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Chen Y.,Shandong Experimental High School | Yang D.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Ma Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Tan X.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics | Year: 2015

In order to understand the fracture mechanisms of bone subjected to external force well, an experimental study has been performed on the bovine bone by carrying out the three-point bending test with 3D digital image correlation (DIC) method, which provides a noncontact and full field of displacement measurement. The local strain and damage evolution of the bone has been recorded real time. The results show that the deflection measured by DIC agrees well with that obtained by the displacement sensor of the mechanical testing machine. The relationship between the deflection and the force is nearly linear prior to reaching the peak strength which is about 16 kN for the tested bovine tibia. The full-field strain contours of the bone show that the strain distribution depends on not only the force direction, but also the natural bone shape. The natural arched-shape bovine tibia bone could bear a large force, due to the tissue structure with high strength, and the fracture propagation process of the sample initiates at the inner side of the bone first and propagates along the force direction. Copyright © 2015 Yuxi Chen et al. Source


Liu P.,Shandong University | Wang X.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Fan J.,Shandong Experimental High School | Xiao W.,Shandong University | Wang Y.,Shandong University
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2016

A study on the relationships between ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, SO2 and NO2) and hospital emergency room visits (ERVs) for respiratory diseases from 2013 to 2014 was performed in both urban and suburban areas of Jinan, a heavily air-polluted city in Eastern China. This research was analyzed using generalized additive models (GAM) with Poisson regression, which controls for long-time trends, the “day of the week” effect and meteorological parameters. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 corresponded to a 1.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7%, 2.1%), 1.2% (95% CI: 0.5%, 1.9%), and 2.5% (95%: 0.8%, 4.2%) growth in ERVs for the urban population, respectively, and a 1.5% (95%: 0.4%, 2.6%), 0.8% (95%: -0.7%, 2.3%), and 3.1% (95%: 0.5%, 5.7%) rise in ERVs for the suburban population, respectively. It was found that females were more susceptible than males to air pollution in the urban area when the analysis was stratified by gender, and the reverse result was seen in the suburban area. Our results suggest that the increase in ERVs for respiratory illnesses is linked to the levels of air pollutants in Jinan, and there may be some urban-suburban discrepancies in health outcomes from air pollutant exposure. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source


Liu X.,Shandong University | Lv W.,Shandong University | Lv B.-J.,Shandong Experimental High School | Wu L.-L.,Shandong University
Xiandai Huagong/Modern Chemical Industry | Year: 2013

Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube is fabricated by electrochemical anodic oxidation methods. Then the TiO2 nanotube is used as substrate in the preparation of TiO2/ZnO nanocomposites. XRD, SEM and UV-VIS DRS are used to characterize the as-obtained TiO2/ZnO nanocomposites. The results suggest that the photocatalytic property of TiO2/ZnO nanocomposites is more effective than single TiO2 or ZnO nanomaterial. The photocatalysis of TiO2/ZnO nanocomposites can be most effective when 20 ml precursor solution is added to the hydrothermal process and the pH of initial methyl orange solution is 3. Source


Liu R.,Shandong Experimental High School | Hu P.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Chen S.,University of California at Santa Cruz
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2012

Heterostructures based on Ag 3PO 4 nanoparticles and TiO 2 nanobelts were prepared by a coprecipitation method. The crystalline structures were characterized by X-ray diffraction measurements. Electron microscopic studies showed that the Ag 3PO 4 nanoparticles and TiO 2 nanobelts were in intimate contact which might be exploited to facilitate charge transfer between the two semiconductor materials. In fact, the heterostructures exhibited markedly enhanced photocatalytic activity as compared with unmodified TiO 2 nanobelts or commercial TiO 2 colloids in the photodegradation of methyl orange under UV irradiation. This was accounted for by the improved efficiency of interfacial charge separation thanks to the unique alignments of their band structures. Remarkably, whereas the photocatalytic activity of the heterostructure was comparable to that of Ag 3PO 4 nanoparticles alone, the heterostructures exhibited significantly better stability and reusability in repeated tests than the Ag 3PO 4 nanoparticles. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Wang C.,Liaocheng University | Dong L.,Shandong Experimental High School | Niu M.,Liaocheng University | Liu M.,Liaocheng University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data | Year: 2015

The mixing enthalpies of N,N′-hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) with glycine, l-alanine, and l-serine in d-mannitol solutions with different molar fractions have been determined by means of mixing-flow isothermal microcalorimetry at 298.15 K. The heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients (hxy, hxxy, and hxyy), in the molar fraction (x) range of d-mannitol from (0 to 0.0159), have been calculated in terms of McMillan-Mayer theory. The trends of hxy with the molar fractions of d-mannitol have been discussed based on the interactions between solute molecules under the participation of solvent molecules. The enthalpic contribution of the functional groups of solute molecules to hxy has been estimated according to the Savage-Wood additivity group (SWAG) approach. The influence of structural difference between glucose and d-mannitol on the hxy values of HMBA with glycine has been elucidated by combining the present results with our previous work. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source

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