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Farooq U.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Mehmood S.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Afghan S.,Shakarganj Sugar Research institute | Shahzad A.,Shakarganj Sugar Research institute | Asad M.,Shakarganj Sugar Research institute
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2015

Drought is the primary factor limiting sugarcane growth and physiological development under the climatic conditions of Pakistan; especially in those areas where without supplemental irrigation, productivity is not possible. Lack of detailed information regarding the performance of cane varieties under drought during formative stage and poor selection breeding program played key role in limiting cane productivity. The proposed study was conducted to investigate the genetic response of different cultivars viz., CSSG-676, CSSG-668, HoSG-795, HoSG-529, NSG-59 and HSF- 240 (standard) regarding the physiological development of sugarcane and its productivity at different irrigation co-efficient levels (100%, 80% and 60%). This study elucidates that moisture has a pronounced impact on the physiological attributes of sugarcane and proper irrigation scheduling with 20 no. of irrigations were reported best in-term of better germination (69.65%), leaf area index (7.13), crop growth rate (8.44), net assimilation rate (1.06) and chlorophyll contents (5.98). Similarly in case of genomic response, NSG-59 was reported significant best as compared to all other test cultivars in term of better physiological performance, showing significant higher leaf area index, crop growth rate, chlorophyll contents and water use efficiency that maximized the crop growth and resulted in higher net assimilation rate. Higher proline contents (1.59) produced in NSG-59 also made it best under drought conditions. © 2015, Pakistan Botanical Society. All rights reserved.


Afghan S.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute | Shahzad A.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute | Comstock J.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Zhao D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Ali A.,University of SargodhaPunjab
Journal of Plant Registrations | Year: 2016

‘CPSG-3481’ (Reg. No. CV-165, PI 676023) sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) cultivar was developed through cooperative research conducted by the Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute in Pakistan and the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Field Station in the United States and released to growers for loam soils in Pakistan in September 2012. CPSG-3481 was developed from a biparental cross (CP 81-1238 × CP 85-1308) made at Canal Point (CP), FL, USA, in December 1992, and selection process was made at the Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute, Punjab, Pakistan, in 2001-2011. CPSG-3481 was commercially released by the variety evaluation committee of sugarcane scientists from the public and private sectors in the sugarcane production region (Punjab, Pakistan) in 2012 because of its high cane and sucrose yields and high commercial recoverable sucrose on loam soils and its acceptable levels of resistance to red rot (caused by Colletotrichum falcatum Went), brown rust (caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd.), pokkah boeng (caused by Fusarium moniliforme J. Sheldon), Sugarcane mosaic virus, and smut (caused by Ustilago scitaminea Syd. & P. Syd.) in Pakistan. Based on results of nine harvests of three crops (plant cane, first ratoon, and second ratoon) in the final-stage replicated yield trials conducted at three locations on loam soils and compared with a reference cultivar HSF-240, CPSG-3481 had 19.4% higher (p < 0.030) cane yield, 19.7% higher (p < 0.001) commercial recoverable sucrose, 43.0% higher (p < 0.001) sucrose yield, and 19.4% greater (p < 0.001) economic index. © Crop Science Society of America. All rights reserved.


Khan I.A.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture | Khan I.A.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute | Bibi S.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture | Yasmeen S.,Nuclear Institute of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Sugarcane is being recognized as major source of sugar in the world. Identification of high sucrose clones endowed with other agronomic traits can be speedup with the help of specific molecular markers target region amplified polymorphism (TRAP). Results revealed that clone AEC81-0819 possesses high sucrose gene, tolerant to cold conditions and dehydrating conditions followed by L116. High activity of soluble acid invertase was observed in NIA98 and minimum was recorded in LRK-2001. Agronomic data showed that clone AEC81-0819 out yielded all clones in trial for commercial cane sucrose percent (CCS).


