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Wang X.-H.,Shandong Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2010

Objective: To measure the serum selenium levels in patient with Keshan disease(KSD) and in healthy controls in Shandong, Sichuan and Inner Mongolia KSD areas, to monitor the long-term dynamic changes of hair and serum selenium levels in Shandong KSD areas, and to provide scientific basis for preventing KSD. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in KSD areas of Shandong, Sichuan and Inner Mongolia in 2009. The research subjects which come from KSD areas were 77 cases and 63 healthy controls from Shandong ; 35 patients and 36 healthy controls from Sichuan; and 17 patients and 18 healthy controls from Inner Mongolia. Additional 33 healthy people from Jinan city were selected as controls of non-KSD areas. Blood and hair samples were collected and selenium levels were measured by 2,3-diaminonaphthalene fluorescence spectrometry. Retrospective method was used to analyze the hair and serum selenium data collected between 1976 and 2004 in Shandong KSD areas, and these data were compard with the data of 2009 to observe the long-term dynamic changes. Results: Circled digit one The serum selenium levels of KSD patients in Shandong and Inner Mongolia were significantly lower than that of healthy subjects of KSD areas[(0.0773±0.0113) vs (0.0895±0.0256),(0.0347±0.0107) vs (0.0469±0.0161), t = 3.52, 3.87, all P < 0.01]. No significant difference was found between KSD patients and healthy people in Sichuan[(0.0792±0.0162) vs (0.0774±0.0103), t = 0.55, P > 0.05]. Circled digit twoThe serum selenium levels of KSD patients in Shandong, Sichuan and Inner Mongolia KSD areas were lower than that of non-KSD area[(0.0988±0.0231) mg/L, q = 6.74, 5.83, 19.47, all P < 0.01]. The serum selenium levels of healthy people in Sichuan and Inner Mongolia KSD areas were significantly lower than that of non-KSD area(q = 6.68, 16.36, all P < 0.01). The serum selenium levels of healthy controls in Inner Mongolia were lower than that of in Shandong and Sichuan(q = 13.63, 14.74, 13.62, 1.46, all P< 0.01). Circled digit threeFrom 1976 to 2009, the hair and serum selenium levels of Shandong resident were increased 1.68 times(0.343/0.128-1) for hair and 0.98 times(0.091/0.046-1) for serum, respectively. But there was no significant difference between the average growth rate of hair and serum selenium levels (χ2= 1.38, P > 0.05). Conclusions: Circled digit oneThe hair and serum selenium levels of KSD patients are lower than that of healthy controls in non-KSD area. Circled digit twoThe serum selenium levels of Shandong, Sichuan and Inner Mongolia are different between KSD patients and healthy controls in the diseased areas. Circled digit threeThe hair and serum selenium data of Shandong resident show an upward trend over the past 30 years. We suggest to continue the comprehensive measures of adding selenium in KSD areas. Source


Yun Z.-J.,Shandong Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control | Chen P.-Z.,Shandong Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control | Bian J.-C.,Shandong Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control | Wang Y.-T.,Shandong Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control | Ma A.-H.,Shandong Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2010

