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Zhang Y.-X.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Wang S.-R.,Shandong Blood Center
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics | Year: 2013

Background: There is strong evidence of a upward secular trend in skinfold thickness (SFT) and the prevalence of obesity has increased substantially over recent decades in developed countries. However, no studies on this trend have been reported in Shandong Province, China. The present study aimed to assess the decennial change in SFT and body composition among children and adolescents in Shandong Province during the past 15 years (1995-2010). Methods: Data were obtained from two national surveys on student's constitution and health carried out by the government in 1995 and 2010 in Shandong Province, China. A total of 14 780 (7198 in 1995 and 7582 in 2010) students aged 7-18 years participated in the present study. Weight and SFT of all subjects were measured. Percentage body fat (%FM) was estimated by SFT, and fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were calculated from: FM (kg) = %FM × weight (kg)/100; FFM (kg) = weight (kg)-FM(kg). The range of differences of weight, SFT, FM and FFM over the different age groups between the 1995 and 2010 samples were calculated. Results: In the past 15 years, mean values of SFT have increased. The mean (range) increments of SFT were 6.28 (2.91-11.22) mm for boys and 3.29 (2.22-4.29) mm for girls, demonstrating a mean increase of 32% for boys and 14% for girls. The mean (range) increments of weight, FM and FFM were 7.26 (4.41-10.82) kg, 3.70 (1.47-6.58) kg and 3.56 (1.24-5.27) kg, at rates of 18%, 47% and 10% for boys, respectively, and 4.14 (2.78-5.64) kg, 1.68 (1.02-2.27) kg and 2.46 (1.52-3.49) kg, at rates of 11%, 20% and 8% for girls, respectively. Conclusions: The mean values of SFT, FM and FFM have increased over time. Rates of increase were greater for FM than FFM. © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.


Zhang Y.-X.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Wang S.-R.,Shandong Blood Center
World Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Background: The rising prevalence of childhood obesity was observed in China. This study assessed the prevalence and district distribution of childhood obesity in Shandong Province, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the province. A total of 42 275 students (21 222 boys and 21 053 girls) aged 7-18 years from 16 districts participated in this study. Height and body weight of all subjects were measured, and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was obtained according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs. Results: In 2010, the prevalence rates of combined overweight and obesity reached 26.86% in urban boys, 18.32% in rural boys, 14.36% in urban girls, and 11.31% in rural girls, respectively. An increasing trend was observed in the prevalence of overweight and obesity from the low socioeconomic status (SES) group to the moderate and high SES groups. The prevalence rates of combined overweight and obesity in the three SES groups were 18.46%, 21.08% and 27.31% in boys and 10.43%, 12.42% and 15.18% in girls, respectively. Conclusions: There is a high level of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Shandong Province, China. The distribution of childhood obesity is positively associated with the regional SES. © 2013 Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Zhang Y.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Wang S.,Shandong Blood Center
Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

Background: There is strong evidence of a positive secular trend in body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thickness (SFT) in most of the world over the past 10 years. However, no studies on this trend have been reported in Shandong Province, China. Aim: The present study assessed the decennial change in BMI and SFT in Shandong Province during the past 10 years and the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents. Subjects and methods: The BMI and SFT of adolescents aged 7 to 18 years was calculated using data from 2 national surveys on students' constitution and health carried out by the government in 1995 and 2005 in Shandong Province, China. The distribution of BMI and SFT was reported, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity were obtained according to the screening criteria of overweight and obesity for Chinese students using BMI. Results: In the past 10 years, the P50 (50th percentile) of BMI and SFT increased rapidly. The average increments of BMI and SFT were 0.91 kg/m2, 7.99 mm for boys and 0.55 kg/m2, 7.13 mm for girls, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased rapidly: for overweight from 7.53% (boys), 4.89% (girls) in 1995 to 14.28% (boys), 8.75% (girls) in 2005; and for obesity from 2.92% (boys), 1.72% (girls) in 1995 to 10.78% (boys), 5.76% (girls) in 2005. Conclusion: The average value of BMI and SFT has increased over time; overweight and obesity among adolescents has become a serious public health problem. Comprehensive evidence-based strategies of intervention should be introduced, including periodic monitoring. © 2011 Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health.