Hameed U.,University of Punjab | Pan Y.-B.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Muhammad K.,University of Punjab | Afghan S.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute | Iqbal J.,University of Punjab
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2012

Red rod is an economically important disease of sugarcane caused by the fungus Colletotrichum falcatum. We used a simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based marker system to identify and analyze genetic relationships of red rot resistant and susceptible sugarcane cultivars grown in Pakistan. Twenty-one highly polymorphic SSR markers were used for DNA fingerprinting and genetic diversity analysis of 20 sugarcane cultivars. These SSR markers were found to be highly robust; we identified 144 alleles, with 3-11 alleles per marker and a mean of 6.8. Three SSR markers were able to identify all 20 cultivars. DNAMAN®-generated homology tree was used to analyze genetic diversity among these cultivars; all cultivars shared 58% or more similarity. We correlated polymorphism information content and resolving power values with marker effectiveness in the process of sugarcane cultivar identification. We concluded that a small number of SSR-derived DNA markers will allow breeders to identify red rot resistant and susceptible cultivars. © FUNPEC-RP.


Saleem Haider M.,University of Punjab | Afghan S.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute | Riaz H.,University of Punjab | Tahir M.,University of Punjab | And 3 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Leaf samples of sugarcane were collected from symptomatic and non-symptomatic plants. Total RNA was extracted and purified from sugarcane leaves samples. Presence of mosaic virus was confirmed by RT-PCR amplification using primers designed to the conserved regions of the coat protein genes of Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV). An amplification product of expected size (approx. 900 bp) was achieved from symptomatic samples but no amplification was detected from non-symptomatic plant samples. RT-PCR amplified DNA fragments were cloned and sequenced in both directions. DNA sequence from two virus isolates from sugarcane cultivars CSSG676 and CSSG668 showed highest level of sequence identity (97% and 96%, respectively) to SCMV (Bundaberg isolate), indicating that the virus isolates infecting sugarcane varieties are variants of SCMV in Pakistan.


Hassan M.N.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | Hassan M.N.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Afghan S.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute | Hafeez F.Y.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | Hafeez F.Y.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

Yield of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is critically limited by the red rot disease caused by Colletotrichum falcatum Went. Four native antagonistic bacteria Bacillus subtilis strains NH-100, B. subtilis NH-160, Bacillus sp. NH-217 and NH-69, that successfully suppressed the red rot disease under greenhouse conditions were evaluated to determine their efficacy as biological control agents in the field. Performance of the antagonistic strains was assessed on two different sugarcane varieties SPF-234 and Co-1148 under field conditions for three consecutive years. Two types of trials were conducted in which the red rot pathogen was inoculated by different methods to observe its direct suppression as well as the induction of systemic resistance. Three strains of the genus Bacillus reduced disease incidence by 45-49% in sugarcane plants challenged by pathogen inoculation in the stem and by 48-56% in the plants inoculated in the soil near the roots. The results of present study suggest a potential use of these strains in the development of commercial inoculants to be applied for the control of red rot disease.


Hussain K.,University of Gujrat | Majeed A.,University of Gujrat | Nawaz K.,University of Gujrat | Farrukh Nisar M.,University of Gujrat | And 3 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

The experiments were carried out to evaluate the comparative study for salt stress among seed, root stock and direct regenerated violet (Viola odorata L.) seedlings. Violet seedlings propagated through tissue culture (direct regeneration) had significantly higher salicylic acid (SA) concentrations from seed and rootstock propagated plants. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) studies prior to the salt treatments revealed that genetic similarity at the molecular level among seed, root stock and direct regenerated violet seedlings was 50.9 to 70.5%. NaCl applications (50 mol m -3) reduced plant and root lengths, plant fresh and dry weights in plants obtained through seeds and rootstock as compared to direct regenerated seedlings. Direct regenerated violet showed better plant growth significantly both in saline and non-saline conditions. Seedlings raised through direct regeneration strongly inhibited accumulation of Na +, K +, Ca 2+ and Cl - and organic solute accumulations as glycinebetaine (GB) and root total soluble carbohydrates (TSC) but stimulated N and relative water contents (RWC). Direct regenerated seedlings showed an enhanced catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and guaiacol dependent peroxidase (GDP) activities as compared to seed and root stock propagated plants. It was concluded that direct regenerated plants had better performance under salt stress in relation to growth and ion accumulations as compared to seed and root stock propagated violet seedlings. This might be due to higher SA concentrations in direct regenerated seedlings which resulted from somaclonal variations or growth media applied during tissue culture technique. © 2010 Academic Journals.


