Stanley, Falkland Islands
Stanley, Falkland Islands

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Three new species of Dysponetus (Polychaeta: Chrysopetalidae) are described from the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean: Dysponetus ovalisetosus n. sp. from the Falkland Islands, Dysponetus bricklei n. sp. from South Georgia and Dy-sponetus antarcticus n. sp. from Antarctica are all characterized by having notochaetae that are oval in cross-section in contrast to the D-shape described for seven of the other species of Dysponetus. Dysponetus antarcticus n. sp. is the most distinct due to the combination of both a ventral cirrus on segment 3 and four eyes. Formerly mis-identified as Dysponetus bulbosus Hartmann-Schröder, 1982, it was discovered while clarifying the contradictory descriptions of that species pub-lished by Hartmann-Schröder in 1982 and 1986. Dysponetus bulbosus is re-described and newly figured. Dysponetus bricklei n. sp. and Dysponetus ovalisetosus n. sp. can be determined by comparing several characters including position of the median antenna, shape of the palps and cirri, and the number and shape of both the noto- and neurochaetae. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press.


PubMed | Shallow Marine Surveys Group and Amgueddfa Cymru National Museum Wales
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2015

Three new species of Dysponetus (Polychaeta: Chrysopetalidae) are described from the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean: Dysponetus ovalisetosus n. sp. from the Falkland Islands, Dysponetus bricklei n. sp. from South Georgia and Dysponetus antarcticus n. sp. from Antarctica are all characterized by having notochaetae that are oval in cross-section in contrast to the D-shape described for seven of the other species of Dysponetus. Dysponetus antarcticus n. sp. is the most distinct due to the combination of both a ventral cirrus on segment 3 and four eyes. Formerly mis-identified as Dysponetus bulbosus Hartmann-Schrder, 1982, it was discovered while clarifying the contradictory descriptions of that species published by Hartmann-Schrder in 1982 and 1986. Dysponetus bulbosus is re-described and newly figured. Dysponetus bricklei n. sp. and Dysponetus ovalisetosus n. sp. can be determined by comparing several characters including position of the median antenna, shape of the palps and cirri, and the number and shape of both the noto- and neurochaetae.


Brewin P.E.,Shallow Marine Surveys Group | Brown J.,Shallow Marine Surveys Group | Brickle P.,South Atlantic Environmental Research Institute
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom | Year: 2015

The trophic structure of Ascension Island's sub-tidal reef assemblages is poorly understood. Unlike other tropical reef systems, sub-tidal habitats have very low abundance of both coral and macrophyte species. Visually dominant is a diverse assemblage of fish species, with particularly high densities of Melichthys niger, a voracious omnivore. In contrast, the nocturnal species assemblage is notably different, visually dominated by benthic invertebrates. To quantify the difference between day and night visible assemblages, we conducted day/night pairs of transect surveys of fish and invertebrates across three depths, and spanning 9 months, assigning all species to one of 10 functional groups. Multivariate analysis of surveys revealed significant turnover in species between day and night surveys and between survey periods, with concomitant changes in species rank-abundance distributions. Juveniles of a number of fish species were determinate in observed differences. Conversely, diversity of functional groups between day/night surveys and between seasons were not different, however there was significant species turnover within functional groups between day and night assemblages. The lack of proportional change in functional groups but a turn-over of species between day and night assemblages suggest that there may be a degree of functional redundancy in Ascension Island's marine trophic profile. Further investigation into the spatio-temporal variation in trophic profile and functional diversity around the island will benefit conservation and fisheries management in this isolated and poorly understood marine system. Copyright © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 2015


Goodwin C.,National Museums Northern Ireland | Brewin P.E.,Shallow Marine Surveys Group | Brickle P.,South Atlantic Environmental Research Institute
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

