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Saleem Haider M.,University of Punjab | Afghan S.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute | Riaz H.,University of Punjab | Tahir M.,University of Punjab | And 3 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Leaf samples of sugarcane were collected from symptomatic and non-symptomatic plants. Total RNA was extracted and purified from sugarcane leaves samples. Presence of mosaic virus was confirmed by RT-PCR amplification using primers designed to the conserved regions of the coat protein genes of Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV). An amplification product of expected size (approx. 900 bp) was achieved from symptomatic samples but no amplification was detected from non-symptomatic plant samples. RT-PCR amplified DNA fragments were cloned and sequenced in both directions. DNA sequence from two virus isolates from sugarcane cultivars CSSG676 and CSSG668 showed highest level of sequence identity (97% and 96%, respectively) to SCMV (Bundaberg isolate), indicating that the virus isolates infecting sugarcane varieties are variants of SCMV in Pakistan. Source


Hassan M.N.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | Hassan M.N.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Afghan S.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute | Hafeez F.Y.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | Hafeez F.Y.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

Yield of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is critically limited by the red rot disease caused by Colletotrichum falcatum Went. Four native antagonistic bacteria Bacillus subtilis strains NH-100, B. subtilis NH-160, Bacillus sp. NH-217 and NH-69, that successfully suppressed the red rot disease under greenhouse conditions were evaluated to determine their efficacy as biological control agents in the field. Performance of the antagonistic strains was assessed on two different sugarcane varieties SPF-234 and Co-1148 under field conditions for three consecutive years. Two types of trials were conducted in which the red rot pathogen was inoculated by different methods to observe its direct suppression as well as the induction of systemic resistance. Three strains of the genus Bacillus reduced disease incidence by 45-49% in sugarcane plants challenged by pathogen inoculation in the stem and by 48-56% in the plants inoculated in the soil near the roots. The results of present study suggest a potential use of these strains in the development of commercial inoculants to be applied for the control of red rot disease. Source


Hussain K.,University of Gujrat | Majeed A.,University of Gujrat | Nawaz K.,University of Gujrat | Farrukh Nisar M.,University of Gujrat | And 3 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

The experiments were carried out to evaluate the comparative study for salt stress among seed, root stock and direct regenerated violet (Viola odorata L.) seedlings. Violet seedlings propagated through tissue culture (direct regeneration) had significantly higher salicylic acid (SA) concentrations from seed and rootstock propagated plants. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) studies prior to the salt treatments revealed that genetic similarity at the molecular level among seed, root stock and direct regenerated violet seedlings was 50.9 to 70.5%. NaCl applications (50 mol m -3) reduced plant and root lengths, plant fresh and dry weights in plants obtained through seeds and rootstock as compared to direct regenerated seedlings. Direct regenerated violet showed better plant growth significantly both in saline and non-saline conditions. Seedlings raised through direct regeneration strongly inhibited accumulation of Na +, K +, Ca 2+ and Cl - and organic solute accumulations as glycinebetaine (GB) and root total soluble carbohydrates (TSC) but stimulated N and relative water contents (RWC). Direct regenerated seedlings showed an enhanced catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and guaiacol dependent peroxidase (GDP) activities as compared to seed and root stock propagated plants. It was concluded that direct regenerated plants had better performance under salt stress in relation to growth and ion accumulations as compared to seed and root stock propagated violet seedlings. This might be due to higher SA concentrations in direct regenerated seedlings which resulted from somaclonal variations or growth media applied during tissue culture technique. © 2010 Academic Journals. Source


Nawaz K.,University of Gujrat | Hussain K.,University of Gujrat | Majeed A.,University of Gujrat | Khan F.,Lahore College for Women University | And 2 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Soil salinity affects various physiological and biochemical processes which result in reduced biomass production. This adverse effect of salt stress appears on whole plant level at almost all growth stages including germination, seedling, vegetative and maturity stages. However, tolerance to salt stress at different plant developmental stages varies from species to species. The plant response to salt stress consists of numerous processes that must function in coordination to alleviate both cellular hyperosmolarity and ion disequilibrium. Salt tolerance and yield stability are complex genetic traits that are difficult to establish in crops since salt stress may occur as a catastrophic episode, be imposed continuously or intermittently and become gradually more severe at any stage during development. The objective of this review is to summarize the morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects of plants under salt stress. It was then concluded that salt stress affects plant physiology at whole plant as well as cellular levels through osmotic and ionic adjustments that result in reduced biomass production. This adverse effect of salt stress appears on whole plant level at almost all growth stages including germination, seedling, vegetative and maturity stages. Despite causing osmotic and ionic stress, salinity causes ionic imbalances that may impair the selectivity of root membranes and induce potassium deficiency. © 2010 Academic Journals. Source


Rizwana S.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute | Hamed M.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology | Naheed A.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute | Afghan S.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2011

Studies were undertaken on infestation of eight genotypes of rice against Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier.) under storage condition. The results were based on means of moth emergence, percent weight loss, percent damage and developmental period after the completion of first generation under controlled laboratory conditions. It was found that none of the varieties was completely immune to insect infestation. Rice variety Basmati-370 was found most resistant and Basmati-Pak and G-7 were most susceptible. The level of insect resistance was in the order: IRRI-6 ≥ G-6 ≥ Basmati-2000 ≥ PK-Basmati-385 ≥ Super Kernel Basmati. The correlation between number of moths emerged was positive and highly significant with percent weight loss (r=0.780) and percent damage (r=0.882). Insect susceptibility studies during post-harvest storage should be given due consideration in future rice breeding programmes. Copyright 2011 Zoological Society of Pakistan. Source

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