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Nawaz K.,University of Gujrat | Hussain K.,University of Gujrat | Choudary N.,University of Gujrat | Majeed A.,University of Gujrat | And 7 more authors.
African Journal of Microbiology Research | Year: 2011

This review aims to elaborate the potential applications of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils, which have been polluted with continuous and higher doses of pesticides through process of biodegradation. Biodegradation is an eco friendly, cost effective, highly efficient approach and can be considered as a superior alternative to physical and chemical methods which are not only technically laborious and costly; also are not sufficient to completely degrade organic toxins. Development of experimental conditions in which all congruent biological agents are applied concurrently may be a promising strategy to enhance biodegradation and subsequently biodegradation. Much work remains to be done in carrying out field studies based on laboratory-scale results/experiments using plant-associated endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria to degrade a wide range of toxic organic compounds of concern in environmental soil before commercially viable systems. ©2011 Academic Journals.


Hassan M.N.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Afghan S.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute SSRI | Hassan Z.U.,Government of Punjab | Hafeez F.Y.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Phytopathologia Mediterranea | Year: 2014

Colletotrichum falcatum is the major fungal pathogen causing sugarcane red rot. Four antagonistic bacterial strains exhibiting biocontrol activity against this pathogen in greenhouse conditions were characterized for production of different antifungal metabolites and biocontrol determinants to elucidate the mechanism of action involved in their antagonistic activity. The strains were also evaluated under field conditions to assess their biocontrol potential. All the strains produced hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and volatile and diffusible antibiotics. In addition, the Ochrobactrum intermedium strain NH-5 produced siderophores and the broad spectrum antibiotic 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG); Pseudomonas sp. NH-203 produced siderophores, and Pseudomonas sp. NH-276 produced protease. Two strains, Ochrobactrum intermedium NH-5 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia NH- 300, exhibited good biocontrol activity, suppressing red rot by 44-52% on two sugarcane varieties, SPF-234 and Co-1148, in field experiments. The strains gave consistent results in three consecutive years and showed potential to be used as biopesticides. © Firenze University Press.


Hussain K.,University of Gujrat | Majeed A.,University of Gujrat | Nawaz K.,University of Gujrat | Afghan S.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute SSRI | And 4 more authors.
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is a most advanced method of irrigation that facilitates the irrigation of crop / plants with small amounts of water through the T-tapes placed below the soil surface. Depth of Ttape and requirement of water depends upon soil type and crop under observations. Experiments for comparative study of SDI with flood irrigation for yield and quality were conducted on sugarcane crop from 2005 - 2008 with 3-varieties i.e. HSF-240, HS-12 and CSSG-668 on an area of 6 ha. Drip tapes were buried manually in the middle of the ridges on an area of 3 ha with subplot size for each variety of 1 ha compared with flood irrigated crop of 3 ha with subplot of 1 ha for each variety. Flood irrigation system showed better results for growth, yield and quality of sugarcane than SDI. Germination % and tillers/plant did not show any significant difference under both irrigation systems. SDI resulted to lower mill-able cane, cane yield, crop growth rate (CGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR). Harvest index % (HI) had no significant effect on both irrigation systems. Higher leaf relative water contents (LRWC) obtained under flood irrigation showed higher accumulation of water supplied through flood system. Similarly, quality attributes (juice extraction, purity %, recovery % cane and sugar yield t/ha) showed superior behavior under flood irrigation than SDI. Flood irrigation system provided net benefits ranging from Rs. 56130 - Rs. 82760 / ha while SDI resulted in loss from Rs. 127345 to 157910 / ha. Maximum income benefit was recorded in CSSG-668 variety (Rs. 82760 / ha) and maximum loss in HSF-240 variety (Rs. 157910 / ha) under SDI. SDI helped to save water from 11 - 18% over flood irrigation system that had no significant contribution in net benefits. This loss may be due to the major problems faced by SDI system that led to blockage, damaged of T-tapes, filtration obstructions due to high ferrous contents in irrigated water, higher initial cost, management, that resulted to net economic loss in sugarcane. Irrigated water was unfit with high ferrous contents that resulted to blockage of T-tapes. SDI saved 18% water as compared to flood irrigation system. It was concluded that SDI is not a superior system of irrigation for sugarcane in developing countries like Pakistan where water is unfit for irrigation. Its high installation cost, breakage and clogging resulted to net economic loss. SDI might be a superior system where water is fit for irrigation, free of ferrous and low installation costs. © 2010 Academic Journals.


Hussain K.,ShenYang Agricultural University | Hussain K.,University of Gujrat | Nawaz K.,University of Gujrat | Majeed A.,ShenYang Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Prevalence of citrus bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri in citrus groves is the major impediment and limiting factor in successful citrus production. Severity varies among different species, varieties and prevailing climatic conditions. Despite extensive studies on the biology, epidemiology and management of this disease, there is still little known about the role of different biocontrol agents for management of this disease. Traditional management of X. axonopodis pv citri is brought about by chemicals which have become complicated through the development of chemical resistance, and as such, it is hazardous for health. It is necessary to identify the pathotypes of X. axonopodis pv. citri through biochemical and molecular characterization and to determine the role of different biocontrol agents (antibiotics and plant extracts), in order to find out a safer way for controlling citrus canker as disease severity results in defoliation, dieback, premature fruit drop and blemished fruit that consequently decrease fruit production and market value. © 2010 Academic Journals.