Sponge samples were taken by SCUBA diving from sixteen sites on the north coast of South Georgia island, south west Southern Ocean. Fifteen new species are described: Iophon husvikensis sp. nov., Clathria (Clathria) stromnessa sp. nov., Clathria (Axosuberites) rosita sp. nov., Clathria (Microciona) matthewsi sp. nov., Lissodendoryx (Ectyodoryx) collinsi sp. nov., Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) barnesi sp. nov., Hymedesmia (Stylopus) pharos sp. nov., Myxilla (Burtoanchora) ponceti sp. nov., Tedania (Tedaniopsis) aurantiaca sp. nov., Tedania (Tedaniopsis) wellsae sp. nov., Mycale (Mycale) brownorum sp. nov., Mycale (Mycale) cartwrighti sp. nov., Haliclona (Soestella) crowtheri sp. nov., Microxina myxa sp. nov. and Calyx shackletoni sp. nov. Information is also provided on the distribution and in situ external appearance of other sponge species such as Cinachyra barbata Sollas 1886, Polymastia invaginata Kirkpatrick 1907, Iophon unicorne Topsent 1907, Phorbas glaberrimus (Topsent 1917), Myxilla (Ectyomyxilla) kerguelensis (Hentschel 1914) and Rossella nuda Topsent 1901. These results increase the previously reported low sponge endemicity in South Georgia, which now better aligns with the high endemicity of other groups. However, because we sampled areas that have been poorly sampled in the Southern Ocean / Antarctic region (shallow subtidal, rocky), many of these species may have wider polar distributions. The effect of the Polar Front as a dispersal barrier to neighbouring biogeographic regions is discussed. Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press.


Barnes D.K.A.,British Antarctic Survey | Collins M.A.,Government of South Georgia | Brickle P.,Shallow Marine Surveys Group | Fretwell P.,British Antarctic Survey | And 4 more authors.
Antarctic Science | Year: 2011

Abstract The multilateral failure to apply the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) by the target year 2010 was headline news as are the accelerating climatic changes which dictate its urgency. Some ecosystems that are vulnerable to anthropogenic change have few species listed as endangered because too little is known about their biota. The highest vulnerability may correspond to where hotspots of species endemism, range limits and physiological sensitivity overlap with areas of most rapid physical change. The old, large and remote archipelago of South Georgia is one such location. Sea-surface temperatures around South Georgia are amongst the most rapidly warming reported. Furthermore oceanographic projections are highlighting the region as extremely vulnerable to ocean acidification. We outline the first polar Darwin Initiative project and the technical advances in generating an interactive and fully integrated georeferenced map of marine biodiversity, seabed topography and physical oceanography at South Georgia. Mapping marine mega and macro-faunal biodiversity onto multiple physical variables has rarely been attempted. This should provide a new tool in assessing the processes driving biological variability, the importance of marine areas in terms of ecosystem services, the threats and vulnerabilities of Polar Regions and should greatly aid implementation of the CBD. © 2011 Antarctic Science Ltd.


Laptikhovsky V.,Shallow Marine Surveys Group | Brickle P.,Falkland Islands Government | Hearne S.,Shallow Marine Surveys Group | Neely K.,Falkland Islands Government
Marine Biodiversity Records | Year: 2011

A mesopelagic scaled squid, Pholidoteuthis massyae, was found for the first time in the south-west Atlantic, and an epi-mesobathyal octopus, Muusoctopus eureka, was found in shallow waters of the Falkland Islands almost a century after its last record there. These new records are tentatively attributed to recent climatic changes in oceanic waters of the southern hemisphere. Deimatic behaviour was recorded for the first time in an inkless octopus. © 2011 Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.


Brewin P.E.,University of Otago | Brewin P.E.,Shallow Marine Surveys Group | Probert P.K.,University of Otago | Barker M.F.,University of Otago
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2011

