Xiao P.,Shandong University |
Xiao P.,Shandong Provincial School Key Laboratory for Protein Science of Chronic Degenerative Diseases |
Wang X.,Shandong University |
Wang X.,Shandong Provincial School Key Laboratory for Protein Science of Chronic Degenerative Diseases |
And 12 more authors.
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2014
Protein tyrosine phosphatases have diverse substrate specificities and intrinsic activities that lay the foundations for the fine-tuning of a phosphorylation network to precisely regulate cellular signal transduction. All classical PTPs share common catalytic mechanisms, and the important catalytic residues in the first sphere of their active sites have been well characterized. However, little attention has been paid to the second-sphere residues that are potentially important in defining the intrinsic activity and substrate specificity of PTPs. Here, we find that a conserved second-sphere residue, Thr263, located in the surface Q-loop is important for both the function and activity of PTPs. Using PTP1B as a study model, we found that mutations of Thr263 impaired the negative regulation role of PTP1B in insulin signaling. A detailed mechanistic study utilizing steady-state kinetics, Brønsted analysis and pH dependence in the presence of pNPP or phosphopeptide substrates revealed that Thr263 is required for the stabilization of the leaving group during catalysis. Further crystallographic studies and structural comparison revealed that Thr263 regulates the general acid function through modulation of the WPD-loop by the T263:F182/Y/H interaction pair, which is conserved in 26 out of 32 classical PTPs. In addition, the hydrophobic interaction between Thr263 and Arg1159 of the insulin receptor contributes to the substrate specificity of PTP1B. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the general role of the second-sphere residue Thr263 in PTP catalysis. Our findings suggest that the second sphere residues of PTP active site may play important roles in PTP-mediated function in both normal and diseased states. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
PubMed | Shandong Provincial School Key laboratory for Protein Science of Chronic degenerative diseases, Shandong University and Hebei Medical University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: British journal of pharmacology | Year: 2015
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is secreted by intestinal I cells and regulates important metabolic functions. In pancreatic islets, CCK controls beta cell functions primarily through CCK1 receptors, but the signalling pathways downstream of these receptors in pancreatic beta cells are not well defined.Apoptosis in pancreatic beta cell apoptosis was evaluated using Hoechst-33342 staining, TUNEL assays and Annexin-V-FITC/PI staining. Insulin secretion and second messenger production were monitored using ELISAs. Protein and phospho-protein levels were determined by Western blotting. A glucose tolerance test was carried out to examine the functions of CCK-8s in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.The sulfated carboxy-terminal octapeptide CCK26-33 amide (CCK-8s) activated CCK1 receptors and induced accumulation of both IP3 and cAMP. Whereas Gq -PLC-IP3 signalling was required for the CCK-8s-induced insulin secretion under low-glucose conditions, Gs -PKA/Epac signalling contributed more strongly to the CCK-8s-mediated insulin secretion in high-glucose conditions. CCK-8s also promoted formation of the CCK1 receptor/-arrestin-1 complex in pancreatic beta cells. Using -arrestin-1 knockout mice, we demonstrated that -arrestin-1 is a key mediator of both CCK-8s-mediated insulin secretion and of its the protective effect against apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells. The anti-apoptotic effects of -arrestin-1 occurred through cytoplasmic late-phase ERK activation, which activates the 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase-phospho-Bcl-2-family protein pathway.Knowledge of different CCK1 receptor-activated downstream signalling pathways in the regulation of distinct functions of pancreatic beta cells could be used to identify biased CCK1 receptor ligands for the development of new anti-diabetic drugs.