Hassan M.N.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Namood-e-Sahar,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Zia-Ul-Husnain Shah S.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute SSRI | Afghan S.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute SSRI | Hafeez F.Y.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
BioControl | Year: 2015

Red rot disease affects sugarcane production adversely throughout the world. Intensive cropping and uninterrupted use of chemicals results in evolution of new pathotypes which can infect the resistant cultivars. Bacillus sp. inhabiting plant rhizosphere can protect the plants from multiple pathogens. In the present study, two antagonistic strains Bacillus subtilis NH-100 and Bacillus sp. NH-217 were able to maintain their population at 9.0 log CFU g−1 in sugarcane filter cake until nine months. These strains were compatibile to the indigenous bacteria of sugarcane filter cake which maintained their population at 7.8–8.0 log CFU g−1. The developed bioformulation induced the activity of various defense-related enzymes (0.6–6.9 change in absorbance min−1 g−1 of tissue), suppressed the red rot disease and enhanced crop yield under field conditions. This formulation could be used as potential biopesticide to control red rot disease of sugarcane. © 2015, International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC).


Hassan M.N.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | Hassan M.N.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Afghan S.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute SSRI | Hafeez F.Y.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | Hafeez F.Y.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
BioControl | Year: 2010

Bacterial strains with ability to suppress Colletotrichum falcatum were isolated from the rhizosphere of sugarcane. Thirty nine candidates, chosen on the basis of in vitro antagonism, inhibited C. falcatum growth by 15-65% on test plates. Twenty two isolates causing 50% or more in vitro inhibition were screened for their root colonization ability and biocontrol activity on micropropagated sugarcane plants under greenhouse conditions. Twelve strains suppressed red rot infection in plantlets, but no significant correlation was observed between in vitro pathogen inhibition and in vivo disease suppression. However, isolates showing root colonization over 5.2 log10 CFU g-1 of soil showed highest suppression of C. falcatum and reduction of red rot disease. Six strains with the capability to maintain a significant population in the sugarcane rhizosphere and with a high potential to control red rot were identified by 16S rDNA as Ochrobacterum intermedium NH-5, Pseudomonas putida NH-50, Bacillus subtilis NH-100, Bacillus subtilis NH-160, Bacillus sp NH-217 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia NH-300. © 2010 International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC).


Hassan M.N.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | Hassan M.N.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Afghan S.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute SSRI | Hafeez F.Y.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | Hafeez F.Y.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Pest Management Science | Year: 2011

Background: Rhizobacteria have a good potential to suppress soilborne diseases, but their efficacy against sugarcane pests is rarely reported. Bacterial strains isolated from the rhizosphere of sugarcane were evaluated for their potential to suppress red rot disease on two susceptible varieties, Co-1148 and SPF-234, under field conditions. The strains were also characterised for the production of secondary metabolites associated with their antagonistic activity. Results: One out of four strains, the Pseudomonas putida strain NH-50 (EU627168), reduced disease severity by 44-60% in different field trials. This potent antagonistic strain produced pyoluteorin antibiotic, as confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The PltB gene involved in pyoluteorin synthesis was amplified from the P. putida strain NH-50 and sequenced. The extracellular metabolites and volatile and diffusible antibiotics secreted by the tested strains inhibited mycelial growth of Glomerella tucumensis (Speg.) Arx & E Mull in vitro by 7-55%. Conclusion: The pyoluteorin-producing bacteria P. putida strain NH-50 significantly reduced disease severity on both sugarcane varieties, irrespective of fungal inoculation, i.e. either inoculated through stem or through soil. This strain also possesses other plant growth characteristics and can be used as a biopesticide for sugarcane crop. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.


Hassan M.N.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Zia-Ul-Husnain Shah S.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute SSRI | Afghan S.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute SSRI | Hafeez F.Y.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
BioControl | Year: 2015

Red rot disease affects sugarcane production adversely throughout the world. Intensive cropping and uninterrupted use of chemicals results in evolution of new pathotypes which can infect the resistant cultivars. Bacillus sp. inhabiting plant rhizosphere can protect the plants from multiple pathogens. In the present study, two antagonistic strains Bacillus subtilis NH-100 and Bacillus sp. NH-217 were able to maintain their population at 9.0 log CFU g−1 in sugarcane filter cake until nine months. These strains were compatibile to the indigenous bacteria of sugarcane filter cake which maintained their population at 7.8–8.0 log CFU g−1. The developed bioformulation induced the activity of various defense-related enzymes (0.6–6.9 change in absorbance min−1 g−1 of tissue), suppressed the red rot disease and enhanced crop yield under field conditions. This formulation could be used as potential biopesticide to control red rot disease of sugarcane. © 2015, International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC).

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