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Kong L.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Si J.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Sun M.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Feng B.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science | Year: 2013

Root activity plays a dominant role in grain filling in cereal crops. However, the importance of deep roots for regulating post-anthesis leaf senescence is not clearly understood in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, we used 32P tracing to estimate the difference in wheat root activity at soil depths of 30 and 70 cm and the root restriction method to investigate the effects of vertical distribution of deep roots on leaf senescence, with non-restricted plants as controls. Recovery of radioactive 32P indicated that deep roots had significantly higher activity than upper roots in wheat. Root restriction at a soil depth of 50 cm caused significant decreases in the activities of superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) and ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) at 16 days after anthesis and thereafter resulting in an increase in malondialdehyde. As a result, chlorophyll levels and net photosynthesis decreased. Ultimately, the root-restricted wheat produced a significantly lower grain yield than the non-restricted controls. These data suggest that deep roots are pivotal for regulating plant senescence, duration of grain filling, and yield formation. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source


Kong L.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang F.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang F.,Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement | Si J.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Plant Interactions | Year: 2013

Nitrogen availability is closely related to crop senescence and productivity, but its associated effect on reserve remobilization is not yet fully understood. In this study, we observed that nitrogen deficiency (N-) led to significant decreases in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P<0.05), guaiacol peroxidase (P<0.05), and catalase (P<0.05) as well as a higher concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (P<0.05) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) peduncles during the middle grain-filling compared with the application of 225 kg N ha-1 (N+). Callose concentration showed the same trend of temporal changes as ROS. Histochemical staining revealed that both ROS and callose predominantly occurred in vascular bundles of peduncles. Ultimately, grain filling rates and grain weight in N- wheat were reduced compared with N+ plant. These data suggest that the grain yield decline in N- wheat may be at least partially attributed to the higher callose deposition in peduncle vascular bundles and ROS level is closely associated with the increase in the callose deposition in wheat peduncle vascular bundles. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Kong L.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang F.,Jinan Academy of Agricultural science | Zhang R.,Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement | Feng B.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2012

Pre-anthesis-synthesized proteins stored in the vegetative organs of cereal crops are re-mobilized and transferred to the grains. In this study, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown at levels of 225 kg N ha-1 (normal) and 330 kg N ha-1 (high) to investigate the effects of excessive N rates on the N re-mobilization from vegetative organs to the developing grains and on the grain protein yield. At a high N dose, the activities of the major flag leaf proteases were greatly decreased ~8-24 days after anthesis. From the beginning of the grain filling to the maturity, the post-anthesis flag leaf protein contents reduced by 80.50% and 70.40% at normal and high N rates, respectively (P < 0.05). The wheat flag leaves grown under high N conditions had a higher residual N at maturity than those grown under normal N conditions. Thus, up to maturity, the flag leaf N translocation efficiency was 67.4% in wheat exposed to a high N rate, significantly lower than the 73.8% of the plants exposed to a normal N rate (P < 0.05). Consequently, the grain protein content was not significantly increased with high N fertilization. In conclusion, the application of excessive N inhibits the proteolysis and decreases the export of flag leaf-stored protein to the developing grains and therefore, may not improve the protein yield in wheat. © 2012 Friends Science Publishers. Source


Li Y.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li Y.,Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement | Fang F.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Guo F.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Functional Plant Biology | Year: 2015

One of salt-induced calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) gene was isolated from Arachis hypogeae L. by RACE method. The cDNA full length was 2241bp deposited in GenBank (number KF437909), designated as AhCDPK. The coding region sequence of AhCDPK was 1629bp and encoded a protein of 542 amino acids. The molecular weight and the theoretical isoelectric point of AhCDPK was 60.96kDa and 5.61 respectively. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that AhCDPK has highest similarity and homology with Glycine max L. In addition, the AhCDPK amino acids were predicted to encode a hydrophilic protein which localised in the endoplasmic reticulum. AhCDPK seemed to transcript in all peanut organs, and had the highest expression in seeds. The expression of AhCDPK could be strongly induced by both Ca2+ and NaCl. When exposed to salt stress, overexpressing AhCDPK in tobacco could alleviate PSII photoinhibition by improving physiological states, such as reducing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), improving the activity of antioxidant defence system enzymes and improving the accumulation of osmotic regulation substance. These results showed that AhCDPK has the same functions as that of G. max, and it could play an important role for peanut to resist salt stress. © CSIRO 2015. Source


Mu C.H.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Mu C.H.,Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement | Yang Y.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang F.J.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2016

Zea mays L. has been the most cultivated crop and the crop with the largest yield in China since 2012. We constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the maize inbred line Qi319, which may be used as a key source for disease-resistant maize breeding in China. The BAC contains 270,720 clones, with an average insert size of 90 kb. The coverage of the library is about 10.43 genome equivalents when considering a haploid genome size of 2300 Mb, providing a 99.99% likelihood of isolating any maize gene or sequence in the library. An average of 12 clones were obtained by polymerase chain reaction screening by using primer pairs linked to the genes for resistance to maize southern rust and rough dwarf. The results indicate that the library can satisfy the requirements for recovering specific sequences. The library is available to researchers to whom it may be of interest. © 2016, Brazilian Society of Plant Breeding. All Rights Reserved. Source

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