We examined the processes that maintain spatially subdivided deep-basin macrobenthic communities in a New Zealand fjord. Based on previously reported quantitative taxa distribution data, we measured physical and biological processes acting at the sample scale (physical and nutritional sediment characteristics, predation), basin scale (disturbance, productivity, local connectivity) and the fjord scale (connectivity to the regional species pool). Using partial redundancy analysis (RDA), we partitioned their effects on community variability. Direct gradient analysis revealed that previously reported high-, medium- and low-diversity communities are similarly grouped according to their position along measured biotic and abiotic gradients, where 36% of community variation in niche space (i.e. after effects of distance along the fjord were removed) was explained by the full model. Variance partitioning showed that basin-scale factors explained the highest amount of variation in basin communities, followed by sample-scale and fjord-scale factors. Sample- and basin-scale factors were correlated. Examination of the residual component of community variation showed that further investigation into basin-scale processes is warranted. These data support the notion of multiscaled control of community dynamics. Fjords may be unique in representing an 'ecotone' type habitat demonstrating processes at similar scales to those maintaining shallow soft-sediment communities, and those of deep-sea systems. Furthermore, this analysis may understate the importance of connectivity to the regional species pool (fjord-scale process) in such habitats where local extinctions may be relatively frequent. © Inter-Research 2011.


Goodwin C.,National Museums Northern Ireland | Jones J.,National Museums Northern Ireland | Neely K.,Shallow Marine Surveys Group | Brickle P.,Shallow Marine Surveys Group
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom | Year: 2011

Sponge samples were taken by SCUBA diving from four sites around Stanley and nine sites at the Jason Islands in the Falkland Islands. Twelve new species are described: Iophon pictoni sp. nov., Lissodendoryx (Ectyodoryx) jasonensis sp. nov., Phorbas ferrugineus sp. nov., Phorbas shackletoni sp. nov., Myxilla (Styloptilon) acanthotornota sp. nov., Amphilectus fleecei sp. nov., Amphilectus dactylus sp. nov., Mycale (Aegogropila) nodulosa sp. nov., Scopalina erubescens sp. nov., Scopalina bunkeri sp. nov., Amphimedon calyx sp. nov. and Pachychalina erinacea sp. nov. Information is also provided on the distribution and external appearance of other sponge species: Iophon proximum Ridley, 1881, Clathria (Dendrocia) tuberculata Burton, 1934, Tedania (Tedania) mucosa Thiele, 1905, Tedania (Tedania) murdochi Topsent, 1915, Halichondria (Eumastia) attenuata Topsent, 1915, Siphonochalina fortis Ridley, 1881 and Haliclona (Soestella) chilensis Thiele, 1905. The biogeography of the Falklands' sponge fauna is discussed. © Copyright Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 2011.


Volonterio O.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Brewin P.E.,Shallow Marine Surveys Group
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom | Year: 2014

South Georgia is a remote sub-Antarctic island, considered a marine biodiversity 'hotspot' in the Southern Ocean. During a survey along the north coast of South Georgia several marine planarians were found. One of the specimens was a new species of Allogenus (Uteriporidae), which is described here as Allogenus sluysi sp. nov. The new species has the characteristics of the genus and can be distinguished from the type and only known species, Allogenus kerguelensis, by its smaller size, blackish-brown pigmentation, presence of three retinal cells in each eye cup, position of its testes half-way between the ventral and dorsal body surfaces or at a slightly more ventral position, and by having an ejaculatory duct that opens centrally at the tip of the penis papilla. The presently known geographical distribution of Allogenus, the heterogeneous marine planarian species composition in South Georgia, and the distribution of these species in this region are in agreement with a previously proposed vicariance hypothesis, albeit that dispersal cannot be ruled out. © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 2013.


Brown J.,Shallow Marine Surveys Group | Laptikhovsky V.,Shallow Marine Surveys Group | Dimmlich W.,Shallow Marine Surveys Group
Journal of Natural History | Year: 2010

A unique observation was made of the cold water squid Doryteuthis gahi spawning in Patagonian shelf waters near the Falkland Islands, South Atlantic. This represents the first recorded observation of spawning behaviour for this species. In contrast to other loliginids, which spawn in large mixed-sex aggregations, a solitary female was observed adding a single egg capsule to an existing egg mass on a kelp stipe, (Lessonia trabeculata). If this behaviour is characteristic for this species then it represents a departure from normal loliginid spawning behaviour and is in agreement with the observed absence of D. gahi aggregations over spawning grounds. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

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