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Qie X.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Yang J.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Jiang R.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Zhao Y.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
2010 Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, APEMC 2010 | Year: 2010

Shandong artificial triggering lightning experiment (SHATLE) by means of rocket-wire technique, aimed to understand the close electromagnetic environment of lightning channel and its correlation to the discharge current, was started at 2005 in Binzhou, Shandong. Artificially triggered lightning is thought to be similar to the subsequent return strokes in natural lightning. Sixty seven negative return strokes were successfully triggered from 2005 to 2009. The discharge current at the base of the discharge channel and electromagnetic fields at different distances were measured simultaneously for 25 return strokes. Although the data is not enough, the distribution of peak current of the triggered strokes shows a probability of lognormal distribution. The geometric mean value was about 11.8 kA with a minimum of 5.8 kA and a maximum of 45.7 kA. The geometric mean of the 10-90% rise time was 1.9 us, the geometric mean of the half peak width was 22.5 μs and the geometric mean of the charge transfer within 1ms of return strokes was 0.7 C. © 2010 IEEE.


Yang J.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Yang J.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Lu G.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Lu G.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics | Year: 2015

We reported in this paper the observation of a very bright long-delayed dancing sprite with distinct horizontal displacement from its parent stroke. The dancing sprite lasted only 60. ms, and the morphology consisted of three fields with two slim dim sprite elements in the first two fields and a very bright large element in the third field, different from other observations where the dancing sprites usually contained multiple elements over a longer time interval, and the sprite shape and brightness in the video field are often similar to the previous fields. The bright sprite was displaced at least 38. km from its parent cloud-to-ground (CG) stroke and occurred over comparatively higher cloud top region. The parent flash of this compact dancing sprite was of positive polarity, with only one return stroke (approximately +24. kA) and obvious continuing current process, and the charge moment change of stroke was small (barely above the threshold for sprite production). All the sprite elements occurred during the continuing current stage, and the bright long-delayed sprite element induced a considerable current pulse. The dancing feature of this sprite may be linked to the electrical charge structure, dynamics and microphysics of parent storm, and the inferred development of parent CG flash was consistent with previous very high-frequency (VHF) observations of lightning in the same region. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Yang J.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Qie X.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Zhang G.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Zhang Q.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2010

Statistical distributions of channel base currents and close magnetic fields have been investigated by using data measured during Shandong Artificially Triggering Lightning Experiment (SHATLE) from 2005 to 2009. Effects of different factors on close magnetic fields have been examined by using numerical method. Statistical results showed that return stroke peak currents varied from 5.8 kA to 45.7 kA with a geometric mean (GM) of 14.1 kA. The GM of 10-90% risetime, 30-90% risetime, and half-peak width in current waveforms were consistent with most of the results found in the literature. The magnetic fields at 60 m, based on 32 return strokes, varied from 18 μT to 148 μT with a GM of 52 μT. The peak value of the 10-90% risetime in magnetic field waveform was between 1 and 2 s with a minimum of 0.4 μs and a maximum of 8.4 μs, covering a relatively wide range compared with other studies. The numerical modeling results showed that for larger return stroke speeds, the magnetic field peaks are larger, half-peak widths and risetimes are smaller. Effects of distance on time-variation contribution of induction and radiation components are quite different from that of return stroke speed and current risetime. With increasing the distance or current risetime, the magnetic field peak decreases, but the risetime and half-peak width increase. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.


Qie X.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Zhang Y.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Yuan T.,Lanzhou University | Zhang Q.,Nanjing University of Technology | And 7 more authors.
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences | Year: 2014

The importance of atmospheric electricity research has been increasingly recognized in recent decades. Research on atmospheric electricity has been actively conducted since the 1980s in China. Lightning physics and its effects, as important branches of atmospheric electricity, have received more attention because of their significance both in scientific research and lightning protection applications. This paper reviews atmospheric electricity research based primarily on ground-based field experiments at different regions in China in the last decade. The results described in this review include physics and effects of lightning, rocket-triggered lightning and its physical processes of discharge, thunderstorm electricity on the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas, lightning activity associated with severe convective storms, the effect and response of lightning to climate change, numerical simulation of thunderstorm electrification and lightning discharge, lightning detection and location techniques, and transient luminous events above thunderstorms. © 2015, Chinese National Committee for International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Yang J.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Yang M.,Henan Meteorological Bureau | Liu C.,Henan Meteorological Bureau | Feng G.,Shandong Research Institute of Meteorology
Advances in Atmospheric Sciences | Year: 2013

