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Wang G.P.,Shandong Agricultural University | Wang G.P.,Shandong Institute of Pomology | Zhang X.Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | Li F.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Photosynthetica | Year: 2010

We investigated the different responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants to drought- (DS) and heat stress (HS), and analyzed the physiological mechanisms of glycine betaine (GB) involved in the improvement of wheat tolerance to the combination of these stresses. The transgenic wheat T6 line was generated by introducing a gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) into the wild-type (WT) Shi4185 line. The gene was cloned from the Garden Orache plant (Atriplex hortensis L.). Wheat seedlings were subjected to drought stress (30%, PEG-6000), heat stress (40°C), and their combination. Photosynthetic gas exchange, water status and lipid peroxidation of wheat leaves were examined under different stresses. When subjected to a combination of drought and heat, the inhibition of photosynthesis was significantly increased compared to that under DS or HS alone. The increased inhibition of photosynthesis by the combined stresses was not simply the additive stress effect of separate heat- and drought treatments; different responses in plant physiology to DS and HS were also found. HS decreased the chlorophyll (Chl) content, net photosynthetic rate (PN), carboxylation efficiency (CE) and apparent quantum yield (AQY) more than DS but DS decreased the transpiration rate (E), stomata conductance (gs) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) more than HS. GB over-accumulation led to increased photosynthesis not only under individual DS or HS but also under their combination. The enhancement of antioxidant activity and the improvement of water status may be the mechanisms underlying the improvement of photosynthesis by GB in wheat plants. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Tian F.X.,Shandong Agricultural University | Gong J.F.,Shandong Agricultural University | Wang G.P.,Shandong Agricultural University | Wang G.P.,Shandong Institute of Pomology | And 3 more authors.
Biologia Plantarum | Year: 2012

We investigated the drought resistance of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) stay-green mutant tasg1 and its wild-type (WT) in field experiments conducted for two years. Drought stress was imposed by controlling irrigation and sheltering the plants from rain. Compared with the WT, tasg1 exhibited a distinct delayed senescence under both normal and drought stress conditions, as indicated by slower degradation of chlorophyll and decrease in net photosynthetic rate than in WT. At the same time, tasg1 mutants maintained more integrated chloroplasts and thylakoid ultrastructure than did WT plants under drought stress. Lower malondialdehyde content and higher antioxidative enzyme activities in tasg1, compared to WT, may be involved in the stay-green phenotype and drought resistance of tasg1. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Feng X.-M.,Shandong Agricultural University | Zhao Q.,Shandong Agricultural University | Zhao L.-L.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Qiao Y.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2012

Background: Plant growth is greatly affected by low temperatures, and the expression of a number of genes is induced by cold stress. Although many genes in the cold signaling pathway have been identified in Arabidopsis, little is known about the transcription factors involved in the cold stress response in apple.Results: Here, we show that the apple bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) gene MdCIbHLH1 (Cold-Induced bHLH1), which encodes an ICE-like protein, was noticeably induced in response to cold stress. The MdCIbHLH1 protein specifically bound to the MYC recognition sequences in the AtCBF3 promoter, and MdCIbHLH1 overexpression enhanced cold tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. In addition, the MdCIbHLH1 protein bound to the promoters of MdCBF2 and favorably contributed to cold tolerance in transgenic apple plants by upregulating the expression of MdCBF2 through the CBF (C-repeat-binding factor) pathway. Our findings indicate that MdCIbHLH1 functions in stress tolerance in different species. For example, ectopic MdCIbHLH1 expression conferred enhanced chilling tolerance in transgenic tobacco. Finally, we observed that cold induces the degradation of the MdCIbHLH1 protein in apple and that this degradation was potentially mediated by ubiquitination and sumoylation.Conclusions: Based on these findings, MdCIbHLH1 encodes a transcription factor that is important for the cold tolerance response in apple. © 2012 Feng et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Jiao P.,Taishan Medical University | Zhou Y.-S.,Central Hospital of Taian | Yang J.-X.,Shandong Institute of Pomology | Zhao Y.-L.,Taishan Medical University | And 3 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2013

It has become evident that AKT inhibitors have great potential in cancer treatment. In this study, we investigate the anticancer activity of MK-2206, a novel AKT inhibitor, on HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell, and to show whether MK-2206 enhances the apoptosis-inducing potential of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). The cell growth inhibition was evaluated by MTT assay and colony formation assay. Cell cycle distribution was assessed by propidium iodide flow cytometry. Apoptosis was determined by AnnexinV-FITC/PI double staining assay and caspase-9, casapse-7, caspase-3, and PARP cleavage. The results of present study showed that MK-2206-induced G1-phase arrest was associated with a marked decrease in the protein expression of cyclin D1 with concomitant induction of p21 and p27. MK-2206-induced apoptosis was characterized by cleavage of a pro-caspase in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the MAP family kinases p38 kinase and JNK were activated by exposure to MK-2206. SB203580, an p38-specific inhibitor, partially blocked MK-2206-induced death of HepG2 cells and caspase activation. A combination of MK-2206 with TRAIL significantly inhibited growth of TRAIL resistant HepG2 cells. Taken together, our findings provide a new insight to better understand anticancer mechanisms of MK-2206, at least in HepG2 cell. Using of MK-2206 as a potent sensitizer to TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death offers a promising means of enhancing the efficacy of TRAIL-based HCC treatments. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Li F.,Shandong Agricultural University | Xing S.,Shandong Agricultural University | Guo Q.,Shandong Agricultural University | Zhao M.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2011

Expansins are proteins that are the key regulators of wall extension during plant growth. To investigate the role of TaEXPB23, a wheat expansin gene, we analyzed TaEXPB23 mRNA expression levels in response to water stress in wheat and examined the drought resistance of transgenic tobaccos over-expressing TaEXPB23. We found that the expression of TaEXPB23 corresponded to wheat coleoptile growth and the response to water stress. The results also indicated that the transgenic tobacco lines lost water more slowly than the wild-type (WT) plants under drought stress; their cells could sustain a more integrated structure under water stress than that of WT. Other physiological and biochemical parameters under water stress, such as electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, photosynthetic rate, Fv/Fm and ΦPSII, also suggested that the transgenic tobaccos were more drought resistant than WT plants. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.

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