Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Tehran, Iran

Shahid Beheshti University of Medical science and Health Services University of Iran) is a large medical school and one of the two medical universities in northern Tehran, Iran.It began its mission in 1959 with establishing the Schools of Medicine and Dentistry. Following the merge of some of the treatment and educational units and organizations affiliated to the then Ministry of Health and “Melli University” in 1986, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical science began its activities independently. Wikipedia.

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Hassanzadeh P.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Hassanzadeh A.,Azad University
Psychopharmacology | Year: 2013

Rationale: Sesamol, a natural compound with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective properties, has shown promising antidepressant-like effects. However, its molecular target(s) have not been well defined, which merits further investigation. Objectives: Based on the interaction between the neurotrophin and endocannabinoid (eCB) systems and their contribution to emotional reactivity and antidepressant action, we aimed to investigate the involvement of nerve growth factor (NGF) and eCB signalling in the mechanism of action of sesamol. Methods: Following acute and 4-week intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of sesamol (40, 80 and 100 mg/kg), the classical antidepressant amitriptyline (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) or the benzodiazepine flurazepam (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), brain regional levels of NGF and eCB contents were quantified in rats by Bio-Rad protein assay and isotope-dilution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, respectively. In the case of any significant change, the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists (AM251 and SR144528) were administered i.p. 30 min prior to the injection of sesamol, amitriptyline or flurazepam. Results: Following the chronic treatment, sesamol, similar to amitriptyline, resulted in the sustained elevation of NGF and eCB contents in dose-dependent and brain region-specific fashion. Neither acute nor chronic treatment with flurazepam altered brain NGF or eCB contents. Pretreatment with 3 mg/kg AM251, but not SR144528, prevented the elevation of NGF protein levels. AM251 exerted no effect by itself. Conclusions: Sesamol, similar to amitriptyline, is able to affect brain NGF and eCB signalling under the regulatory drive of the CB1 receptors. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Khodagholi F.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Ashabi G.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2013

Herein, we investigated the effect Salvia sahendica (S. sahenica) extract, an endemic plant of Iran on the improvement of learning and memory deficits in amyloid beta-(Aβ) injected rats. In order to test this hypothesis, we pretreated rats with S. sahendica 1 week prior to Aβ injection, then performed Morris water maze test. Besides, we studied the molecular factors involved in neuronal plasticity and apoptosis such as Ca2+/cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), c-fos, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3. Moreover, we used Terminal-Transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) technique to detect apoptosis in the hippocampus of Aβ-injected rats. Results showed that S. sahendica could improve learning and memory in the behavioral test. The results of molecular section showed that CREB, c-fos and PGC-1α levels attenuated in the Aβ-injected rats in comparison with control group. These decreases were attenuated 58, 62, 57% respectively in S. sahendica-pretreated rats. This dietary supplementation could decrease apoptotic factors including caspase-3, PARP and TUNEL positive cells as well. Collectively, the present result from behavioral testing and biochemical analysis demonstrated that S. sahendica treatment for 1 week protected against apoptosis and memory deficits in Aβ-injected rats. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Rastmanesh R.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Chemico-Biological Interactions | Year: 2011

The relative proportion of Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes is decreased in obese people. This imbalance in gut microbiota generates signals controlling the expression of genes by the epithelial intestinal cells. Both dairy and non-dairy probiotics increase body weight, reportedly through Lactobacillus species growth in the gut. On the other hand, daily intake of some fruits and drinks such as three apples or three pears or grapefruit, or green tea, which all are rich in polyphenols, can significantly reduce body weight in obese people. Metabolism of polyphenols by microbiota involves the cleavage of glycosidic linkages. Glycans, which are the product of glycosidic cleavage, are necessary for survival of the intestinal microbiota as a nutrient foundation. There are two pivotal points: (i) Firmicutes possess a disproportionately smaller number of glycan-degrading enzymes than Bacteroidetes, (ii) Firmicutes are more repressed than the Bacteroidetes by phenolic compounds' antimicrobial properties. The Bacteroidetes community prevails following dietary polyphenol intake and its fermentation to phenolic compounds, due to having more glycan-degrading enzymes, so this may thus be a mechanism by which dietary polyphenols exert their weight lowering effect. I suggest that future studies utilize clone libraries and fingerprinting techniques enabling identification of the composition and community structure of the microbiota, and dot blot hybridization or fluorescent in situ hybridization to analyze abundance of particular taxa in obese and individuals. A supplementation with polyphenols with high bioavailability in obese individuals with higher Firmicutes/ Bacteroides community ratio phenotype, when associated to a probiotic restricted diet, is proposed for weight loss; this hypothesis could have relevant implication in planning a successful dietary regimen and/or neutraceutical/ pharmaceutical preparations for achieving and maintaining a normal body weight in obese individuals, especially including much more use of polyphenol-rich foodstuffs and/or polyphenol-rich syrups, and including low amounts of probiotic-rich foodstuffs like yogurt, soy yogurt, or as probiotic supplements. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Khaleghzadeh-Ahangar H.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Haghparast A.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2015

The limbic dopaminergic reward system is the main target of morphine-like drugs which begins from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and sends its dopaminergic projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Cannabinoid receptors exist in afferent neurons from these areas to the NAc and can modulate glutamate synaptic transmission in the NAc. Cannabinoids can interact with the opiate system in reward-related behaviors; nevertheless these systems' interaction in extinction duration and reinstatement has not been shown. In the present study, the effects of bilateral intra-accumbal administration of AM251, a CB1 receptor antagonist, on the duration of the extinction phase and reinstatement to morphine were investigated by conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Forty eight adult male albino Wistar rats were used. Bilateral intra-accumbal administration of AM251 (15, 45 and 90. μM/0.5. μl DMSO per side) was performed. Subcutaneous administration of morphine (5. mg/kg) in three consecutive days was used to induce CPP. The results showed that administration of the maximal dose of AM251 during the extinction period significantly reduces duration of extinction and reinstatement to morphine. Administration of the middle dose during the extinction period significantly attenuated reinstatement to morphine. A single microinjection of the middle dose just before the reinstatement phase significantly attenuated reinstatement to morphine only, while bilateral intra-accumbal administration of neither the lowest dose nor the vehicle (DMSO) had any effects. These results for the first time indicated that CB1 receptors within the NAc are involved in the maintenance of morphine rewarding properties, and morphine seeking behaviors in extinguished morphine-induced CPP rats. © 2015 Elsevier Inc..

