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Mukherjee P.K.,Case Western Reserve University | Chandra J.,Case Western Reserve University | Yu C.,Case Western Reserve University | Yu C.,Shandong Provincial Institute of Dermatology and Venereology | And 3 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science

Purpose. Fusarium is a major cause of microbial keratitis, and its ability to form biofilms was suggested as a contributing factor in recent outbreaks. We investigated the ability of outbreak Fusarium isolates (F. solani species complex [FSSC] and F. oxysporum species complex [FOSC]) to form biofilms in vitro and in vivo, and evaluated their antifungal susceptibilities. Methods. Biofilm formation was assessed using our in vitro contact lens model and in vivo murine model. Biofilm architecture was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Susceptibility against amphotericin B (AmB), voriconazole (VCZ), and natamycin (NAT) was determined using the CLSI-M38-A2 method and XTT metabolic assay. Results. FSSC strains formed more biofilms than FOSC, in a strain- and clade-dependent manner. CLSM analyses revealed that "high biofilm forming" (HBF) strains had denser and thicker biofilms than "low biofilm forming" (LBF) strains of both species (thickness 51 vs. 41 μm for FSSC and 61 vs. 45 μm for FOSC strains, P < 0.05 for both comparisons). Fusarium biofilms exhibited species-dependent antifungal susceptibilities (e.g., FSSC biofilms AmB minimal inhibitory concentrations [MIC] ≥16 μg/mL, while NAT or VCZ MICs were 2-8 μg/mL). FSSC-infected mice had severe corneal opacification independent of biofilm thickness, while FOSC infection resulted in moderate corneal opacification. Corneal fungal burden of mice infected with HBF strains was higher than those of the LBF strains. In contrast, the reference ATCC isolate was unable to cause infection. Conclusions. The ability to form biofilms is a key pathogenicity determinant of Fusarium, irrespective of the thickness of these biofilms. Further studies are warranted to explore this association in greater detail. © 2012 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc. Source

Li H.Y.,Shandong University | Li H.Y.,Binzhou Medical University | Zhang F.R.,Shandong University | Zhang F.R.,Shandong Provincial Institute of Dermatology and Venereology | Deng D.Q.,Kunming Medical University
Genetics and Molecular Research

We have previously found that an imbalance of Tc1/Tc2 T cell subtypes in vivo impacts the development of photodermatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cytokines derived from keratinocytes exposure to UV and the imbalance of Th subgroups. We used different doses of UVA and UVB to irradiate HaCaT cells. Twelve hours after irradiation, the expression of IL-10R, IL-4R, IL-12R, and IFN-γR proteins was observed using the S-P method, and the percentage of positive cells calculated. Protein levels of the respective ligands in the supernatant was measured by ELISA. Our results showed low levels of expression of the interrogated proteins in unirradiated HaCaT cells, and little or no expression could be detected in the supernatant. Little or no expression was also observed for IL-12Rand IFN-γR 12 h after UVA or UVB irradiation. However, the expression of IL-10R and IL-10 was upregulated 12 h following UVB irradiation, as well as following lower dose UVA irradiation. In contrast, higher dose UVA decreased the expression of IL-10R and IL-10. The expression of IL-4R was increased following high doses of UVA and UVB irradiation, whereas no expression was observed after lower dose UV exposure. There was no change in IL-4 secretion into the supernatant. Our results demonstrate that the effects of UV exposure on keratinocyte-derived cytokines are different according to the doses of irradiation and the types of cytokines, and suggest that keratinocyte-derived cytokines after UV exposure might cause an imbalance of Th1/Th2. © FUNPEC-RP. Source

Tan W.,Beckman Laser Institute | Chernova M.,Beckman Laser Institute | Gao L.,Beckman Laser Institute | Gao L.,Boston University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology

Background: Port-wine stain (PWS) is a congenital, progressive vascular malformation but the pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Objective: We sought to investigate the activation status of various kinases, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, AKT, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, P70 ribosomal S6 kinase, and phosphoinositide phospholipase C γ subunit, in PWS biopsy tissues. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was performed on 19 skin biopsy samples from 11 patients with PWS. Results: c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and P70 ribosomal S6 kinase in pediatric and adult PWS blood vessels were consecutively activated. Activation of AKT and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase was found in many adult hypertrophic PWS blood vessels but not in infants. Phosphoinositide phospholipase C γ subunit showed strong activation in nodular PWS blood vessels. Limitation: Infantile PWS sample size was small. Conclusion: Our data suggest a subsequent activation profile of various kinases during different stages of PWS: (1) c-Jun N-terminal and extracellular signal-regulated kinases are firstly and consecutively activated in all PWS tissues, which may contribute to both the pathogenesis and progressive development of PWS; (2) AKT and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase are subsequently activated, and are involved in the hypertrophic development of PWS blood vessels; and (3) phosphoinositide phospholipase C γ subunit is activated in the most advanced stage of PWS and may participate in nodular formation. © 2014 by the American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Source

Yan J.,Jinan City Hospital for Skin Diseases Prevention and Treatment | Wang X.,Jinan City Hospital for Skin Diseases Prevention and Treatment | Chen S.,Shandong Provincial Institute of Dermatology and Venereology
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy

Background: Terbinafine is an effective antimicrobial agent against dermatophytes, cryptococcus and other fungi. It is the preferred drug to treat onychomycosis. However, severe acute hepatitis from oral terbinafine administration has been recently reported. Aim: To describe a representative case, and review the literature regarding the best evidence on treatment and prognosis of severe acute hepatitis caused by oral terbinafine. Methods: The literature was searched for publications on severe hepatitis caused by terbinafine using MEDLINE, China Biology Medicine Disc, and the VIP Medical Information Resource System. Related references were searched manually. Results: Seventeen English and three Chinese references of case reports were included after eliminating duplicate publications. No randomized control studies were found. Liver enzyme levels were found to have been increased significantly. Abdominal ultrasound demonstrated cholestasis. Conclusions: Severe acute liver injury is a known, but unusual complication of terbinafine exposure. The prognosis is often good with appropriate treatment. Liver function assessment before treatment and periodic monitoring 4-6 weeks after initiation of treatment is recommended. © 2014 Koninklijke Nederlandse Maatschappij ter bevordering der Pharmacie. Source

Chen S.-L.,Shandong Provincial Institute of Dermatology and Venereology | Yan J.,Jinan City Hospital for Skin Diseases Prevention and Treatment | Wang F.-S.,Shandong University
Journal of Dermatological Treatment

Background: Two new topical immunomodulators, pimecrolimus cream and tacrolimus ointment for atopic dermatitis (AD) in pediatric patients, have provided alternatives to topical corticosteroids without the associated adverse events.Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tacrolimus ointment and pimecrolimus cream for the treatment of AD in pediatric patients.Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, the CNKI and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to December 2008. Additional data sources were manual searches of abstract proceedings and personal contact with investigators and pharmaceutical companies. Two investigators assessed the quality of trials with unified tables independently. Disagreements on validity assessment were resolved through discussion or consultation with the third author. Quality analysis of methodology was evaluated according to the Jadad scale, including randomization, blinding and patients' discontinuation.Results: Twenty trials involving 6288 infants and children with AD met the inclusion criteria. More patients using tacrolimus had a good response than those in control groups including vehicle, 1% hydrocortisone acetate and 1% pimecrolimus, the corresponding OR were (4.56; 95%CI: 2.80 to 7.44), (3.92; 95% CI: 2.96 to 5.20) and (1.58; 95% CI: 1.18 to 2.12). The effect difference between 0.03% tacrolimus and 0.1% tacrolimus ointments was not statistically significant (OR 0.90; 95% CI: 0.55 to 1.48). The incidence of adverse events of tacrolimus ointment or pimecrolimus cream was similar to the vehicle. The major adverse events were burning and pruritus.Conclusions: Both tacrolimus ointment and pimecrolimus cream are safe and effective in the treatment of AD in pediatric patients. Tacrolimus ointments were superior to pimecrolimus cream. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd. Source

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