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Liu F.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | Xing S.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | Du Z.,Shandong Academy of Forestry
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2011

Oxidation is known commonly to enhance humic acid (HAs) contents of coal, but in China, most humic substances are used directly as soil conditioners or applied in combination with fertilizers without oxidation. Therefore, we investigated the impact of nitric acid (HNO3) oxidation on the characteristics of HAs derived from a Chinese lignite. The results showed that total HA content was increased by HNO 3 oxidation, thus consequently increasing its cation exchange capacity and moderate humification. Besides, HAs extracted from oxidized lignite were richer in oxygen-containing functional groups with smaller molecular size than natural lignite. Compared with natural lignite, retention capacities of nitrogen and potassium by oxidized lignite were significantly greater. However, phosphorus-retention capacity was decreased to near zero, which might enhance the availability of phosphorus in soil. In general, optimum HNO 3 oxidation had favorable effects on lignite and improved its characteristics for use as a soil conditioner. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Pang C.-H.,Shandong Normal University | Pang C.-H.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | Li K.,Shandong Normal University | Wang B.,Shandong Normal University
Physiologia Plantarum | Year: 2011

To evaluate the physiological importance of chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase (CHLAPX) in the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging system of a euhalophyte, we cloned the CHLAPX of Suaeda salsa (SsCHLAPX) encoding stromal APX (sAPX) and thylakoid-bound APX. The stromal APX of S. salsa (Ss.sAPX) cDNA consists of 1726 nucleotides including an 1137-bp open reading frame (ORF) and encodes 378 amino acids. The thylakoid-bound APX of S. salsa (Ss.tAPX) cDNA consists of 1561 nucleotides, including a 1284-bp ORF, and encodes 427 amino acids. The N-terminal 378 amino acids of Ss.sAPX are identical with those of Ss.tAPX, whereas the C-terminal 49 amino acids differ. Arabidopsis thaliana lines overexpressing Ss.sAPX and Ss.tAPX were constructed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation methods. Under high light (1000 μmol m -2 s -1), malondialdehyde (MDA) content was lower in transgenic plants than in the wild type. Under high light, Fv/Fm and chlorophyll contents of both overexpressing lines and the wild type declined but were significantly higher in the overexpressing lines than in the wild type. The activities of APX (EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT 1.11.1.6) and superoxide dismutase (SOD EC 1.15.1.1) were higher in the overexpressing lines than in the wild type. The transgenic plants showed increased tolerance to oxidative stress caused by high light. These results suggest that SsCHLAPX plays an important role in scavenging ROS in chloroplasts under stress conditions such as high light. © 2011 Physiologia Plantarum.


Wu H.-W.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | Li X.-C.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | Liu H.-X.,Shandong Academy of Forestry
Entomologica Fennica | Year: 2016

Food shortage is a prevalent threat to insect survival and successful reproduction in natural settings. An insect species invading new areas may have a high capacity to survive and adapt to starvation. To test these hypotheses, we assessed the survival time of Corythucha ciliata (Say), in a laboratory under two starvation conditions: complete starvation (no food supplied) and gradual starvation (food provided once and not replenished). Under complete starvation, survival of 3rd to 5th instar nymphs tended to decline steadily, whereas under gradual starvation this process was delayed in the initial stage. The average survival times increased as the instar increased under both conditions (14.0 h, 15.9 h and 24.4 h under complete starvation conditions; 27.8 h, 29.6 h and 33.6 h under gradual starvation conditions). The longest lived individual nymph survived for 49 hours. The results may partially explain the rapid global expansion of C. ciliata. © Entomológica Fennica. 15 February 2016.


