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Yun Z.-J.,Shandong Institute for Prevention and Control of Endemic Disease
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2011

Objective: To investigate the current status of Kaschin-Beck disease in Shandong province, and to provide a scientific basis for decision-making in controlling the disease. Methods According to the "National Monitoring Program of Kaschin-Beck disease" requirements, historical serious villages of Kaschin-Beck disease in Qingzhou of Shandong province were selected annually; children aged 7 to 16 were chosen to receive clinical examination and children aged 7 to 12 were taken X-ray examination. Clinical and X-ray diagnosis was carried out according to the "Diagnostic Criteria of Kashin Beck Disease"(GB 16003-1995). Results: From 1996 to 2010, in 53 diseased villages, three thousand three hundred and eighteen school children aged 7 to 16 were clinically diagnosed, and child Kaschin-Beck disease of degree I and above were not detected; three thousand and ninety-one school children aged 7 to 12 were examined by X-ray, forty cases were found positive, and the total positive rate was 1.29%(40/3091). The year with the highest positive rate was 2002, and the rate was 3.49%(13/372); the positive rate was 0 in 1996 and 2008. The difference of the X-ray positive rate between each year was statistically significant (χ2 = 31.54, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Child Kashin-Beck disease in Qingzhou is basically under control. Since etiology of Kashin-Beck disease is still unclear, surveillance of the disease still needs to be strengthened. Source


Bian J.,Shandong Institute for Prevention and Control of Endemic Disease | Wen Y.,Shandong Institute for Prevention and Control of Endemic Disease | Lin X.,Shandong Institute for Prevention and Control of Endemic Disease | Yang Q.,Shandong Institute for Prevention and Control of Endemic Disease | Gao J.,Shandong Institute for Prevention and Control of Endemic Disease
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2014

To establish an animal model of high-iodine and low-protein in Wistar rats, and to observe the effect of combined excess-iodine and low-protein diet on growth, metabolism and morphological changes in thyroid.According to body weight [(110 ± 10)g] and sex (half male and half female), one hundred and ninety-two Wistar rats, 1 month after weaning, were randomly divided into 1 normal iodine control group (NI), 2 10-fold excess-iodine group (10HI), 3 50-fold excess-iodine group (50HI), 4 100-fold excess-iodine group (100HI), 5 low-protein control group (LC), 6 low-protein and 10-fold excess-iodine group (L10HI), 7 low-protein and 50-fold excess-iodine group (L50HI), 8 low-protein and 100-fold excess-iodine group(LlOOHI). Twenty-four rats were in each group, with the experimental period of 6 months. The iodine content of NI and LC groups was 4.65 μg/d; 10HI, 50HI and 100HI groups were 46.50, 232.50 and 465.00 μg/d, respectively. The animal's body weight, water and feed consumption were recorded weekly. At the end of 60, 120, 180 days, urine and blood samples were collected from eight rats in each group. Urinary iodine was tested by arseni cerium catalytic spectrophotometry; serum iodine was tested by the method of chloric acid. Histological change of the thyroid gland was observed by transmission electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining at the end of 6 months ; apoptosis of thyroid was tested by terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) method.At the end of 4, 8, 16, 18, 22 and 24 weeks, the differences of body mass of rats among groups were statistically significant (F = 4.26 , 3.75 , 4.98 , 4.09 , 3.28 , 3.95, all P < 0.05). At the end of 60, 120, 180 days, the differences of iodine concentration in urine and blood among groups were statistically significantly (H = 5.37, 6.03, all P < 0.05). Light microscopy showed that thyroid follicular epithelial cells became flattened, and follicles became distended with colloid following increasing of iodine concentration. Electron microscopy showed increased glial vesicles, condensation of nuclear chromatin, karyopyknosis, and karyolysis with increasing of iodine concentration. The differences of apoptotic indexes among groups were statistically significant (F = 4.59, P < 0.01). The apoptotic indexes of L50HI and L100HI groups [(21.50 ± 5.20)‰, (26.70 ± 6.40)‰] were higher than those of 50HI and 100HI groups[(11.20 ± 4.30)‰, (19.40 ± 4.80)‰, P < 0.01 or < 0.05].Excessiodine and low-protein can cause growth retardation, abnormal iodine metabolism, and thyroid follicular epithelium damage in Wistar rats. Source


Liu Y.,Shandong Institute for Prevention and Control of Endemic Disease | Guo R.,Shandong Institute for Prevention and Control of Endemic Disease | Huang J.,Shandong Institute for Prevention and Control of Endemic Disease | Wang X.,Shandong Institute for Prevention and Control of Endemic Disease | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2014

