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Messripour M.,Islamic Azad University at Khorasgan | Mesripour A.,Shahre Kord University of Medical science
Biocell | Year: 2013

Tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase are key rate limiting enzymes in the biosynthesis of dopamine and serotonin, respectively. Since both enzymes are active in striatum, and affected by age, this study was undertaken to investigate interaction between dopamine and serotonin synthesis in brain striatal synaptosomes of aging rat. Male Wistar rats (3 and 30 month old) were killed by decapitation and brain striatal synaptosomes were prepared by discontinuous Ficoll/sucrose gradient technique. Synaptosomes were incubated in the presence of added pargiline (monoamineoxidase inhibitor), dopamine or serotonin synthesized during 25 min was measured by HPLC, employing electrochemical detection. Dopamine synthesis in synaptosomes prepared from young animals was markedly inhibited by addition of 5 μM serotonin concentrations (30%) and increasing serotonin concentrations up to 50 μM caused only a smaller additional inhibition. Dopamine synthesis in synaptosomes obtained from old rats was significantly lower than that of youg animals and addition of serotonin concentrations up to 50 μM had little effect on these preparations. In case of serotonin synthesis, exogenously added 5 μM dopamine inhibited serotonin synthesis in the synaptosomes of both ages by about 40%, whereas with higher concentration of dopamine (10-50 μM) the rate of inhibition was highly pronounced in old rats as compared to that of young animals. It is concluded that dopamine and serotonin interaction may be significant, and that these should be considered in long-term treatments of Parkinson's disease with L-DOPA.


PubMed | Islamic Azad University at Khorasgan, Shahre Kord University of Medical science and Arak University of Medical Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Research in pharmaceutical sciences | Year: 2015

Under pathophysiological conditions, infiltration of leukocyte plays a key role in the progression of the neuroinflammatory reaction in the CNS. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is known to accumulate at lesion sites of the post-ischemic brain. Although post-ischemic treatments with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors reduce blood-brain barrier (BBB) leukocyte infiltration, the direct effect of PGE2 on BBB has not been fully implemented. Therefore, the direct effect of increasing PGE2 infusion on translocation of labeled albumin into the brain was assessed. Under anesthesia rats were drilled stereo-taxicaly a burr hole in the right forebrain and PGE2 was infused into the forebrain and the hole was occluded. The animals were then injected with fluorescent labeled albumin (FA), via internal right jugular vein and decapitated at different infusion time points. The forebrain was removed and each forebrain hemisphere was homogenized and fluorescence intensities were measured in the supernatant. The fluorescence intensities measured in the right and left forebrain hemispheres of the control group (0.0 g PGE2) were almost identical. Four hours after infusion of PGE2 at doses higher than 250 g, fluorescence intensity increased in the right forebrain supernatant, even if it was not statistically significant. The fluorescence intensity was detectable in the brain supernatant 4 h after infusion of PGE2 in doses higher than 250 g PGE2. The highest fluorescence intensity was 16 h after infusion of 500 g PGE2, which returned to near control values after 48 h. Increased fluorescence intensity in the brain following PGE2 infusion is concluded to be associated with disruption of the BBB.


Nasri M.,Tarbiat Modares University | Karimi A.,Shahre Kord University of Medical science | Allahbakhshian Farsani M.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Cytotechnology | Year: 2014

Viral vectors are valuable tools to deliver genetic materials into cells. Vectors derived from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are being widely used for gene delivery, mainly because they are able to transduce both dividing and non-dividing cells which leads to stable and long term gene expression. In addition, these types of vectors are safe, with low toxicity, high stability and cell type specificity. Therefore, this work was aimed to produce lentivirus-based vector using a three-plasmid system. To produce this system, the eGFP marker gene was cloned into the plasmid pWPXLd. Subsequently, this vector plasmid, along with packaging plasmids, psPAX2 and envelope plasmid, pMD2.G, was co-transfected into packaging cell line (293T) using calcium phosphate method. 48 h post transfection, the constructed viral vector was harvested, purified and concentrated and stored at -80 °C for next experiments. The titration of the vector was carried out, using ELISA, flowcytometry, and fluorescent microscopy. Finally, transduction of HEK-293T, CHO, HepG2, MCF-7, MEFs and Jurkat cell lines was carried out with indicated cell numbers and multiplicities of infections of the vector in the presence of polybrene. Using this system, high titer lentivirus at titers of up to 2 × 108 transducing units/ml (TU/ml) was successfully generated and its transduction efficacy was improved by seven to over 20-fold in various cell types. We demonstrate the applicability of this vector for the efficient transduction of dividing and non-dividing cells, including HEK-293T, CHO, HepG2, MCF-7, MEFs and Jurkat cell line. Transduction efficiency yielded titers of (6.3 ± 1.2) 105 TU/ml. Furthermore, lentivirus transferred transgene was expressed at high level in the target cells and expression was followed until 90 days after transduction. Thus, the vector generated in this work, might be able to deliver the transgene into a wide range of mammalian cells. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Chaleshtori R.S.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Rokni N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Razavilar V.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Kopaei M.R.,Shahre Kord University of Medical science
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2013

