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Zhang J.,Shandong University | Zhang J.,Shandong Provincial Key laboratory of Cardiovascular Proteomics | Wang Q.-Z.,Shandong University | Wang Q.-Z.,Shandong Provincial Key laboratory of Cardiovascular Proteomics | And 13 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2017

Background: Myocardial fibrosis contributes to cardiac dysfunction. Astaxanthin (AST), a member of the carotenoid family, is a well-known antioxidant, but its effect on and underlying mechanisms in myocardial fibrosis are poorly understood. Methods: In vivo, myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction were induced using transverse aortic constriction (TAC). AST was administered to mice for 12. weeks post-surgery. In vitro, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) was used to stimulate human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs). EX-527 (6-chloro-2, 3, 4, 9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-1-carboxamide) and SIRT1 siRNA were used to inhibit SIRT1 in vivo and in vitro, respectively. The effects of AST on cardiac function and fibrosis were determined. SIRT1 expression and activity were measured to explore the mechanisms underlying its effects. Results: AST improved cardiac function and attenuated fibrosis. Receptor activated-SMADs (R-SMADs), including SMAD2 and SMAD3, played important roles in these processes. The TAC surgery-induced increases in the expression of phosphorylated and acetylated R-SMADs were attenuated by treatment with AST, the translocation and transcriptional activity of R-SMADs were also restrained. These effects were accompanied by an increase in the expression and activity of SIRT1. Inhibiting SIRT1 attenuated the acetylation and transcriptional activity of R-SMADs, but not their phosphorylation and translocation. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that AST improves cardiac function and attenuates fibrosis by decreasing phosphorylation and deacetylation of R-SMADs. SIRT1 contributes to AST's protective function by reducing acetylation of R-SMADs. General significance: These data suggest that AST may be useful as a preventive/therapeutic agent for cardiac dysfunction and myocardial fibrosis. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Cao A.-H.,Shandong University | Cao A.-H.,Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Proteomics | Wang J.,Shandong University | Wang J.,Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Proteomics | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Geriatric Cardiology | Year: 2015

Background Atherosclerotic plaques indicate the occurrence of ischemia events and it is a difficult task for clinical physicians. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to exert an antiatherogenic effect by inducing regression of atherosclerotic plaques in animal experimental studies. In this study, the antiatherogenic effect of GSPE has been investigated in clinical use. Methods Consecutive 287 patients diagnosed with asymptomatic carotid plaques or abnormal plaque free carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were randomly assigned to the GSPE group (n = 146) or control group (n = 141). The patients in the GSPE group received GSPE 200 mg per day orally, while patients in the control group were only enrolled in a lifestyle intervention program. Carotid ultrasound examination was performed at baseline and 6, 12, 24 months during follow-up. Mean maximum CIMT (MMCIMT), plaque score, echogenicity of plaques and ischemic vascular events were recorded. Results As anticipated, after treatment, GSPE resulted in significant reduction in MMCIMT progression (4.2% decrease after six months, 4.9% decrease after 12 months and 5.8% decrease after 24 months) and plaque score (10.9% decrease after six months, 24.1% decrease after 12 months and 33.1% decrease after 24 months) for the primary outcome, while MMCIMT and plaque score were stable and even increased with the time going on in control group. The number of plaques and unstable plaques also decreased after treatment of GSPE. Furthermore, the carotid plaque can disappear after treatment with GSPE. The incidence rate for transitory ischemic attack (TIA), arterial revascularization procedure, and hospital readmission for unstable angina in GSPE group were statistically significant lower (P = 0.02, 0.08, 0.002, respectively) compared with the control group. Conclusions GSPE inhibited the progression of MMCIMT and reduced carotid plaque size in GSPE treated patients, and with extended treatment, the superior efficacy on MMCIMT and carotid plaque occurred. Furthermore, the GSPE group showed lower rates of clinical vascular events. © 2015 JGC All rights reserved.

