Shandong Museum

Jinan, China

Shandong Museum

Jinan, China
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Sun C.,Shandong Museum | Sun C.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Sun C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Xing S.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | And 6 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

An assortment of hominin cranial and seven dental fossils assigned to Homo erectus were discovered in 1981 and 1982 at Yiyuan, a Middle Pleistocene fissure site in Shandong Province, eastern China. The present study analyzes microscopically the seven teeth interproximal surfaces from Yiyuan using a binocular microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The crowns and roots of the teeth exhibit different degrees of wear, which range from multiple fine striae to deep interproximal grooves. The location, morphology, and dimension of these grooves or striae are similar to artificial wear caused by habitual tooth-picking. The Yiyuan teeth provide one of the earliest evidence of tooth-picking among Pleistocene hominins in eastern Asia. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Fu Q.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Fu Q.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Mittnik A.,University of Tübingen | Johnson P.L.F.,Emory University | And 21 more authors.
Current Biology | Year: 2013

Background: Recent analyses of de novo DNA mutations in modern humans have suggested a nuclear substitution rate that is approximately half that of previous estimates based on fossil calibration. This result has led to suggestions that major events in human evolution occurred far earlier than previously thought. Results: Here, we use mitochondrial genome sequences from ten securely dated ancient modern humans spanning 40,000 years as calibration points for the mitochondrial clock, thus yielding a direct estimate of the mitochondrial substitution rate. Our clock yields mitochondrial divergence times that are in agreement with earlier estimates based on calibration points derived from either fossils or archaeological material. In particular, our results imply a separation of non-Africans from the most closely related sub-Saharan African mitochondrial DNAs (haplogroup L3) that occurred less than 62-95 kya. Conclusions: Though single loci like mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can only provide biased estimates of population divergence times, they can provide valid upper bounds. Our results exclude most of the older dates for African and non-African population divergences recently suggested by de novo mutation rate estimates in the nuclear genome. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Wang S.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Wang S.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Sun C.,Shandong Museum | Sullivan C.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Xu X.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

This paper describes a new oviraptorid dinosaur taxon, Ganzhousaurus nankangensis gen. et sp. nov., based on a specimen collected from the Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Nankang County, Ganzhou City, Jiangxi Province, southern China. This new taxon is distinguishable from other oviraptorids based on the following unique combination of primitive and derived features: relatively shallow dentary; absence of fossa or pneumatopore on lateral surface of dentary; weakly downturned anterior mandibular end; shallow depression immediately surrounding anterior margin of external mandibular fenestra; external mandibular fenestra subdivided by anterior process of surangular; dentary posteroventral process slightly twisted and positioned on mandibular ventrolateral surface; shallow longitudinal groove along medial surface of den-tary posteroventral process; angular anterior process wider transversely than deep dorsoventrally; sharp groove along ventrolateral surface of angular anterior process; ventral border of external mandibular fenestra formed mainly by angular; ventral flange along distal half of metatarsal II; and arctometatarsal condition absent. Phylogenetic analysis places Gan-zhousaurus nankangensis gen. et sp. nov. in the clade Oviraptoridae, together with Oviraptor, Citipati, Rinchenia and the unnamed Zamyn Khondt oviraptorid. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.

Mead J.I.,East Tennessee State University | Jin C.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Wei G.,Chongqing Three Gorges University | Sun C.,Shandong Museum | And 3 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

Leptobos (Artiodactyla, Bovidae, Bovini) was a bovine occupying mid-latitudes of Europe east through to eastern China. A number of species of Leptobos are described with the greatest number occupying southern Europe. Here we report on Leptobos crassus, from Renzidong Cave, Anhui, China, and its relation to other species. There is an established variation in size amongst the various species, with Leptobos furtivus the smallest (slightest). The overall most robust is L.crassus; however, there is overlap in largeness of this species with Leptobos etruscus and the inadequately-understood Leptobos bravardi. Leptobos existed only during the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene, thus it is a diagnostic taxon for the Villafranchian-Nihewanian land mammal ages of Europe and China. Leptobos occupied more open habitats and filled a predominantly grazing niche within the environment, although in eastern China (Renzidong Cave) it may have lived in mixed forested grassland. The distribution and existence of Leptobos in greater Eurasia drastically alters with the climatic and environmental deterioration that takes place at the end of the Early Pleistocene; its demise seems tied to this cooling event that launches into the glacial episodes. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Mead J.I.,East Tennessee State University | Moscato D.,East Tennessee State University | Schubert B.W.,East Tennessee State University | Jin C.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | And 3 more authors.
Historical Biology | Year: 2016

