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Qiao H.,Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Wang G.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Liu K.,Tianjin University of Science and Technology | Gu W.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology
Journal of Phycology | Year: 2012

The culture of microalgae using organic carbon sources decreases the cost of operation in closed systems. The effect of carbon sources on microalgae is thus an interesting problem in not only theoretical research but also practical production. The short-term effects of acetate and microaerobic conditions on the growth, photosynthesis, and respiration of the green microalga Chlorella sorokiniana I. Shihira & R.W. Krauss GXNN 01 were described after acetate addition to autotrophic cultures. As the acetate concentration increased, cells needed a longer lag phase to grow, and 243.8mM acetate completely inhibited growth. Acetate addition induced an immediate response in photosynthesis and respiration. The activity of PS II and PS I were impaired and declined with different rates, and then recovered compared with autotrophic cells. Carbonic anhydrase and Rubisco activities were also inhibited at the beginning, and respiration was increased. We propose that ATP consumption for acetate assimilation results in surplus NADPH, and then accumulated reducing power over-reduces inter-photosystem components and raises the transthylakoid proton gradient, which redistributes energy between PS I and PS II, and leads to a decrease in the PS II/PS I ratio and O 2 evolution. An apparent cyclic electron flow was also observed, which may be mainly mediated by NAD(P)H dehydrogenase-dependent pathway since NADPH was in excess. These observations pointed to an acclimation process after acetate addition, and suggested the interaction between photosynthesis and respiration involving ATP and reducing power. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

Wang Y.,Nanjing University | Wang Y.,Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Sodemann H.,ETH Zurich | Hou S.,Nanjing University | And 4 more authors.
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2013

The spatial and temporal variability of snow accumulation near Dome Argus, Antarctica, is assessed using new snow pit and stake measurement data together with existing snow pit, ice core and automatic weather station records. Snow accumulation rate shows large inter-annual variations, but stable multi-decadal levels over the last seven centuries. Spatial variations in snow accumulation within the space of 50 km of Dome Argus are relatively small, probably thanks to the smooth topography. A comparison of theses accumulation observations with ECMWF reanalyses (ERA-40 and ERA-Interim) suggests ECMWF reanalysis captures the seasonal variations, but underestimates the overall snow accumulation at Dome Argus by ~50 %. The moisture sources for precipitation over Dome Argus are examined by means of a Lagrangian moisture source diagnostic, based on the tracing of specific humidity changes along air parcel trajectories, for the period 2000-2004 using operational ECMWF analysis data. Dome Argus mainly receives moisture from the mid-latitude (46 ± 4°S) South Indian Ocean, with a seasonal latitudinal shift of about 6°. Compared to other central East Antarctic deep ice core sites such as Dome F, Dome C, Vostok, and EPICA Dronning Maud Land, Dome Argus has a more southerly moisture origin, probably due to topographic influences on the moisture transport paths. These results have important implications for the interpretation of future ice cores at Dome Argus. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Fang Y.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Fang Y.,Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Yang H.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Liu B.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Zhang L.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - C Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

The response of the defense components lysozyme (LYZ), metallothionein (MT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) to combined exposure to heavy metals and bacteria was assessed at transcriptional level in the surf clam Mactra veneriformis. First, the full-length LYZ cDNA containing 808 nucleotides and encoding 194 deduced amino acids was identified from the clam. Multiple alignments revealed that MvLYZ had a high identity with invertebrate-type LYZs from other mollusks. Next, clams were exposed to Vibrio parahaemolyticus and a mixture of cadmium and mercury, alone or in combination, for 7 days. Cumulative mortality of clams and mRNA expressions of the three defense components were analyzed. The highest cumulative mortality took place in the combined treatment on day 7. The expression of the three genes was up-regulated in response to treatments compared to the control with different response times and transcriptional levels; the response to combined exposure occurred earlier than to single exposure. Among the experimental groups, MvLYZ expression and MvSOD expression peaked in the combined treatment on day 3, whereas MvMT expression peaked in heavy metals treatment on day 5. Furthermore, interactive effects of heavy metals and Vibrio on transcriptional response changed over the exposure time. Therefore, transcriptional regulation of the three genes under combined exposure was more complex than under single exposure. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Zhang Y.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Zhang Y.,Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Wang L.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Wang L.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Integrins are a family of adhesion receptors which regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, leukocyte migration, and complement receptor-dependent phagocytosis. In invertebrates, as a cell adhesion receptor, β integrins play an important role for the balanced activation of immune defense responses especially during the encounter of infections. The present study attempts to characterize the immune functions of shrimp integrin (LvIntegrin) to have better understanding on the immune system and its regulation mechanisms in shrimps. Methodology: A shrimp integrin was identified from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as LvIntegrin). Its full-length cDNA was of 2621 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2439 bp encoding a polypeptide of 812 amino acids. The mRNA expression of LvIntegrin was significantly up-regulated at 3, 6 and 12 h after Listonella anguillarum challenge. The cDNA fragment encoding β integrin domains (βA and hybrid domain) of LvIntegrin was recombined and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)-pLysS. The recombinant protein (rLvIntegrin) could significantly agglutinate the tested microbe including E. coli JM109, L. anguillarum, Micrococcus luteus and Candida dattiladattila in the presence of divalent cations. Moreover, when NIH3T3 cells were cultured with rLvIntegrin, the proliferation rate increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: LvIntegrin, a shrimp β integrin was identified from L. vannamei, shared several highly conserved features. LvIntegrin exhibited broad-spectrum agglutination activity towards both bacteria and fungi and could improve the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, indicating that LvIntegrin is involved in the immune response against microbe challenge and regulation of cell proliferation as a cell adhesion receptor in shrimp. © 2012 Zhang et al.

Cheng R.,Ocean University of China | Cheng R.,State Oceanic Administration | Zheng X.,Ocean University of China | Lin X.,State Oceanic Administration | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012

In this study, we have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Octopus minor. It is 15,974 nucleotide pairs and encodes 13 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs and 22 tRNAs of the mitochondrion's own protein synthesizing system. Seven of thirteen proteins are encoded by the H-strand, while the other six proteins, as well as the two ribosomal RNAs are encoded by the L-strand. The nucleotide composition of the proteins showed a nucleotide bias against G encoded by the H-strand, while they showed a nucleotide bias against A and C encoded by the L-strand. Two of the 13 protein coding genes of O. minor began with the unorthodox translation initiation codon ATA and all others use the standard ATG. In addition, six of thirteen mt proteins of O. minor have unambiguous termination codons. There are four cases where tRNA genes appear to overlap. The long noncoding region (LNCR) of O. minor was 930 nucleotides and no repeated sequences were found in this LNCR. The gene arrangements of O. minor showed remarkable similarity to that of O. ocellatus and O. vulgaris. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that O. minor appears as sister taxan to the monophyletic group combined by O. ocellatus and O. vulgaris, suggesting a relative distant genetic relationship between O. minor and the other two octopus species. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

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