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Dong Y.,Shandong University | Dong Y.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Li C.,Jilin University | Luan F.,Shandong University | And 6 more authors.
Human Biology | Year: 2015

To gain insight into the social organization of a population associated with the Dawenkou period, we performed ancient DNA analysis of 18 individuals from human remains from the Fujia site in Shandong Province, China. Directly radiocarbon dated to 4800–4500 cal BP, the Fujia site is assumed to be associated with a transitional phase from matrilineal clans to patrilineal monogamous families. Our results reveal a low mitochondrial DNA diversity from the site and population. Combined with Y chromosome data, the pattern observed at the Fujia site is most consistent with a matrilineal community. The patterns also suggest that the bond of marriage was de-emphasized compared with the bonds of descent at Fujia. © 2015 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201. Source


Guo Y.,Peking University | Mo D.,Peking University | Mao L.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Wang S.,Shandong Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology | Li S.,Peking University
Acta Geographica Sinica | Year: 2013

Using ArcGIS spatial analyst tools, this study analyzes the spatial and temporal distribution of ancient archaeological sites of six periods from the Neolithic Age to the Shang and Zhou dynasties in northern Shandong province. In addition, combined with the experimental analysis of Shuangwangcheng (SWC) profiles and previous studies, the relationship between site distribution and environmental factors is discussed. The results show that during the period of 8000-5000 aBP, the climate was warm and humid and the sea level was relatively high; therefore, archaeological settlements were mainly distributed on diluvial tablelands and alluvial plain with the altitude ranging from 20 m to 300 m and the slope lower than 2°. However, there were few archaeological sites distributed in the western low-lying plain as the result of frequent flooding events at this stage. After 5000 aBP, the cooling and drying climate and the lowering sea-level prompted the coastward expansion of settlements. Meanwhile, as a result of climatic drying and marine recession, environmental conditions in the western low-lying plain were also ameliorated, which attracted extensive human exploitation. The study area of this period was characterized by the rapid development of prehistoric culture, the intensified social stratification and the emergence of early city-states. However, around 4000 aBP, the abrupt change of climate and the increase in the frequency and intensity of flooding events severely disrupted human activities, which might be the main reason for the decline of the Yueshi culture. During the Shang and Zhou dynasties, the climatic conditions tended to be stable and assumed a mild-dry condition, which promoted the development of the culture to be prosperous again. The previous situation of sparse human settlements due to the lack of freshwater and being unfitted for sedentary agriculture improved during the Shang and Zhou dynasties in northern coastal wetlands. Local residents effectively adapted themselves to the harsh environmental conditions by producing sea-salt, which led to the rapid growth of ancient settlements. Source


Guo Y.,Peking University | Mo D.,Peking University | Mao L.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology | Wang S.,Shandong Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology | Li S.,Peking University
Journal of Geographical Sciences | Year: 2013

In this paper, the spatial and temporal distribution of the settlement sites of six periods from the Neolithic Age to the Shang and Zhou dynasties in northern Shandong was investigated using the ArcGIS program, and the relationship between settlement distribution and environmental changes was discussed, based on the proxy records of climatic and environmental change contained in the sediments from three sections at the Shuangwangcheng site and the previous work. The results show that the climate was warm and humid and the sea level was relatively high during the period of 8000-5000 a BP in the study area, and the ancient people lived in the relatively flat (slope of <2°) areas at high elevation (20-300 m above sea level), such as diluvial tableland and alluvial plain. On the other hand, few archaeological sites in the low-lying plain in the west of the study area indicate that few people lived there during that period. This might be attributed to frequent flooding in the area. After 5000 years ago, the scope of human activity extended to the area close to the sea because the relatively colder and drier climate results in sea-level fall, meanwhile the low-lying plain in the west was occupied by the ancient people. The study area of this period was characterized by the rapid development of prehistoric culture, the intensified social stratification and the emergence of early city-states. However, around 4000 a BP, the abrupt change in climate and the increase in frequency and intensity of floods severely disrupted human activities, and eventually led to the decline of the Yueshi culture. During the Shang and Zhou dynasties, the climatic conditions gradually stabilized in a mild-dry state, which promoted the redevelopment and flourish of the Bronze Culture. The previous situation, which was characteristic of sparse human settlements due to freshwater shortage and unfitted conditions for sedentary agriculture, changed during the Shang and Zhou dynasties in northern coastal wetlands. Local residents effectively adapted themselves to the tough environmental conditions by producing sea-salt, which led to the rapid growth of human activities. © 2013 Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Lv X.,Capital Medical University | Li Z.,Shandong Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology | Li Y.,Capital Medical University
World Neurosurgery | Year: 2013

The term trepanation describes the removal of sections of bone from the cranium. Although others may have made earlier reference to trepanation, in 1995, Chinese archeologists discovered a skull at the Neolithic site Fujia from approximately 3000 bc (the Dawenkou Cultural Period), Guangrao, Dongying, Shandong, China, and after careful examination of the specimen, the archeologists suggested that the procedure had been performed on a living patient who subsequently survived. Archeological evidence supports that the practice of trepanation was widespread. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Jin G.,Shandong University | Wu W.,Shandong University | Zhang K.,Shandong Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology | Wang Z.,Shandong Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology | Wu X.,Peking University
Journal of Archaeological Science | Year: 2014

Systematic archaeobotanical work at Xihe site recovered 8000 years old rice and other plant remains. Cultural context analyses of the plant and animal remains indicated Xihe people relied mainly on fishing-hunting-gathering as their subsistence. As the largest amount and higher concentration of plant remains, rice might contribute much to plant food resource at the settlement. Even though it is too early to demonstrate the nature of the rice remains (whether it is wild, cultivated or domesticated), the case that discovery of Xihe rice has undoubtedly provided new evidence for our understanding of rice exploitation subsistence at about 8000 years ago in East China. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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