Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute

Yantai, China

Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute

Yantai, China

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Fang Y.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Fang Y.,Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Yang H.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Liu B.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Zhang L.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - C Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

The response of the defense components lysozyme (LYZ), metallothionein (MT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) to combined exposure to heavy metals and bacteria was assessed at transcriptional level in the surf clam Mactra veneriformis. First, the full-length LYZ cDNA containing 808 nucleotides and encoding 194 deduced amino acids was identified from the clam. Multiple alignments revealed that MvLYZ had a high identity with invertebrate-type LYZs from other mollusks. Next, clams were exposed to Vibrio parahaemolyticus and a mixture of cadmium and mercury, alone or in combination, for 7 days. Cumulative mortality of clams and mRNA expressions of the three defense components were analyzed. The highest cumulative mortality took place in the combined treatment on day 7. The expression of the three genes was up-regulated in response to treatments compared to the control with different response times and transcriptional levels; the response to combined exposure occurred earlier than to single exposure. Among the experimental groups, MvLYZ expression and MvSOD expression peaked in the combined treatment on day 3, whereas MvMT expression peaked in heavy metals treatment on day 5. Furthermore, interactive effects of heavy metals and Vibrio on transcriptional response changed over the exposure time. Therefore, transcriptional regulation of the three genes under combined exposure was more complex than under single exposure. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Qiao H.,Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Wang G.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Liu K.,Tianjin University of Science and Technology | Gu W.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology
Journal of Phycology | Year: 2012

The culture of microalgae using organic carbon sources decreases the cost of operation in closed systems. The effect of carbon sources on microalgae is thus an interesting problem in not only theoretical research but also practical production. The short-term effects of acetate and microaerobic conditions on the growth, photosynthesis, and respiration of the green microalga Chlorella sorokiniana I. Shihira & R.W. Krauss GXNN 01 were described after acetate addition to autotrophic cultures. As the acetate concentration increased, cells needed a longer lag phase to grow, and 243.8mM acetate completely inhibited growth. Acetate addition induced an immediate response in photosynthesis and respiration. The activity of PS II and PS I were impaired and declined with different rates, and then recovered compared with autotrophic cells. Carbonic anhydrase and Rubisco activities were also inhibited at the beginning, and respiration was increased. We propose that ATP consumption for acetate assimilation results in surplus NADPH, and then accumulated reducing power over-reduces inter-photosystem components and raises the transthylakoid proton gradient, which redistributes energy between PS I and PS II, and leads to a decrease in the PS II/PS I ratio and O 2 evolution. An apparent cyclic electron flow was also observed, which may be mainly mediated by NAD(P)H dehydrogenase-dependent pathway since NADPH was in excess. These observations pointed to an acclimation process after acetate addition, and suggested the interaction between photosynthesis and respiration involving ATP and reducing power. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.


Zhang Y.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Zhang Y.,Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Wang L.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Wang L.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Integrins are a family of adhesion receptors which regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, leukocyte migration, and complement receptor-dependent phagocytosis. In invertebrates, as a cell adhesion receptor, β integrins play an important role for the balanced activation of immune defense responses especially during the encounter of infections. The present study attempts to characterize the immune functions of shrimp integrin (LvIntegrin) to have better understanding on the immune system and its regulation mechanisms in shrimps. Methodology: A shrimp integrin was identified from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as LvIntegrin). Its full-length cDNA was of 2621 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2439 bp encoding a polypeptide of 812 amino acids. The mRNA expression of LvIntegrin was significantly up-regulated at 3, 6 and 12 h after Listonella anguillarum challenge. The cDNA fragment encoding β integrin domains (βA and hybrid domain) of LvIntegrin was recombined and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)-pLysS. The recombinant protein (rLvIntegrin) could significantly agglutinate the tested microbe including E. coli JM109, L. anguillarum, Micrococcus luteus and Candida dattiladattila in the presence of divalent cations. Moreover, when NIH3T3 cells were cultured with rLvIntegrin, the proliferation rate increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: LvIntegrin, a shrimp β integrin was identified from L. vannamei, shared several highly conserved features. LvIntegrin exhibited broad-spectrum agglutination activity towards both bacteria and fungi and could improve the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, indicating that LvIntegrin is involved in the immune response against microbe challenge and regulation of cell proliferation as a cell adhesion receptor in shrimp. © 2012 Zhang et al.