Objective: To investigate the distribution of water-borne fluoride and the current status of water defluoridation project by improving drinking water quality in endemic fluorosis areas in Shandong province, and to provide scientific basis for making strategies in prevention and control of the disease. Methods: According to "the National Technical Scheme for Endemic Disease Control in 2004, 2005 and 2006", 113 endemic fluorosis diseased counties (cities, and districts) of the province's 17 cities were screened in order to investigate the fluoride level in drinking water in fluorosis villages, recheck the fluoride level after implementing the water defluoridation project, and investigate the current status of the water defluoridation project. The fluoride level in drinking water was determined by F-ion selective electrode. Results: There were a total of 5816 water defluoridation projects in the province. Most of them were carried out by drilling a deep well to get under-ground water. The wells still in good condition were accounted for 72.80% (4234/5816). Intermittent operated wells were accounted for 3.11% (181/5816). Abandoned wells were accounted for 24.09% (1401/5816). Level of water fluoride was determined in 6940 samples from fluorosis villages (villages that not carry out the water defluoridation project as well as villages carried out the water defluoridation project with abandoned wells were included) and the value that lower or equal to 1.00 mg/L was determined in 2987 villages which accounted for 43.04% (2987/6940). Level of water fluoride that over 1.00 mg/L was found in 3953 villages which accounted for 56.96% (3593/6940), and the highest level of water fluoride was 11.33 mg/L. Level of water fluoride were determined in 4415 samples from water defluoridation project and the value lower or equal to 1.00 mg/L was in 2983 wells which accounted for 65.53%(2983/4415). The value over 1.00 mg/L was in 1522 wells which accounted for 34.47% (1522/4415), the highest value of water fluoride was 9.71 mg/L Conclusions: Level of water fluoride in up to 1/2 of the villages and 1/3 of the projects, is still higher than the standard in Shandong province. Nearly 1/4 of the project has been abandoned. The current situation for endemic fluorosis control is still not good in the province, countertneasures for endemic fluorosis must be carried out as soon as possible and surveillance of water defluoridation project must be strengthened. Source


Yun Z.,Shandong Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control | Yin Y.,Shandong Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control | Gao J.,Shandong Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control | Zhang B.,Shandong Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2015

Objective To study the prevalence of drinking water type of endemic fluorosis in Shandong Province, and to provide a scientific basis in making strategies for prevention and control of the disease. Methods Ten counties (cities, districts) were selected by random number table method to carry out the epidemiological study, and to study the progress and effect of water-improving and defluoridation projects. Three villages in each county (city, district) were chosen to determine fluoride content of drinking water and to check the prevalence of dental fluorosis of children 8 to 12 years old. Water fluoride content was determined with fluoride ion-selective electrode, and dental fluorosis was diagnosed by the Deans method. Results In the 10 counties (cities, districts), a total of 515 water-improving and defluoridation projects were built covering 3 207 fluorosis villages, and the water-improving rate was 81.71% (3 207/3 925). A total of 85 water-improving and defluoridation projects were investigated in the 10 counties (cities, districts), and all of the projects were operating normally. The number of projects that water fluoride concentration ≤ 1.20 mg/L was 51; the qualified rate of water fluoride concentration was 60.00% (51/85), and the maximum value of water fluoride was 4.38 mg/L. A total of 29 villages that had water-improving and defluoridation projects were investigated in the 10 counties (cities, districts), and the number of villages that mean of water fluoride ≤ 1.20 mg/L was 21, accounting for 72.41% (21/29); > 1.20 mg/L was 8, accounting for 27.59% (8/29), and the maximum value of water fluoride was 4.02 mg/L. In the 21 qualified villages of water fluoride concentration, a total of 1 023 children aged 8 to 12 were examined; the positive rate of dental fluorosis was 38.12% (390/1 023); dental fluorosis index was 0.67, and the prevalence of dental fluorosis was extremely low. In the 8 exceeding-standard villages of water fluoride content, a total of 449 children aged 8 to 12 were examined; the positive rate of dental fluorosis was 54.79% (246/449); dental fluorosis index was 1.18, and the prevalence of dental fluorosis was mild. Conclusion In Shandong Province, the water fluoride content of water-improving and defluoridation projects exceeds the national standard seriously, and the condition of children's dental fluorosis is still serious, and the measures of water-defluoridation should be further strengthened. Source


Zhai L.,Shandong Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control | Wang X.,Shandong Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control | Gao H.,Shandong Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control | Li L.,Shandong Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2015