Zhang Y.-X.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Wang S.-R.,Shandong Blood Center
Annals of Human Biology | Year: 2012

Background: There are wide-ranging differences in human growth, not only between ethnic groups but also between regions. Shandong is one of the most populous provinces in China, with inequalities of regional economic status. However, no studies on the differences in development among children and adolescents in different districts have been reported.Aim: This study assessed the differences in height, weight and prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents of different socioeconomic status (SES) districts in Shandong, China.Subjects and methods: Data for this study were obtained from a large cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren. A total of 42 286 students (21 222 boys and 21 064 girls) aged 718 years from 16 districts participated in this study. Height and weight of all subjects were measured and BMI was calculated from their height and weight. Prevalence rates of obesity and overweight were determined by comparing calculated BMIs (kg/m) to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs. Each of the 16 districts was assigned an SES ranking (low, moderate, high) based on per capita GDP and income in urban and rural areas. Comparisons of height, weight and the prevalence of overweight and obesity among different groups were made.Results: Significant differences between SES groups were observed for height, weight and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Boys and girls from high SES group were taller, heavier and more likely to be obese than their peers from moderate and low SES groups. The prevalences of combined overweight and obesity in the three SES groups were 18.46%, 21.08% and 27.31% in boys and 10.43%, 12.42% and 15.18% in girls, respectively.Conclusion: There have been obvious regional variations in development and the prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents in Shandong, China, These variations in development and prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents among different SES districts being related to the local SES, process of urbanization, living environments, nutritional status, dietary pattern, physical activity and public health. © Informa UK, Ltd.


Zhang Y.-X.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Wang S.-R.,Shandong Blood Center
Annals of Human Biology | Year: 2011

Background: Nutritional status of children and adolescents has long been known to be a determinant of health and disease; both obesity and underweight are associated with health consequences. However, no studies have been reported on changes in nutritional status of children and adolescents in Shandong, China.Aim: The present study assessed the changes in nutritional status of children and adolescents in Shandong Province from 1995 to 2005.Subjects and methods: Data used derived from two national surveys on students' constitution and health carried out by the government in 1995 and 2005 in Shandong Province, China. Increments of stature, body weight, body mass index (BMI) and haemoglobin (Hb) for children and adolescents aged 7, 9, 12, 14 and 17 years were reported. Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity were obtained according to the screening criteria of underweight, overweight and obesity for Chinese students using BMI and prevalence of anaemia was obtained according to the WHO criteria.Results: Means of stature, body weight, BMI and Hb for both boys and girls surveyed in 2005 were significantly higher than 1995 values. The range of increments of stature and body weight for adolescents aged 7, 9, 12, 14 and 17 years were 1.95-3.66 cm and 2.21-6.25 kg for boys and 1.40-2.91 cm and 1.48-3.10 kg for girls. In the past 10 years, rates of overweight and obesity increased, while underweight was not as evident: for overweight from 7.95% (boys) and 5.21% (girls) in 1995 to 13.62% (boys) and 8.25% (girls) in 2005; and for obesity from 3.48% (boys) and 2.07% (girls) in 1995 to 11.17% (boys) and 5.64% (girls) in 2005. The rate of anaemia decreased, from 19.99% (boys) and 23.43% (girls) in 1995 to 10.28% (boys) and 13.07% (girls) in 2005.Conclusion: The nutritional status of children and adolescents has shown some improvement, although prevalence of overweight and obesity increased significantly during the 10-year period. Concerted efforts should be made to appropriately control the prevalence of overweight and obesity. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

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