Zhao X.,Northeast Forestry University | Zheng H.,Guangdong Academy of Forestry | Li S.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | Yang C.,Northeast Forestry University | And 2 more authors.
New Forests | Year: 2014

Poplar (Populus spp.) is one of the most important economical tree species in temperate regions of the world. Easy propagation by cutting has made most of the selected genotypes of poplar available for intensive plantation with large genetic gains. Critical point for successful propagation of cutting is the development of roots. Thus, rooting context of the cutting appeared to be a pivotal scenario in poplar vegetative propagations. In this overview, we focus on the progress in defining the genetic, physical, chemical and environmental factors that influences the poplar cuttings to develop adventitious roots. These factors include genotype effect, physiological conditions of the stock plants, plant growth regulators, temperature, rooting substrates/media as major variables for the development of rooting events. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Liu F.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | Xing S.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | Ma H.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | Du Z.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | Ma B.,Shandong Academy of Forestry
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are important catalysts that regulate the functional properties of agricultural systems. However, there is little information on the effect of PGPR inoculation on the growth and nutrient accumulation of forest container seedlings. This study determined the effects of a growth medium inoculated with PGPR on the nutrient uptake, nutrient accumulation, and growth of Fraxinus americana container seedlings. PGPR inoculation with fertilizer increased the dry matter accumulation of the F. americana aerial parts with delayed seedling emergence time. Under fertilized conditions, the accumulation time of phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) in the F. americana aerial parts was 13 days longer due to PGPR inoculation. PGPR increased the maximum daily P and K accumulations in fertilized seedlings by 9.31 and 10.44 %, respectively, but had little impact on unfertilized ones. Regardless of fertilizer application, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids, and organic acids significantly increased because of PGPR inoculation. PGPR inoculation with fertilizer increased the root, shoot, and leaf yields by 19.65, 22.94, and 19.44 %, respectively, as well as the P and K contents by 8.33 and 10.60 %, respectively. Consequently, the N, P, and K uptakes increased by 19.85, 31.97, and 33.95 %, respectively. Hence, PGPR inoculation with fertilizer can be used as a bioenhancer for plant growth and nutrient uptake in forest container seedling nurseries. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Wu H.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | Liu H.,Shandong Academy of Forestry
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Insect movement behavior is highly important in entomological population ecology, behavioral ecology and conservation, and in invasion ecology. In this study, we used an exotic lace bug (Corythucha ciliata) as a model organism to address the hypothesis that an insect species invading a new area has a high host location ability and rapid mobility by which it can be successfully carried to a new habitat. To test this hypothesis, three movement parameters (speed, duration and distance) of C. ciliata were assessed using laboratory and field observations. We found that 5th-instar nymphs of C. ciliata could move as far as 750 cm throughout their lifespan and that they moved an average of 0.038 m/min during the first 15 minutes after release, which was significantly farther than that of other instars. Of the tested nymphs, 21.85% could locate their host trees; of adults released 20 m from hosts, 11% reached the host trees on the first day, with an average flight distance of 22.14 m and a maximum flight distance of 27 m. The results of this study partly explain the mechanism of rapid diffusion. These results are also important for predicting population spread, improving eradication surveys, and managing future introductions of C. ciliata. © 2016 Wu, Liu. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Liu F.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | Xing S.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | Ma H.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | Du Z.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | Ma B.,Shandong Academy of Forestry
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

One of the proposed mechanisms through which plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant growth is the production of plant growth regulators, especially cytokinin. However, little information is available regarding cytokinin-producing PGPR inoculation on growth and water stress consistence of forest container seedlings under drought condition. This study determined the effects of Bacillus subtilis on hormone concentration, drought resistance, and plant growth under water-stressed conditions. Although no significant difference was observed under well-watered conditions, leaves of inoculated Platycladus orientalis (oriental thuja) seedlings under drought stress had higher relative water content and leaf water potential compared with those of noninoculated ones. Regardless of water supply levels, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids and organic acids, significantly increased because of B. subtilis inoculation. Water stress reduced shoot cytokinins by 39.14 %. However, inoculation decreased this deficit to only 10.22 %. The elevated levels of cytokinins in P. orientalis shoot were associated with higher concentration of abscisic acid (ABA). Stomatal conductance was significantly increased by B. subtilis inoculation in well-watered seedlings. However, the promoting effect of cytokinins on stomatal conductance was hampered, possibly by the combined action of elevated cytokinins and ABA. B. subtilis inoculation increased the shoot dry weight of well-watered and drought seedlings by 34.85 and 19.23 %, as well as the root by 15.445 and 13.99 %, respectively. Consequently, the root/shoot ratio significantly decreased, indicative of the greater benefits of PGPR on shoot growth than root. Thus, inoculation of cytokinin-producing PGPR in container seedlings can alleviate the drought stress and interfere with the suppression of shoot growth, showing a real potential to perform as a drought stress inhibitor in arid environments. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Liu F.-C.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | Xing S.-J.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | Ma H.-L.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | Du Z.-Y.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | Ma B.-Y.,Shandong Academy of Forestry
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2014

