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Wei Q.,Shandong Agricultural University | Wei Q.,Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding | Wei Q.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu X.,Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances

The effects of β-carotene on differentiation of Bovine Intramuscular Preadipocytes (BIP) and Subcutaneous Preadipocytes (BSP) via BC02 and related genes were studied. After treatment of cells with 0, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 80 μM β-carotene, cellular lipid content was assessed by Oil Red O staining and a Triglyceride (TG) assay. The relative expression of β-Carotene-15, 15'-Momoxygenase 1 (BCMOl), β-Carotene -9', 10'-momoxygenase2 (BC02), Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ) and Retinoic acid X Receptor α (RXRα) were also investigated. Results showed that β-carotene can suppress adipocytes differentiation as a whole. And different concentration β-carotene addition to BSP had not obvious variation of BC02, PPARγ and RXRα while BIP of same treatment had a highest expression of 30 μM β-carotene at 5 h which can be showed through the results of both Oil Red O staining of cells and fluorescence RT-qPCR. Besides, researchers found that BCMOl did not nearly express in adipocytes of bovine but BC02 had a good expression. The present study provides further evidence of the effects of β-carotene on lipid metabolism and suggests that BC02 may play an important role in the development of bovine adipose tissue in vivo. © Medwell Journals, 2014. Source

Lin H.-C.,China Agricultural University | Lin H.-C.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Lin H.-C.,Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding | Liu G.-F.,China Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Animal Science Papers and Reports

Distribution and expression of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) in different breeds and tissues of pigs were studied by means of immunohistochemical and RT-PCR methods. Three Huai and three Landrace pigs each were individually housed at the Fujian Shanghang Huai pig breeding farm under similar feeding conditions. Pigs were humanely slaughtered at saleable weight and samples of kidney, liver and skeletal muscle were collected for expression analyses. HMGR mRNA expressions in liver, muscle and kidney of Huai pigs both occurred higher than expression found in the Landrace. Positive staining of HMGR protein was revealed in the three tissues considered. The HMGR protein expression level was not significant statistically in liver, muscle and kidney across two breeds, but the amount of Huai pig HMGR protein expressed in three tissues was higher than that of the Landrace. The level of HMGR protein expression in liver was higher than in the muscle and renal tissues (P<0.05). The results demonstrate that HMGR expression in pigs may depend on tissue and species. Source

Liu Y.F.,Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding | Sun F.F.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wan F.C.,Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding | Zhao H.B.,Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding | And 6 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences

The effects of three different feeding systems on beef cattle production performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen digesta particle structure were investigated by using 18 Limousin (steers) with a similar body weight (575±10 kg) in a 80-d experiment. The animals were equally and randomly divided into three treatment groups, namely, total mixed ration group (cattle fed TMR), SI1 group (cattle fed concentrate firstly then roughage), and SI2 group (cattle fed roughage firstly then concentrate). The results showed that the average daily gain was significantly higher in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). Consumption per kg weight gain of concentrate, silage, and combined net energy (NEmf) were significantly decreased when cattle received TMR, unlike when they received SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05), indicating that the feed efficiency of TMR was the highest. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly decreased when cattle received TMR compared with that in cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference compared with that in cattle receiving SI2. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was significantly lower in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). The rumen area of cattle that received TMR was significantly larger than that of cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), but there was no difference compared with that of cattle receiving SI2. Although there was no significant difference among the three feeding systems in rumen digesta particle distribution, the TMR group trended to have fewer large- and medium-sized particles and more small-sized particles than those in the SI1 and SI2 groups. In conclusion, cattle with dietary TMR showed increased weight gain and ruminal development and decreased BUN. This indicated that TMR feeding was more conducive toward improving the production performance and rumen fermentation of beef cattle. Copyright © 2016 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. Source

Huang Y.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Huang Y.,Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding | Yang S.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yang S.,Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding | And 16 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology

Thirty-one Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) isolated from domestic and wild birds in Shandong Province, China (2006-2014) were characterized genetically, pathogenically and antigenically. Phylogenetic analysis classified the viruses into a single genotype under Class I, and four genotypes under Class II. The nineteen viruses classified in genotype VII of Class II were velogenic, while the other viruses were either mesogenic or lentogenic to chickens. Some NDV isolates (17/23) showed no neutralizing reactivity with a monoclonal antibody developed against the HN protein of the LaSota strain, reflecting the mutation at the related antigenic epitope. When challenged with two genotype VII NDV isolates, LaSota-vaccinated SPF chickens were prevented from disease development, but virus shedding was detected for at least 5 days post challenge. Circulation of the same NDV isolate for up to 13 years suggested the role of an environmental reservoir in NDV perpetuation, and reinforced the importance of strict biosecurity measures in addition to vaccination for disease control. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Zhao H.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhao H.,Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding | Wan F.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wan F.,Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances

Optimisation of diets in cows is essential to achieve the best possible performance from these animals. Here, researchers sought to investigate the effects of diet on ruminal microbial protein degradation and synthesis in cows. Three ruminally fistulated Chinese Yellow heifers were used in a 3×3 Latin square trial to study the kinetics of rumen degradation of corn stover. Three diets were formulated to contain corn plus soybean meal (diet 1), corn plus pig blood meal (diet 2) and wheat plus soybean meal (diet 3). Each heifer was allowed a 30 days adaptation following by a 7 day a rumen evacuation in situ during which rumen content was evacuated 0, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 24 h after feeding. Dry Matter (DM) intakes were similar for all diets. The result of rumen evacuation showed that rumen NH3-N pooling peaked 8 h after feeding for diets 1 and 3. Moreover, rumen Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) pooling varied depending on DM retention for all 3 diets and rumen DM, Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) and Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF) poolings were lowest for diet 1 at 4, 8 and 16 h after feeding, respectively (p<0.05). Therefore, diet 1, containing corn plus soybean meal, resulted in low rumen DM, NDF and ADF pooling but high DM, NDF and ADF degradability in the rumen of Chinese Yellow heifers. These results shed light on ruminal processes and will aid in the development of optimal diets in cows. © Medwell Journals. 2014. Source

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