Cheng R.,Ocean University of China | Cheng R.,State Oceanic Administration | Zheng X.,Ocean University of China | Lin X.,State Oceanic Administration | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2012

In this study, we have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Octopus minor. It is 15,974 nucleotide pairs and encodes 13 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs and 22 tRNAs of the mitochondrion's own protein synthesizing system. Seven of thirteen proteins are encoded by the H-strand, while the other six proteins, as well as the two ribosomal RNAs are encoded by the L-strand. The nucleotide composition of the proteins showed a nucleotide bias against G encoded by the H-strand, while they showed a nucleotide bias against A and C encoded by the L-strand. Two of the 13 protein coding genes of O. minor began with the unorthodox translation initiation codon ATA and all others use the standard ATG. In addition, six of thirteen mt proteins of O. minor have unambiguous termination codons. There are four cases where tRNA genes appear to overlap. The long noncoding region (LNCR) of O. minor was 930 nucleotides and no repeated sequences were found in this LNCR. The gene arrangements of O. minor showed remarkable similarity to that of O. ocellatus and O. vulgaris. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that O. minor appears as sister taxan to the monophyletic group combined by O. ocellatus and O. vulgaris, suggesting a relative distant genetic relationship between O. minor and the other two octopus species. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.


Wang Y.,Nanjing University | Wang Y.,Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Sodemann H.,ETH Zurich | Hou S.,Nanjing University | And 4 more authors.
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2013

The spatial and temporal variability of snow accumulation near Dome Argus, Antarctica, is assessed using new snow pit and stake measurement data together with existing snow pit, ice core and automatic weather station records. Snow accumulation rate shows large inter-annual variations, but stable multi-decadal levels over the last seven centuries. Spatial variations in snow accumulation within the space of 50 km of Dome Argus are relatively small, probably thanks to the smooth topography. A comparison of theses accumulation observations with ECMWF reanalyses (ERA-40 and ERA-Interim) suggests ECMWF reanalysis captures the seasonal variations, but underestimates the overall snow accumulation at Dome Argus by ~50 %. The moisture sources for precipitation over Dome Argus are examined by means of a Lagrangian moisture source diagnostic, based on the tracing of specific humidity changes along air parcel trajectories, for the period 2000-2004 using operational ECMWF analysis data. Dome Argus mainly receives moisture from the mid-latitude (46 ± 4°S) South Indian Ocean, with a seasonal latitudinal shift of about 6°. Compared to other central East Antarctic deep ice core sites such as Dome F, Dome C, Vostok, and EPICA Dronning Maud Land, Dome Argus has a more southerly moisture origin, probably due to topographic influences on the moisture transport paths. These results have important implications for the interpretation of future ice cores at Dome Argus. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Liu Y.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Hou S.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Hou S.,Nanjing University | Hong S.,Korea Polar Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2011

High-resolution records of trace elements (Ba, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, and U) quantified in an ice core recovered from the Miaoergou glacier in the eastern Tien Shan, central Asia, spanning the period 1953-2004 AD, provide the first comprehensive time series on characterizing the relative contributions from natural and anthropogenic sources to the deposition of trace elements in central Asia. It is suggested that rock and soil dust is the most important natural source for most of elements investigated. Slight decreases in concentrations (or fallout fluxes) of crustal elements, such as Ba, Mn, Rb, Th, U, and Sr are observed during recent decades, which may be due to decreases in dust emissions from source regions and a decrease of accumulation rate since 1980s. The increasing trends of median concentrations and crustal enrichment factors (EFc) of V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, and Mo, during the period 1953-2004 AD, are insignificant in comparison to their respective levels prior to 1953 AD. However, slight enhancements of both concentrations and EFc are observed for Cd, Sb, Pb, Bi, Tl, and Sn since 1950s. Such recent increases are likely to be attributed to enhanced anthropogenic emissions, such as metal smelting, mining, stationary fossil fuel combustion, and combustion of gasoline due to human activities in Eurasia, particularly Xinjiang in northwestern China, Russia, and Kazakhstan. Our study supports evidence that environmental contamination has become a global problem for Pb and Bi and a large-scale phenomenon for Cd, Sb, Tl, and Sn. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.


Wei X.,Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Yang J.,Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Yang D.,Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Xu J.,Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2012

Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) play crucial role in innate immunity for both invertebrates and vertebrates, owing to their prominent ability in detecting and eliminating invading bacteria. In the present study, two short PGRPs from mollusk Solen grandis (designated as SgPGRP-S1 and SgPGRP-S2) were identified, and their expression patterns, both in tissues and toward three PAMPs stimulation, were then characterized. The full-length cDNA of SgPGRP-S1 and SgPGRP-S2 was 1672 and 1285 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 813 and 426 bp, respectively, and deduced amino acid sequences showed high similarity to other members of PGRP superfamily. Both SgPGRP-S1 and SgPGRP-S2 encoded a PGRP domain. The motif of Zn 2+ binding sites and amidase catalytic sites were well conserved in SgPGRP-S1, but partially conserved in SgPGRP-S2. The two PGRPs exhibited different tissue expression pattern. SgPGRP-S1 was highly expressed in muscle and hepatopancreas, while SgPGRP-S2 was highly in gill and mantle. The mRNA expression of SgPGRP-S1 could be induced acutely by stimulation of PGN, and also moderately by β-1,3-glucan, but not by LPS, while expression of SgPGRP-S2 was significantly up-regulated (P < 0.01) when S. grandis was stimulated by all the three PAMPs, though the expression levels were relatively lower than SgPGRP-S1. Our results suggested SgPGRP-S1 and SgPGRP-S2 could serve as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in the immune recognition of S. grandis, and they might perform different functions in the immune defense against invaders. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Wei X.,Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Yang J.,CAS Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research | Yang J.,Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Liu X.,Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2012