Effects of four plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), namely Pseudomonas sp. YT3, Bacillus subtilis DZ1, B. cereus L90 and B. fusiformis L13 on the biological characteristics of walnut (Juglans regia) rhizosphere soil under drought stress were investigated. Results showed that drought stress had little effect on available nutrients of walnut rhizosphere soil, but significantly decreased the activity of organic carbon by 18.4% and increased the pH from 7.34 to 7.79. Under drought stress condition, the inoculation of Bacillus cereus L90 significantly increased high-labile organic carbon in walnut rhizosphere by 14.5% relative to the un-inoculated control, and decreased the pH to 7.41. Compared with the irrigated control, the total microbial populations, root exudates, microbial biomass carbon, and microbial biomass nitrogen in walnut rhizosphere soil were significantly decreased by 36.0%, 20.7%, 33.5% and 30.7%, respectively, because of drought stress. However, L90 inoculation decreased these deficits to 14.1%, 10.3%, 12.1% and 12.7%, respectively. Some terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) disappeared under the drought condition and PGPR inoculation had great influence on T-RFs according to Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism profiles. The Margalef index and the Shannon index of walnut rhizosphere soil significantly decreased, but the Simpson index increased relative to the irrigated control. Compared with the un-inoculated control, the Margalef index significantly increased from 0.42 to 0.99, as well as the Shannon index increased from 0.52 to 0.98. However, the Simpson index decreased from 0.60 to 0.39. Inoculating YT3, DZ1 and L13 had weaker effects on the biological characteristics of walnut rhizosphere soil compared to inoculating L90, suggesting L90 inoculation could interfere with the suppression of drought stress to the biological characteristics of walnut rhizosphere soil.


Kong L.,Shandong University | Liang Y.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | Qin L.,Shandong University | Sun L.,Shandong Academy of Forestry | And 2 more authors.
Development Genes and Evolution | Year: 2014

The Ns genome of the genus Psathyrostachys possesses superior traits useful for wheat improvement. However, very little is known about the high molecular weight (HMW) subunits of glutenin encoded by the Ns genome. In this paper, we report the isolation of four alleles of HMW glutenin subunit gene from Psathyrostachys juncea. Sequence alignment data shows the four alleles have similar primary structure with those in wheat and other wheat-related grasses, with some unique modifications. All four sequences more closely resemble y-type, rather than x-type, glutenins. However, our results show three of the subunits (1Ns2-4) contain an extra glutamine residue in the N-terminal region not found on typical y-type subunits, as well as the x-type subunit specific sequence LAAQLPAMCRL. These three subunits likely represent an intermediate state in the divergence between x- and y-type subunits. Results also indicate that the Ns genome is more closely related to the St genome of Pseudoroegneria than any other Triticeae genomes. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


PubMed | Shandong Academy of Forestry, Shandong University and CSIRO
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC genomics | Year: 2017

Soil alkalinity shows significant constraints to crop productivity; however, much less attention has been paid to analyze the effect of soil alkalinity on plant growth and development. Shanrong No. 4 (SR4) is an alkalinity tolerant bread wheat cultivar selected from an asymmetric somatic hybridization between the bread wheat cultivar Jinan 177 (JN177) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum), which is a suitable material for studying alkalinity tolerant associate genes.The growth of SR4 plant seedlings was less inhibited than that of JN177 when exposed to alkalinity stress conditions. The root cytosolic NaSR4 expresses a superior tolerance to alkaline stress conditions which is due to its strong absorbing ability for nutrient ions, a strong regulating ability for intracellular and rhizosphere pH and a more active ROS scavenging ability.

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