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Wu G.,Shandong Agricultural University | Liu L.,Shandong Agricultural University | Qi Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | Sun Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Animal Genetics

Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is a foodborne pathogen that can threaten human health through contaminated poultry products. Live poultry, chicken eggs and meat are primary sources of human salmonellosis. To understand the genetic resistance of egg-type chickens in response to SE inoculation, global gene expression in the spleen of 20-week-old White Leghorn was measured using the Agilent 4 × 44 K chicken microarray at 7 and 14 days following SE inoculation (dpi). Results showed that there were 1363 genes significantly differentially expressed between inoculated and non-inoculated groups at 7 dpi (I7/N7), of which 682 were up-regulated and 681 were down-regulated genes. By contrast, 688 differentially expressed genes were observed at 14 dpi (I14/N14), of which 371 were up-regulated genes and 317 were down-regulated genes. There were 33 and 28 immune-related genes significantly differentially expressed in the comparisons of I7/N7 and I14/N14 respectively. Functional annotation revealed that several Gene Ontology (GO) terms related to immunity were significantly enriched between the inoculated and non-inoculated groups at 14 dpi but not at 7 dpi, despite a similar number of immune-related genes identified between I7/N7 and I14/N14. The immune response to SE inoculation changes with different time points following SE inoculation. The complicated interaction between the immune system and metabolism contributes to the immune responses to SE inoculation of egg-type chickens at 14 dpi at the onset of lay. GC, TNFSF8, CD86, CD274, BLB1 and BLB2 play important roles in response to SE inoculation. The results from this study will deepen the current understanding of the genetic response of the egg-type chicken to SE inoculation at the onset of egg laying. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics. Source

Liu X.,Shandong Agricultural University | Liu L.,Shandong Agricultural University | Zhang M.,Shandong Agricultural University | Yang N.,China Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Poultry Science

Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Previous research has shown that circadian rhythm plays a critical role in host response to C. jejuni colonization. The CLOCK gene is one of the core genes regulating circadian rhythms and shows significant expression on 7 d post-C. jejuni inoculation. The objective of this study was to investigate temporal and spatial expression of chicken CLOCK gene post-C. jejuni inoculation. Cecal and splenic RNA were isolated from 2 distinct chicken breeds and used to compare the mRNA expression of CLOCK gene between inoculated and noninoculated chickens within each breed and between breeds within each of inoculated and noninoculated groups. Our results showed that the CLOCK gene was significantly down-regulated at 20 h postinoculation (hpi) in cecum and spleen in Jiningbairi chicken. CLOCK gene was significantly down-regulated at 4 and 16 hpi and up-regulated at 8 hpi in cecum and spleen in specific pathogen free white leghorn noninoculated chicken. The findings suggested that expression of CLOCK gene was significantly changed post C. jejuin inoculation. This change was affected by genetic background, tissue, and time points postinoculation. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Li Z.,Shandong University | Li Z.,Shandong Agricultural University | Wang X.,Shandong University | Wang X.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 13 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology

To test the hypothesis that duck circovirus (DuCV) may be vertically transmitted from infected breeder ducks to their ducklings, we investigated 120 newly hatched ducklings, 30 dead duck embryos and 80 non-embryonated duck eggs with the duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DuCV DNA was present in 15 newly hatched ducklings, 4 duck embryos and 3 non-embryonated eggs. Four ducklings from two flocks were co-infected by DuCV-1 and DuCV-2, three ducklings from three flocks were DuCV-1 single infection, and eight ducklings from six flocks were DuCV-2 single infection. One duck embryo and one non-embryonated egg were positive for both DuCV-1 and DuCV-2 DNAs, one embryo for DuCV-1 DNA, and two embryos and two non-embryonated eggs for DuCV-2 DNA. The findings provide evidence of possible vertical transmission of DuCV and simultaneous transmission of DuCV-1 and DuCV-2 from breeder ducks to ducklings. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Zhang D.,Shandong Agricultural University | Zhang D.,Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention | Xia Q.,Shandong Agricultural University | Xia Q.,Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention | And 6 more authors.

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has recently caused catastrophic losses in swine industry worldwide. The commercial vaccines only provide a limited protection against PRRSV infection. At present, DNA vaccine is the focus on the new vaccines. The gene fragment (p28) coding for the molecular adjuvants complement protein C3d (mC3d) from BALB/c mouse was cloned and expressed as a fusion protein for its application in the vaccine study of mice. Three potential vaccines construct units were engineered to contain two, four and six copies of mC3d-p28 coding gene linked to the GP5 gene of PRRSV and one vaccine expressing GP5 alone (pcDNA3.1-GP5) was constructed. Subsequently, the vaccines' abilities to elicit the humoral and cellular immune responses were investigated in mice. These results showed that significantly enhanced GP5-specific ELISA antibody, GP5-specific neutralizing antibody, IFN-γ level, and IL-4 level, could be induced in mice immunized with DNA construct units encoding the pcDNA3.1-C3d-p28.n-GP5 than those received DNA vaccine expressing GP5 alone (pcDNA3.1-GP5). Analysis of the immunogenicity of different repeats of mC3d-p28 revealed that mC3d-p28 had an enhancing effect on the immunogenicity of antigens, and that six or more repeats of mC3d-p28 may be necessary for efficient enhancement of antigen specific immune responses. This approach may provide a new strategy for the development of efficient vaccines against the PRRSV for pigs in the future. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Peng L.,Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention | Peng L.,Shandong Agricultural University | Chen C.,Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention | Chen C.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 12 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology

In mid-August 2013, two H9N2 influenza viruses, named A/mink/Shandong/F6/2013 (Mk/SD/F6/13) and A/mink/Shandong/F10/2013 (Mk/SD/F10/13), were isolated from lung samples of 2 of 45 farmed mink exhibiting respiratory signs in mideastern Shandong province, China. The seroprevalence of antibodies to H9N2 in mink was 20% (53/265). Based on sequence analysis, the eight nucleotide sequences showed 99.7-100% identity between Mk/SD/F6/13 and Mk/SD/F10/13. The HA, NP and NS genes of Mk/SD/F6/13 and Mk/SD/F10/13 were close to A/chicken/Zhejiang/329/2011 (H9N2), the NA and PB1 genes to A/duck/Hunan/S4111/2011 (H9N2), the PA and M genes to A/chicken/Shanghai/C1/2012 (H9N2). However, the PB2 genes had a close relationship with A/Turkey/California/189/66 (H9N2). Based on Sialic acid (SA) receptor detection, a range tissues of the mink demonstrated staining for MAA and/or SNA, and mink could serve as an intermediate host for influenza viruses with pandemic potential for the other animals. Experimental infection of mink demonstrated that mink could be infected by H9N2 influenza viruses and presented mild clinical signs, virus shedding and seroconversion, but no animals died of the disease. It implied that mammalian host-adapted avian H9N2 strains infected mink. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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