Serine proteinase inhibitor (SPI) serves as a negative regulator in immune signal pathway by restraining the activities of serine proteinase (SP) and plays an essential role in the innate immunity. In the present study, a Kunitz-type SPI was identified from the mollusk razor clam Solen grandis (designated as SgKunitz). The full-length cDNA of SgKunitz was of 1284 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 768 bp. The ORF encoded four Kunitz domains, and their amino acids were well conserved when compared with those in other Kunitz-type SPIs, especially the six cysteines involved in forming of three disulfide bridges in each domain. In addition, the tertiary structure of all the four domains adopted a typical model of Kunitz-type SPI family, indicating SgKunitz was a new member of Kunitz-type SPI superfamily. The mRNA transcripts of SgKunitz were detected in all tested tissues of razor clam, including muscle, mantle, gonad, gill, hepatopancreas and hemocytes, and with the highest expression level in gill. When the razor clams were stimulated by LPS, PGN or β-1, 3-glucan, the expression level of SgKunitz mRNA in hemocytes was significantly up-regulated (P < 0.01), suggesting SgKunitz might involved in the processes of inhibiting the activity of SPs during the immune responses triggered by various pathogens. Furthermore, the recombinant protein of SgKunitz could effectively inhibit the activities of SP trypsin and chymotrypsin in vitro. The present results suggested SgKunitz could serve as an inhibitor of SP involving in the immune response of S. grandis, and provided helpful evidences to understand the regulation mechanism of immune signal pathway in mollusk. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Wei X.,Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Liu X.,Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Yang J.,Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Fang J.,Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2012

C-type lectins play crucial roles in innate immunity to recognize and eliminate pathogens efficiently. In the present study, two C-type lectins from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as LvLectin-1 and LvLectin-2) were identified, and their expression patterns, both in tissues and toward pathogen stimulation, were then characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvLectin-1 and LvLectin-2 was 567 and 625bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 471 and 489bp, respectively, and deduced amino acid sequences showed high similarity to other members of C-type lectin superfamily. Both two C-type lectins encoded a single carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD). The motif of Ca 2+ binding site 2 in CRD, which determined carbohydrate-binding specificity, was QPN (Gln 122-Pro 123-Asn 124) in LvLectin-1, but QPD (Gln 128-Pro 129-Asp 130) in LvLectin-2. Two C-type lectins exhibited similar tissue expression pattern, for their mRNA were both constitutively expressed in all tested tissues, including hepatopancreas, muscle, gill, hemocytes, gonad and heart, furthermore they were both mostly expressed in hepatopancreas, though the expression level of LvLectin-2 was much higher than LvLectin-1. The expression level of two C-type lectins mRNA in hemocytes varied greatly after the challenge of Listonella anguillarum or WSSV. After L. anguillarum challenge, the expression of both C-type lectins were significantly (P<0.01) up-regulated compared with blank group, and LvLectin-1 exhibited higher level than LvLectin-2; while after the stimulation of WSSV, the expression of LvLectin-2 was significantly up-regulated at 6h (P<0.01) and 12h (P<0.05), but the expression level of LvLectin-1 down-regulated significantly (P<0.01) to 0.4-fold at 6 and 12h post-stimulation. The results indicated that the two C-type lectins might be involved in immune response toward pathogen infection, and they might perform different recognition specificity toward bacteria or virus. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Wang Y.,Shandong Marine Fisheries Research Institute | Wang Y.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Hou S.,Xi'an Jiaotong University | Hou S.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Geology | Year: 2010

Using the most recent compilation of surface Antarctic snow isotopic composition data and a 1 km resolution digital elevation model (DEM), a generalized additive model (GAM) was used to develop a new gridded map of stable isotopic composition in Antarctic surface snow. The model explained 93.9% of the observed variance in the δ18O data, 92.7% of the observed δD variance and 66.6% of the observed deuterium excess. The performance of the model was evaluated by applying different quantitative approaches to the residuals from a cross-validation test. This modeling approach is a useful tool for interpolating local surface snow isotopic composition over Antarctica both in terms of the low estimated errors and the possibility of understanding the processes that control stable isotopic composition in Antarctic surface snow, through the response curves of each independent variable. We also presented and interpreted the resulting spatial variation patterns of δ18O, δD and deuterium excess to better use in many hydrological and paleoclimate applications. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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