Three summer thunderstorms in the eastern region of China were analyzed in detail using multiple data, including Doppler radar, lightning location network, TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission), MTSAT (Multi-Function Transport Satellite) images, NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) Reanalysis, and radiosonde. Two of the three storms were sprite-producing and the other was non-spriteproducing. The two sprite-producing storms occurred on 1-2 August and 27-28 July 2007, producing 16 and one sprite, respectively. The non-sprite-producing storm occurred on 29-30 July 2007. The major objective of the study was to try to find possible differences between sprite-producing and non-sprite producing storms using the multiple datasets. The results showed that the convection in the 1-2 August storm was the strongest compared with the other storms, and it produced the largest number of sprites. Precipitation ice, cloud ice and cloud water content in the convective regions in the 1-2 August storm were larger than in the other two storms, but the opposite was true in the weak convective regions. The storm microphysical properties along lines through parent CG (cloud-to-ground lightning) locations showed no special characteristics related to sprites. The flash rate evolution in the 1-2 August storm provided additional confirmation that major sprite activity coincides with a rapid decrease in the negative CG flash rate. However, the evolution curve of the CG flash rate was erratic in the sprite-producing storm on 27-28 July, which was significantly different from that in the 1-2 August storm. The average positive CG peak current in sprite-producing storms was larger than that in the non-sprite-producing one. © 2013 Chinese National Committee for International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Yang J.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Qie X.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Feng G.,Shandong Research Institute of Meteorology
Atmospheric Research | Year: 2013

Twenty-nine sprites were observed during four years from 2007 to 2010 with one most sprite-productive storm on 1-2 August 2007 which produced 16 sprites. In this paper, the most sprite-productive storm is analyzed by using data from lightning detection network, Doppler radar, MTSAT (Multi-Function Transport Satellite) satellite, TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission), NCEP. The results show that most sprites appeared in groups and in shape of carrot. Most sprites occurred frequently when the cloud top brightness temperature is getting warm and radar reflectivity is becoming weak with characteristics of sharp decrease of negative CGs and slight increase of positive CGs. The parent cloud-to-ground lightning flashes (CGs) were positive and located in region with cloud top brightness temperature of -40 to -60°C and radar reflectivity of 15-35dBZ. The sprite-producing storm was fortunately scanned by TRMM during sprite time period. One orbit data could be used for PR (Precipitation Radar, 2A25) and two orbit data for TMI (TRMM Microwave Imager, 2A12 and 1B11). Results based on TRMM indicated that storm reflectivity with 30dBZ was at about 12km in the convective region and 4km in stratiform region. The precipitation ice mostly located in 6-8km with the largest value of 2.1g/m3, but most cloud ice located between 10 and 14km with no cloud ice below 6km and very few at 6.0-8.0km. The cloud water content located mostly between 4 and 6km. Characteristics of vertical cross sections of radar reflectivity, precipitation ice and cloud ice agree well. Vertical cross sections along convective and stratiform regions show that contents of precipitation ice and cloud ice in convective region were larger than that in stratiform region. But cloud water in stratiform region was larger than that in convective region. The storm evolution could be seen clearly from characteristics of precipitation ice, cloud ice, cloud water and polarization corrected temperature at two different times. The CG distribution agrees well with low values of polarization corrected temperature region, indicating that lightning flashes have close relationship with ice particles. Although this paper is a case study of sprite-producing thunderstorm based on TRMM data, the results provided detailed information of microphysical structure of this sprite-producing storm. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Yang J.,CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics | Feng G.,Shandong Research Institute of Meteorology
2014 International Conference on Lightning Protection, ICLP 2014 | Year: 2014

Gigantic jet (GJ) is a kind of large transient discharge which occurs above thunderstorms, connecting the thunderstorms and ionosphere directly. Compared with other transient luminous events (TLEs), gigantic jet is very difficult to be recorded on the ground. One GJ event was clearly recorded over eastern China (storm center located at 35.6°N,119.8°E) in Chinese mainland near the Huanghai Sea at 20:16:22 on 12 August in 2010 (Beijing time). It is the first ground-based recorded GJ that is the most distant from the equator documented over summer thunderstorm so far. The top of the GJ on image were estimated to be about 89 km. The GJ-producing storm was a muti-cell thunderstorm and the GJ event occurred in the storm developing stage with lowest cloud-top brightness temperature of about -73 °C and maximum radar echo top of 17 km. Altitudes with reflectivity of 45 dBZ were estimated to reach 12∼14 km. Different from results in other countries that positive CGs dominated during a time period centered at GJ, negative CGs dominated during a time period centered at the GJ event and during most of the time in storm life in this study, indicating a diversity in the lightning activity in the GJ-producing storms. It is interesting that two different storms produced two types of TLEs, that is, the GJ-producing storm only produced one GJ event during its lifetime and five sprites were produced over another storm, different from other study that sprites and GJs were produced by the same storm, enriched the knowledge of GJ-producing storms. In addition, the GJ event in this study located beyond the effective coverage area (30°S∼30°N) of the ISUAL instruments onboard the FORMOSAT II satellite, and results of this study could be considered as a useful additional reference for GJ studies. © 2014 IEEE.

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