was inhibited by Cd compared to the control. Detection using DR5-GUS transgenic rice showed that the intensity and distribution pattern of GUS staining was similar in roots treated with PD or Cd, whereas in Cd plus PD-treated roots, the GUS staining pattern was similar to that of the control, which indicates a close association of MAPK signaling with auxin homeostasis under control and Cd stress conditions. The expression of most key genes of auxin signaling, including OsYUCCA, OsPIN, OsARF, and OsIAA, and of most cell cycle-related genes, was negatively regulated by MAPKs under Cd stress. These results suggest that the MAPK pathway plays specific roles in auxin signal transduction and in the control of the cell cycle in response to Cd stress. Altogether, MAPKs take part in the regulation of root growth via auxin signal variation and the modified expression of cell cycle-related genes in Cd-stressed rice. A working model for the function of MAPKs in rice root systems grown under Cd stress is proposed. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Zhao F.-Y.,Shandong University of Technology | Han M.-M.,Shandong University of Technology | Zhang S.-Y.,Shandong Rice Research Institute | Wang K.,Shandong University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology | Year: 2012

The link between root growth, H2O2, auxin signaling, and the cell cycle in cadmium (Cd)-stressed rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Zhonghua No. 11) was analyzed in this study. Exposure to Cd induced a significant accumulation of Cd, but caused a decrease in zinc (Zn) content which resulted from the decreased expression of OsHMA9 and OsZIP. Analysis using a Cd-specific probe showed that Cd was mainly localized in the meristematic zone and vascular tissues. Formation and elongation of the root system were significantly promoted by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT), but were markedly inhibited by N,N'-dimethylthiourea (DMTU) under Cd stress. The effect of H2O2 on Cd-stressed root growth was further confirmed by examining a gain-of-function rice mutant (carrying catalase1 and glutathione-S-transferase) in the presence or absence of diphenylene iodonium. DR5-GUS staining revealed close associations between H2O2 and the concentration and distribution of auxin. H2O2 affected the expression of key genes, including OsYUCCA, OsPIN, OsARF, and OsIAA, in the auxin signaling pathway in Cd-treated plants. These results suggest that H2O2 functions upstream of the auxin signaling pathway. Furthermore, H2O2 modified the expression of cell-cycle genes in Cd-treated roots. The effects of H2O2 on root system growth are therefore linked to auxin signal modification and to variations in the expression of cell-cycle genes in Cd-stressed rice. A working model for the effects of H2O2 on Cd-stressed root system growth is thus proposed and discussed in this paper. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Source


Wang D.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Qin Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Fang J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yuan S.,Shandong Rice Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Rice is a model plant species for the study of cellulose biosynthesis. We isolated a mutant, S1-24, from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-treated plants of thejaponica rice cultivar, Nipponbare. The mutant exhibited brittle culms and other pleiotropic phenotypes such as dwarfism and partial sterility. The brittle culms resulted from reduced mechanical strength due to a defect in thickening of the sclerenchyma cell wall and reduced cellulose content in the culms of the S1-24 mutant. Map-based gene cloning and a complementation assay showed that phenotypes of the S1-24 mutant were caused by a recessive point mutation in the OsCESA7 gene, which encodes cellulose synthase A subunit 7. The missense mutation changed the highly conserved C40 to Yin the zinc finger domain. The OsCESA7 gene is expressed predominantly in the culm at the mature stage, particularly in mechanical tissues such as vascular bundles and sclerenchyma cells, consistent with the brittle phenotype in the culm. These results indicate that OsCESA7 plays an important role in cellulose biosynthesis and plant growth. © 2016 Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

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