Background: Food born pathogenic bacteria are the most important agents of infections in humans, and food spoilage also results in economic losses in food industry. Objectives: The aim of this study was the evaluation of chemical components, total phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Artemisia dracunculus essential oil. Materials and Methods: The essential oil of Tarragon was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were evaluated by bleaching of β-carotene and folin ciocalteu methods, respectively. The antibacterial effect of the essential oil was inspected on seven Gram- positive and negative bacteria using the microdilution method. Results: A total of 19 compounds were identified by GC-FID and GC-MS. The main compounds were methyl chavicol (84.83%), trans-ocimene (3.86%), z-β-ocimene (3.42%), limonene (1.79%) and α-pinene (0.57%). Total phenols were 10.16 ± 0.08 mg/g Gallic acid equivalent. The essential oil showed good antioxidant activity in bleaching of β-carotene method (50 ± 1.63%). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for essential oil ranged between 3.8 to 250 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The essential oil of Tarragon might be replaced by synthetic antioxidant and preservatives in food industry. © 2013, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences; Published by Kowsar Corp.


Sharafati-Chaleshtori R.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Sharafati-Chaleshtori F.,Shahre Kord University of Medical science | Karimi A.,Shahre Kord University of Medical science
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2010

Objective: One of the main routes of transmission of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is through food production. The antibiotics that are used to control diseases are transferred to human through food stuff such as meat, milk, fruit, fruit juices, water and lead to the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria to human populations. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of antibiotic resistance of staphylococcus strains isolated from orange and apple juices in Shahre-Kord, Iran. Methodology: This descriptive-sectional study was carried out on a total of 32 bacterial isolates of staphylococci (4 Staphylococcus aureus strains and 28 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains) isolated from 360 fruit juice samples tested in Shahre-kord. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using disc diffusion method and data were analyzed using fishers Z test. Results: Staphylococcus aureus showed 25% resistance to five antibiotics which included tetracycline, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin, erythromycin and methicillin. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most resistant bacteria to erythromycin. Twenty five percent of the Staphylococcus aureus strains and 64.28% of the Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were resistant to two or more than two of the antibiotics used in this study. Conclusions: The results showed that the vast majority of the bacterial isolates were resistant to one or more than one of the antibiotics studied. It is possible for bacterial resistance to result from food products like fruit juices. Therefore it is necessary to restrict the use of antibiotics and control the production, transportation of fruit juices.


Zamanzad B.,Shahre kord University of Medical science | Karimi A.,Shahre kord University of Medical science | Nafisi M.R.,Shahre kord University of Medical science | Shirzad H.,Shahre kord University of Medical science
Kuwait Medical Journal | Year: 2012

Objectives: To study the distribution of papG gene in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (E.coli) strains isolated from adult urinary tract infection (UTI) and the relationship between the different classes of papG gene and patients, sex, hospitalization and their clinical forms of UTI Design: Laboratory study Setting: Inpatient and outpatient settings with laboratory investigation Subjects and Methods: Genotyping of papG, the adhesin gene of E. coli P fimbriae, may predict clinical outcomes of UTI. A total of 182 urinary E.coli strains were analyzed by multiplex PCR method for detection of papG gene. Patients, sex, hospitalization and their clinical forms of UTI were also evaluated. Intervention: The distribution of papG gene in uropathogenic E.coli strains and the relationship between papG gene and clinical features of the patients Main Outcome Measures: Multiplex PCR method was performed for detection of papG gene in uropathogenic E.coli strains isolated from adult urinary tract infections Results: The prevalence of pap operon in the uropathogenic isolates was 36.2%. The prevalence of papG gene classes II and III in uropathogenic isolates was 23.1% and 6.6% respectively. None of the isolates had class I genotype. PapG classes II and III were predominant in patients with pyelonephritis and cystitis respectively. There was no significant relationship between the presence of papG alleles, sex and hospitalization of the patients. Conclusions: PapG gene is likely to play an important role in pathogenesis of uropathogenic strains of E.coli in adult nosocomial UTIs. Detection and genotyping of this gene may contribute to improving the management of UTI.