The Quaternary record of fossil snakes (Reptilia, Squamata) in Asia is extremely rare; any information is noteworthy. An articulated snake skeleton was recovered from the early Pleistocene (2.15–2.14 Ma) deposits in Renzidong Cave, Yangtze River Valley, east-central China. The skeleton contains about 122 nearly complete vertebrae but lacks the cranium and caudal vertebrae. Preserved vertebral characters indicate that the snake is particularly similar to the rat snake, Elaphe (Colubridae) especially with the European Elaphe praelongissima (late Miocene). We identify the specimen as cf. Elaphe sp. This genus and ‘Coluber s.l.’ are unfortunately similar and difficult to differentiate based on just vertebral comparisons of species living in Europe. Adequate comparative skeletons of living snakes of eastern Asia are noticeably absent in museums making identifications of fossil specimens less than satisfactory. Finding dated fossil remains of the snake Elaphe in Asia holds importance to the understanding of its time of dispersal between Asia, Europe and North America, but this can only be adequately examined with fossil remains accurately and satisfactorily identified. © 2016, © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

O'Connor J.K.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Sun C.,Shandong Museum | Xu X.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Wang X.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Zhou Z.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology
Historical Biology | Year: 2012

The Early Cretaceous long bony-tailed bird Jeholornis prima displays characters both more basal than Archaeopteryx and more derived, exemplifying the mosaic distribution of advanced avian features that characterises early avian evolution and obfuscates attempts to understand early bird relationships. The current diversity of Jeholornithiformes is controversial, since multiple possibly synonymous genera were named simultaneously. Here, we provide the first definitive evidence of a second species belonging to this clade, and erect the new taxon J. palmapenis sp. nov. This new specimen reveals the tail integument of Jeholornithiformes, the morphology of which appears to have no aerodynamic benefit suggesting this clade evolved plumage patterns that were primarily for display. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Xing S.,CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology | Sun C.,Shandong Museum | Sun C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Martinon-Torres M.,University College London | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2016

In 1981-1982, some hominin fossils, including a relatively complete skull and seven isolated teeth, were recovered from the Middle Pleistocene site of Yiyuan in Eastern China. In the present study we provide a detailed metric and morphological comparison of the Yiyuan dental sample in order to characterize better the variability of the human populations that inhabited China during the Middle Pleistocene. Aside from taxonomic and phylogenetic questions, the lack of understanding and/or knowledge about the morphological variability of these populations have caused concern about the human versus non-human nature of some of the hominin dental remains found in East Asia during the Early and the Middle Pleistocene. Thus, our study aims to present a detailed description and comparison of the Yiyuan isolated teeth to 1) discuss and support their human nature and 2) to explore their taxonomic affinities with regard to other penecontemporaneous populations from Asia. Our results clearly differentiate the Yiyuan sample from Pongo specimens and support a human attribution for the Yiyuan material. Our analyses also suggest that the Yiyuan teeth form a morphologically coherent group together with samples from Zhoukoudian, Chaoxian and Hexian. They are different from the more derived specimens from Panxian Dadong, suggesting a pattern of biogeographic isolation and different evolutionary trends between northern and southern China during the Middle Pleistocene. In addition, and despite sharing a common morphological bauplan with Homo erectus sensu stricto (s.s.), the Yiyuan, Zhoukoudian and Hexian teeth are also different from the Indonesian Early Pleistocene samples. In particular, the expression of a highly crenulated or dendritic enamel-dentine surface could be unique to these groups. Our study supports the notion that the taxonomy of the Pleistocene hominins from Asia may have been oversimplified. Future studies should explore the variability of the Asian specimens and reconsider whether all the samples can be attributed to H. erectus s.s. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

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