Hussain K.,University of Gujrat | Nisar M.F.,University of Gujrat | Majeed A.,University of Gujrat | Nawaz K.,University of Gujrat | And 4 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Salt stress harmfully shocks agricultural yield throughout the world affecting production whether it is for subsistence or economic outcomes. The plant response to salinity consists of numerous processes that must function in coordination to alleviate both cellular hyper-osmolarity and ion disequilibrium. Salt tolerance and yield stability are complex genetic traits that are difficult to establish in crops since salt stress may occur as a catastrophic episode, be imposed continuously or intermittently and become gradually more severe at any stage during development. Molecular biology research has provided new insight into the plant response to salinity and identified genetic determinants that effect salt tolerance. Recent confirmation that many salt tolerance determinants are ubiquitous in plants has led to the use of genetic models, like Arabidopsis thaliana, to further dissect the plant salt stress response. Since many of the most fundamental salt tolerance determinants are those that mediate cellular ion homeostasis, this review will focus primarily on the functional essentiality of ion homeostasis mechanisms in plant salt tolerance. The transport systems that facilitate cellular capacity to utilize Na+ for osmotic adjustment and growth and the role of the Salt-Overly-Sensitive (SOS) signal transduction pathway in the regulation of ion homeostasis and salt tolerance will be particularly emphasized. The objective of the review is to know "What molecular mechanism is adopted by plants during salt stress tolerance?" A conclusion will be presented that integrates cellular based stress signaling and ion homeostasis mechanisms into a functional paradigm for whole plants and defines biotechnology strategies for enhancing salt tolerance of crops. © 2010 Academic Journals.


Nawaz K.,University of Gujrat | Hussain K.,University of Gujrat | Majeed A.,University of Gujrat | Khan F.,Lahore College for Women University | And 2 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Soil salinity affects various physiological and biochemical processes which result in reduced biomass production. This adverse effect of salt stress appears on whole plant level at almost all growth stages including germination, seedling, vegetative and maturity stages. However, tolerance to salt stress at different plant developmental stages varies from species to species. The plant response to salt stress consists of numerous processes that must function in coordination to alleviate both cellular hyperosmolarity and ion disequilibrium. Salt tolerance and yield stability are complex genetic traits that are difficult to establish in crops since salt stress may occur as a catastrophic episode, be imposed continuously or intermittently and become gradually more severe at any stage during development. The objective of this review is to summarize the morphological, physiological and biochemical aspects of plants under salt stress. It was then concluded that salt stress affects plant physiology at whole plant as well as cellular levels through osmotic and ionic adjustments that result in reduced biomass production. This adverse effect of salt stress appears on whole plant level at almost all growth stages including germination, seedling, vegetative and maturity stages. Despite causing osmotic and ionic stress, salinity causes ionic imbalances that may impair the selectivity of root membranes and induce potassium deficiency. © 2010 Academic Journals.


Rizwana S.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute | Hamed M.,Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology | Naheed A.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute | Afghan S.,Shakarganj Sugar Research Institute
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2011

Studies were undertaken on infestation of eight genotypes of rice against Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier.) under storage condition. The results were based on means of moth emergence, percent weight loss, percent damage and developmental period after the completion of first generation under controlled laboratory conditions. It was found that none of the varieties was completely immune to insect infestation. Rice variety Basmati-370 was found most resistant and Basmati-Pak and G-7 were most susceptible. The level of insect resistance was in the order: IRRI-6 ≥ G-6 ≥ Basmati-2000 ≥ PK-Basmati-385 ≥ Super Kernel Basmati. The correlation between number of moths emerged was positive and highly significant with percent weight loss (r=0.780) and percent damage (r=0.882). Insect susceptibility studies during post-harvest storage should be given due consideration in future rice breeding programmes. Copyright 2011 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

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