Hasheminia S.J.,Shahre Kord University of Medical science | Zarkesh-Esfahani S.H.,University of Isfahan | Tolouei S.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Shaygannejad V.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Iranian Journal of Immunology | Year: 2014

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a T cell mediated autoimmune disease with unknown etiology. Appropriate MS therapeutic strategies need thorough understanding of both disease etiology and pathogenesis mechanisms. Ligation of TLR-2 and TLR-4 stimulates the production of several cytokines leading to CNS autoimmunity and neurodegenerative diseases. Objective: To find a relationship between MS disability and TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression on mononuclear cells in the blood of MS patients. Methods: Forty-five new case (NC) MS patients (33 females and 12 males) and 45 age and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited to the study. PBMCs were prepared and the expressions of TLR-2 and TLR-4 were assessed by flowcytometry technique using appropriate monoclonal antibodies. Results: Our results showed that the expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 proteins in the patients group was significantly higher than that of healthy controls. TLR-2 but not TLR-4 was correlated with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores. Conclusion: High expressions of TLR-2 and TLR-4 may represent a state of innate immune activation in patients with MS. © 2014, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.


Karimi A.,Shahre Kord University of Medical science | Mokhtarian K.,Shahre Kord University of Medical science
Kuwait Medical Journal | Year: 2010

Objective: To evaluate the level of anti-HBs antibody among health care workers (HCWs) in a university hospital in Shahre-Kord, Iran, during 2008-2009. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Charmahal-Baktiari province, Iran. Subjects: Two hundred and fifty seven health care workers (HCWs) in a university hospital. Intervention: Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Main Outcome Measure: Seroprevalence of anti-HBsAg (IgG). Results: 85.6% of the individuals were female. Regardless of gender, 21 of the 257 (8.2%) HCWs lacked immunity, 91 of 257 (35.4%) were partially immune, and 145 (56.4%) exhibited immunity against the virus. The post-vaccination period was five years, in 221(86%) and more than five years in 36 of the 257 individuals studied (14%). There were more male non-responders (15%) than female (8%). There was a significant relationship between post-vaccination period and anti-HBsAg antibody titer (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Based on our results, the post-vaccination period of immunity to this virus in HCW workers is five years.


PubMed | Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, University of Isfahan and Shahre Kord University of Medical science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Iranian journal of allergy, asthma, and immunology | Year: 2015

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is characterized by multiple areas of inflammation, demyelination and neurodegeneration. Infiltrating Th1 CD4+ T cells secrete proinflammatory cytokines. They stimulate the release of some cytokines, expression of adhesion molecules and these cytokines may cause damage to the myelin sheath and axons. In this study, we analyzed plasma levels and gene expressions of five important cytokines in the new diagnosed MS Patients by ELISA and Real time PCR. PCR amplifications were performed to determine the IL-17, IL-23, IL-10, IL-27 and TGF- mRNA expression levels using the SYBR Green PCR Kit. Our results showed significant decrease in IL-10, IL-27 and TGF- but there was no significant difference in the IL-17 and IL-23 between patients and healthy controls. Altogether, our results indicated that dysregulation of cytokines, mainly increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased expression of inhibitory cytokines occurred in MS patients. This study may shed light to the probable role of these cytokines in neurodegeneration mechanism and current or future use of cytokines in managing and treatment of multiple sclerosis.


PubMed | Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shahre Kord University of Medical science
Type: | Journal: Advanced biomedical research | Year: 2016

Acute onset bulbar symptoms with respiratory failure and descending paralysis may occur in several neuromuscular disorders including variants of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), diphtheria, botulism and toxins. We present a 51-year-old man who presented with complains of ptosis and dyspnea following pyrethroids spraying in an enclosed area for eradication of flea. Within 5-6 days of admission limb weakness, dysphagia, dysarthria, blurred vision, diplopia, tremor and respiratory distress added to previous symptoms. Temporal profile of events after exposure, development of similar symptoms in patients son, electrodiagnostic findings and exclusion of other etiologies confirms intoxication etiology. We reviewed the literature and provide an extensive electrodiagnostic overview.

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