Liu X.,Shandong University | Liu X.,Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Proteomics | Qiu J.,Shandong University | Qiu J.,Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Proteomics | And 12 more authors.
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2012

Recent studies indicate that chronic ouabain treatment leads to hypertension and hypertensive vascular remodeling. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to be effective in treating arteriosclerosis, while little is known about its effect on systolic blood pressure and vascular remodeling. In this study, the effects of GSPE on systolic blood pressure and vascular remodeling were analyzed by treating ouabain-induced hypertensive rats with GSPE (250 mg/kg·d). The expression of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in thoracic aorta was examined by ELISA; the mRNA and protein levels of TGF-β1 were detected using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The results showed that the systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased following treatment with GSPE, with blocked vascular remodeling. The ET-1 content was reduced while NO production was increased in the GSPE group, which showed improved vascular endothelial function. Moreover, GSPE also reduced TGF-β1 expression in the thoracic aorta, which is a determinant in vascular remodeling. In conclusion, GSPE antagonized ouabain-induced hypertension and vascular remodeling and is recommended as a potential anti-hypertensive agent for patients with hypertensive vascular diseases.

Zhao S.-H.,Shandong University | Zhao S.-H.,Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Proteomics | Qiu J.,Shandong University | Qiu J.,Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Proteomics | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2013

Objective: Cardiac hypertrophy is a major cause of heart failure and sudden cardiac death among hypertensive individuals. The present study examined the effects of profilin-1 on hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Methods: We used adenovirus injection to knockdown or overexpress profilin-1 in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). As a control, blank adenovirus was injected into age-matched SHRs and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs). SBP and cardiac mass index were measured. Cardiac tissues were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and sirius red, and cardiac ultrastructure was imaged using transmission electron microscopy. Actin filament was quantified by staining with TRIC-tagged phalloidin. Caveolin-3 abundance and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity were measured using real-time quantitative PCR, Western blot or immunofluorescence staining. Results: Endogenous profilin-1 was highly expressed in hypertrophic myocardium of SHRs compared with WKYs. Lowering profilin-1 expression in SHRs significantly attenuated hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis and displayed a significant preservation of myofibrils, sarcolemmal caveolae, abundance of caveolin-3 protein, activity of eNOS and production of nitric oxide (NO). In contrast, transgenic overexpression of profilin-1 in SHRs induced more serious cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis with significant reduction of sarcolemmal caveolae, caveolin-3 protein, eNOS activity, and production of NO when compared with SHR controls. Conclusion: Profilin-1 promotes cardiac hypertrophy partly through interfering with the formation of sarcolemmal caveolae and attenuating the eNOS/NO pathway. These results demonstrate a crucial role for profilin-1 in hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Zhao S.-H.,Shandong University | Zhao S.-H.,Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Proteomics | Gao H.-Q.,Shandong University | Gao H.-Q.,Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Proteomics | And 9 more authors.
Heart and Vessels | Year: 2013

The aim of this work is to study cytoskeletal impairment during the development of ouabain-induced ventricular hypertrophy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either ouabain or saline. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was recorded weekly. At the end of the 3rd and 6th week, the rats were killed and cardiac mass index were measured. Hematoxylin-eosin and Sirius red staining were carried out and cardiac ultrastructure were studied using transmission electron microscopy. The mRNA level of Profilin-1, Desmin, PCNA, TGF-β1 and ET-1 in the left ventricle were measured using real-time quantitative PCR while their protein levels were examined by Western blot or immunohistochemistry. After 3 weeks, there was no significant difference in the mean SBP, cardiac mass index, mRNA and protein expression of PCNA, TGF-β1 and ET-1 between the two groups. However, ouabain-treated rats showed disorganized cardiac cytoskeleton with abnormal expression of Profilin-1 and Desmin. After 6 weeks, the cardiac mass index remained the same in the two groups while PCNA, TGF-β1, and ET-1 have been upregulated in ouabain-treated rats. The cardiac cytoskeletal impairment was more severe in ouabain-treated rats with further changes of Profilin-1 and Desmin. Cytoskeletal abnormality is an ultra-early change during ouabain-induced ventricular hypertrophy, before the release of hypertrophic factors. Therapy for prevention of ouabain-induced hypertrophy should start at the early stage by preventing the cytoskeleton from disorganization. © 2012 Springer.

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