Objective To investigate the fluoride content in drinking water as well as the current status of endemic fluorosis in 5 counties of Shandong Province, in order to provide a scientific basis for making prevention and control strategies. Methods According to the survey data of fluoride content in drinking water in Shandong Province between 2005 to 2007, an epidemiological investigation was carried out in Mudan, Jiaxiang, Wucheng, Pingdu and Boxing Counties from September to November 2013. The fluoride content in drinking water and urine and dental fluorosis of children aged 8 to 12 were investigated in 3 - 4 major survey villages selected in the five counties. The fluoride content in drinking water was detected by fluoride ion selective electrode method, and dental fluorosis was diagnosed by Deans method. Results, Fifty-eight drinking water samples were investigated in 16 villages of the five counties. Water fluorine content in Wucheng, Mudan, Pingdu, Boxing and Jiaxiang counties was 4.14, 3.84, 1.83, 1.33 and 0.43 mg/L, respectively. There were 4 counties' fluorine content exceeding the national standard (1.20 mg/L) except Jiaxiang County. The exceeding rate was 100% in Wucheng and Mudan counties. Urine fluorine content of 320 children aged 8 to 12 in Wucheng, Mudan, Boxing, Pingdu and Jiaxiang counties was 4.51, 4.62, 1.82, 1.30, 1.01 mg/L respectively; the total detection rate of dental fluorosis of 574 children was 61.85% (355/574), the rate of dental damage was 12.89% (74/574), and dental fluorosis index was 1.27; the detection rate of dental fluorosis in Wucheng, Mudan, Boxing, Pingdu and Jiaxiang Counties was 90.18% (101/112), 97.73% (86/88), 62.22% (84/135), 54.90% (28/51) and 29.79% (56/188), respectively. Conclusions The exceeding rate of water fluorine content is very high in 5 counties of severe endemic fluorosis areas in Shandong Province. The urinary fluorine level of the population is still high and the prevalence of dental fluorosis of children is high. Endemic fluorosis in Shandong Province has not yet been effectively controlled, control situation is still grim. Source


Wang X.-H.,Shandong Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control | Wang Y.-Y.,Shandong Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control | Wang J.,Shandong Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control | Qu F.-R.,Shandong Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology | Year: 2011

Objective: To investigate the incidence of Keshan disease(KSD) in Shandong province and to supply evidence for scientific control of the disease. Methods: According to the scheme of KSD monitoring in Shandong province, the KSD cases were searched in 7 counties, and representative 3 counties and 6 villages were selected as key monitoring sites. In each site, about 420 residents were checked by asking detailed disease history, physical examination, and electrocardiography(ECG) tracings. Suspected cardiac abnormalities were taken chest posteroanterior X-ray film. At the same time, residents hair and food samples were collected to detect selenium levels in internal and external environments, and residents' income and per capita share of grain and other basic information were collected. Results: Circled digit one Two hundred and fifty-nine medical units were searched, 1132 cases of myocardial disease were found out and 638 suspected cases were identified and 142 chronic KSD cases were diagnosed. Circled digit two In the 6 monitoring sites, 2538 residents were surveyed and 91 cases of KSD were detected (of which 77 cases of potential, 14 cases of chronic), the detection rate was 3.58%. A total of 2127 residents were traced ECG and the incidence of abnormal ECG was 24.5% (521/2127), of which ST-T changes, T-wave changes, sinus bradycardia, sinus arrhymia, sinus tachycardia, and atrial premature beats et al were more common. Of the 75 X-ray films, 39 cases had enlarged heart(in which 21 of mild, 13 of moderate, 5 of severe). Circled digit three A total of 406 hair and grain samples were collected, respectively, and the selenium content of hair was approaching the level of appropriate, and the selenium content of food was still low. The annual per capita incomes of each site were between 3000-5900 Yuan, and residents main staple food was flour. Conclusions: KSD in Shandong province is in a relatively stable situation. But latent and chronic KSD cases can still be detected. The internal environment selenium levels are elevated since the local living standards and dietary nutrition are improved. Source

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