Objective: To investigate the epidemic status of endemic fluorosis in Shandong Province, Jining City, and to provide a basis for prevention and control of the disease. Methods Based on "Shandong Provincial Project Technical Solutions for Endemic Fluorosis", Rencheng, Jinxiang, Yutai, Jiaxiang and Liangshan Counties in Jining were selected as monitoring sites. According to the illness situation of mild, moderate or serious districts, one village was selected as a major survey site from each county (district). There were a total of 15 such villages selected. Survey content included drinking water fluorine level; dental fluorosis of children, adults' clinical skeletal fluorosis and urinary fluorine levels; water and urinary fluoride content were determined by the method of fluoride ion selective electrode; dental fluorosis of children was diagnosed by Deans method and clinical diagnosis was based on the "Diagnostic Criteria of Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis" (WS 192-2008). Results: Sixty-one water samples from 15 villages of five counties (districts) were tested. Fluoride levels of 9 out of the 61 samples were exceeded the national standard ( > 1.0 mg/L), and the rate was 14.75%; 1 sample > 2.0 mg/L, and the maximum water fluoride was 2.25 mg/L. Seven hundred and seventeen people's real time urinary fluoride was detected in the 15 villages, including 420 children and 297 adults, and the geometric mean were 1.53 and 1.69 mg/L, respectively. Clinical examination of 755 children aged 8 to 12 showed that the detection rate of dental fluorosis was 26.89% (203/755); defect rate was 9.12% (29/755) and dental fluorosis index weres 0.65. The detection rate of clinical skeletal fluorosis of 11 565 adults was 4.76% (550/11 565), including 303 moderate or serious cases. Conclusions: The situation of excessive water fluorine in outside environment in Jining City has been controlled at a certain degree; groups urinary fluoride level is closed to the normal upper limit; the prevalence of dental fluorosis or skeletal fluorosis has been suppressed at a certain degree, therefore, the results of control should be further consolidated and expanded, in order to completely eliminate the fluoride hazard. Source


Yun Z.,Shandong Institute for Prevention and Control of Endemic Disease | Gao J.,Shandong Institute for Prevention and Control of Endemic Disease | Yin Y.,Shandong Institute for Prevention and Control of Endemic Disease | Bian J.,Shandong Institute for Prevention and Control of Endemic Disease | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2014

Objective: To understand the status of endemic fluorosis in Shandong Province. Methods: In accordance with the requirements of the "National Surveillance Scheme of Drinking-Water-Type Endemic Fluorosis (Trial)" and "Shandong Provincial Surveillance Scheme of Drinking-Water-Type Endemic Fluorosis (Trial)", ten counties (cities, districts) were chosen in the province, and ten water-improvement projects were selected in each county (city, district). The operating effect of water-improvement projects was investigated; one peripheral water sample of each project was collected, and water fluoride content was tested. Three epidemic villages were chosen as fixed monitoring villages in each county (city, district). In the villages that had changed water source, one peripheral water sample was collected; in unchanged water source villages, one water sample was collected following five different directions of the east, the west, the south, the north and the center of the water source location; and the water fluoride content was tested. All students aged 8 to 12 were checked for dental fluorosis in the monitoring villages. The fluoride content in drinking water was detected by fluoride ion selective electrode method, and dental fluorosis was diagnosed by Dean's method. Results: CD In the 10 counties (cities, districts), a total of 85 water-improving projects were monitored, and all the projects were in normal operation; the water fluoride contents of 47 projects were qualified, and the qualified rate of water fluoride content was 55.29%(47/85), with the maximum of water fluoride content was 4.74 mg/L. Source


Yun Z.-J.,Shandong Institute for Prevention and Control of Endemic Disease | Chen P.-Z.,Shandong Institute for Prevention and Control of Endemic Disease | Bian J.-C.,Shandong Institute for Prevention and Control of Endemic Disease | Wang Y.-T.,Shandong Institute for Prevention and Control of Endemic Disease | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2011

Objective: To investigate the current status of endemic fluorosis in Shandong province, and to provide scientific evidence for the development of control strategies. Methods: According to "The National Technical Scheme for Endemic Disease Control in 2007", 19 counties were chosen to carry out the epidemiological investigation in 2008. Water and urinary fluoride were determined by F-ion selective electrode, dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 were diagnosed by Dean method and skeletal fluorosis of adults over the age of 16 were examined clinically and by X-rays. Results: In 19 counties, 186 villages were surveyed, 44 villages were found with mean water fluoride ≤1.00 mg/L, accounting for 23.66%(44/186); the value > 1.00 mg/L in 142 villages, accounting for 76.34%(142/186); maximum water fluoride 8.88 mg/L. Total detection rate of dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 was 66.35% (4518/6809), dental fluorosis index was 1.55, and defect rate was 15.39% (1048/6809). Children with urinary fluoride > 1.40 mg/L was 83.29%(2149/2580), and the maximum value was 31.92 mg/L. Detection rates of skeletal fluorosis clinically and by X ray among adults over 16 years were 6.37% (5577/87 607) and 20.23%(229/1132), respectively. Conclusions: Endemic fluorosis in Shandong province is still serious, prevention efforts need to be further increased. Source

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