Shandong Center for Diseases Control and Prevention

China

Shandong Center for Diseases Control and Prevention

China

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Rebholz C.M.,Tulane University | Gu D.,Peking Union Medical College | Chen J.,Tulane University | Huang J.-F.,Peking Union Medical College | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2012

Salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. A dietary feeding study was conducted from October 2003 to July 2005 that included a 7-day low-sodium intervention (51.3 mmol sodium/day) followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention (307.8 mmol sodium/day) among 1,906 individuals who were 16 years of age or older and living in rural northern China. Salt sensitivity of BP was defined as mean BP change from the low-sodium intervention to the high-sodium intervention. Usual physical activity during the past 12 months was assessed at baseline using a standard questionnaire. The multivariable-adjusted means of systolic BP responses to high-sodium intervention were 5.21 mm Hg (95 confidence interval (CI): 4.55, 5.88), 4.97 mm Hg (95 CI: 4.35, 5.59), 5.02 mm Hg (95 CI: 4.38, 5.67), and 3.96 mm Hg (95 CI: 3.29, 4.63) among participants from the lowest to the highest quartiles of physical activity, respectively (P 0.003 for linear trend). The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of high salt sensitivity of systolic BP was 0.66 (95 CI: 0.49, 0.88) for persons in the highest quartile of physical activity compared with those in the lowest quartile. Physical activity is significantly, independently, and inversely related to salt sensitivity of BP and may be particularly effective in lowering BP among salt-sensitive individuals. © 2012 The Author.


Gu D.,Peking Union Medical College | Kelly T.N.,Tulane University | Hixson J.E.,University of Houston | Chen J.,Tulane University | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2010

Objective: To examine the association between renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) genes and salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP). Methods: A 7-day low-sodium dietary intervention followed by a 7-day high-sodium dietary intervention was conducted among 1906 participants living in a rural region of north China where habitual sodium intake is high. BP measurements were obtained at baseline and following each intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Results: DBP and mean arterial pressure responses increased with the number of rs4524238 A alleles in the angiotensin II receptor type 1 gene. For example, mean DBP responses (95% confidence interval) among those with genotypes G/G, G/A, and A/A were-2.53 (-2.89 to-2.18),-3.49 (-4.13 to-2.86), and-5.78 (-9.51 to-2.06) mmHg, respectively, following the low-sodium intervention (P = 0.0008). Carriers of the rare A allele of rs5479 in the hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 2 gene had decreased DBP responses to low sodium (P = 0.00004). Those with the C/A and C/C genotypes had DBP responses of-0.70 (-6.62 to 5.22) and-2.71 (-4.88 to-0.54) mmHg, respectively. X chromosome renin-binding protein gene markers rs1557501 and rs2269372 were associated with SBP response to low sodium in men (P = 0.00004 and 0.0001, respectively). SBP responses (95% confidence interval) were-6.13 (-6.68 to-5.58) versus-4.07 (-4.88 to-3.26) and-6.04 (-6.57 to-5.52) versus-3.94 (-4.90 to-2.99) mmHg among men with major versus those with minor alleles of rs1557501 and rs2269372, respectively. Haplotype analyses of these genes supported our single-marker findings. Conclusion: We identified renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system variants that were predictive of salt sensitivity in a Han population with habitually high-sodium intake. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Zhao Q.,Tulane University | Gu D.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Hixson J.E.,University of Houston | Liu D.-P.,Chinese Institute of Basic Medical Sciences | And 11 more authors.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics | Year: 2011

Background - Rare mutations of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) lead to mendelian forms of salt-sensitive hypertension or salt-wasting hypotension. We aimed to examine the association between common variants in the ENaC genes and salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP). Methods and Results - A total of 1906 Han Chinese participated in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity (GenSalt) study, which includes a 7-day low-sodium intake (51.3 mmol sodium/d) followed by a 7-day high-sodium intake (307.8 mmol sodium/d). Nine BP measurements were obtained at baseline and each intervention period using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms, both tagging and functional, from the 3 ENaC subunits, α, β, and γ (SCNN1A, SCNN1B, and SCNN1G), were genotyped. Multiple common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in SCNN1G were significantly associated with BP response to low-sodium intervention (rs4073930, P=1.7×10 -5; rs4073291, P=1.1×10 -5; rs7404408, P=1.9×10 -5; rs5735, P=3.0×10 -4; rs4299163, P=0.004; and rs4499238, P=0.002) even after correcting for multiple testing. For example, under an additive model, the minor allele G of SNP rs4073291 was associated with 1.33 mm Hg lower systolic BP reduction during low-sodium intervention. Conclusions - This large dietary sodium intervention study indicates that common variants of ENaC subunits may contribute to the variation of BP response to dietary sodium intake. Future studies are warranted to confirm these findings in an independent population and to identify functional variants for salt sensitivity. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.


Kelly T.N.,Tulane University | Rebholz C.M.,Tulane University | Gu D.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Hixson J.E.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2013

Background We examined the association between 799 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 39 sex hormone genes and blood pressure (BP) responses to a dietary-sodium intervention. Methods A 7-day low-sodium feeding study (51.3 mmol sodium/day) followed by a 7-day high-sodium feeding study (307.8 mmol sodium/day) was conducted among 1,906 Han Chinese participants. Nine BP measurements were obtained at baseline and the end of each intervention period using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Results Among men, absolute BP responses to sodium interventions decreased with the number of minor alleles of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) markers rs9340844, rs9397453, rs9371562, rs9397459, and rs9383951. For example, mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) responses to low-sodium intervention (95% confidence interval) were-2.67 (-3.13,-2.22) mm Hg among those with the rs9397453 C/C genotype,-1.23 (-1.98,-0.48) mm Hg among those with the C/T genotype, and 0.08 (-2.31, 2.47) mm Hg among those with the T/T genotype (P = 1×10-4; false discovery rate (FDR)-q = 0.04). Mean DBP responses to high sodium according to the rs9397453 genotypes were 1.46 (1.03, 1.89) mm Hg among those with C/C, 0.19 (-0.54, 0.91) mm Hg among those with C/T, and-1.10 (-2.82, 0.61) mm Hg among those with T/T (P = 2×10-4; FDR-q = 0.04). Similar trends were noted for the association between these ESR1 variants and SBP responses to the dietary intervention. There were no significant associations between sex hormone gene variants and salt sensitivity in women, with genotype-gender interactions noted for the ESR1 markers that achieved significance in men. Conclusions We identified strong, consistent associations between ESR1 gene variants and salt sensitivity in men. Our Results support a gender-specific role for ESR1 in the etiology of this complex trait. © 2012 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd. All rights reserved.

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