Ghasemi R.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Dargahi L.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Ahmadiani A.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Pharmacological Research | Year: 2016

Sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite, plays an essential role in cellular homeostasis. It is well evidenced that enzymes responsible for S1P production, as well as S1P receptors are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), implying that S1P may contribute to CNS physiology. In current review, we will present the current knowledge about developmental and neuromodulatory functions of S1P in the brain. Considering neuroprotective effects of S1P, we also review the relation between S1P and cellular autophagy, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and apoptosis as well as molecular pathways underlying neuroprotective effects of S1P. Given these pivotal functions, in the last section, we will summarize latest findings about possible contribution of S1P dysregulation in neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hajiali H.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011

In this study, gelatin was blended with polyglycolic acid (PGA) at different ratios (0, 10, 30, and 50 wt%) and electrospun. The morphology and structure of the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical properties were also measured by the tensile test. Furthermore, for biocompatibility assessment, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells were cultured on these scaffolds, and cell attachment and viability were evaluated. PGA with 10 wt% gelatin enhanced the endothelial cells whilst PGA with 30 wt% gelatin increased smooth muscle cell adhesion, penetration, and viability compared with the other scaffold blends. Additionally, with the increase in gelatin content, the mechanical properties of the scaffolds were improved due to interaction between PGA and gelatin, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Incorporation of gelatin improves the biological and mechanical properties of PGA, making promising scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering.

Ghafouri-Fard S.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Immunotherapy | Year: 2012

Immunotherapeutic approaches have been gaining attention in the field of cancer treatment because of their possible ability to eradicate cancer cells as well as metastases by recruiting the host immune system. On the other hand, RNA-based therapeutics with the ability to silence expression of specific targets are currently under clinical investigation for various disorders including cancer. As the mechanisms of tumor evasion from the host immune system are versatile, different molecules have the capacity to be targeted by RNAi technology in order to enhance the immune response against tumors. This technology has been used to silence specific targets in tumor cells, as well as immune cells in cancer cell lines, animal models and clinical trials. siRNAs can also stimulate innate immune responses through activation of Tolllike receptors. Although currently clinical trials of the application of siRNA in cancer immunotherapy are few, it is predicted that in future this technology will be used broadly in cancer treatment. © 2012 Future Medicine Ltd.

Azizi F.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 h/day. Fasting includes avoidance of drinking liquids and eating foods. The aim of this article is to review health-related aspects of Ramadan fasting. Methods: Related abstracts from 1960 to 2009 were obtained from Medline and local journals in Islamic countries. One hundred and thirteen articles meeting the criteria for paper selection were reviewed in depth to identify details of related materials. Results: During the fasting days of Ramadan glucose homeostasis is maintained by meals taken before dawn and by liver glycogen stores. Changes in serum lipids are variable and depend on the quality and quantity of food consumption and changes in weight. Compliant, well-controlled type 2 diabetics may observe Ramadan fasting, but fasting is not recommended for type 1, noncompliant, poorly controlled and pregnant diabetics. There are no adverse effects of Ramadan fasting on the heart, lung, liver, kidney, eyes, hematologic profile, endocrine and neuropsychiatric functions. Conclusions: Although Ramadan fasting is safe for all healthy individuals, those with various diseases should consult their physicians and follow scientific recommendations. © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Azithromycin is a poorly water-soluble drug with a lower dissolution rate which resulted in poor bioavailability after oral administration. The aim of this study was to enhance Azithromycin dissolution by a solid dispersion (SD) using solvent evaporation and supercritical fluid based on solvent-anti-solvent technique. Solid dispersions of Azithromycin were prepared with various concentrations of PEG 6000, Sorbitol and Poloxamer 188, SLS (in ternary systems). All samples were studied for the drug solubility. The formulations were also characterized by IR, DSC, XRD and SEM. The solubility and dissolution rate were remarkably improved in case of most SDs prepared with of PEG 6000 (in binary systems, 1:6 ratio) and both surfactants (ternary systems) compared to the related PMs and pure Azithromycin. But the best result was obtained in the dispersion (Azithromycin:PEG 6000:SLS) with a weight ratio of (1:4:2). SAS-SCF processes were signs of less crystallinity of the drug due to the transformation of its crystalline stat into amorphous state. The analysis of dissolution data indicated that enhanced drug dissolution can be achieved where the SDs obtained in the supercritical fluid process was consisted of PEG 6000 and SLS. The dissolution rate and solubility of Azithromycin improved significantly with PEG 6000 and SLS utilizing SAS-supercritical fluid. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Adrangi S.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Faramarzi M.A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2013

Chitinases, the enzymes responsible for the biological degradation of chitin, are found in a wide range of organisms from bacteria to higher plants and animals. They participate in numerous physiological processes such as nutrition, parasitism, morphogenesis and immunity. Many organisms, in addition to chitinases, produce inactive chitinase-like lectins that despite lacking enzymatic activity are involved in several regulatory functions. Most known chitinases belong to families 18 and 19 of glycosyl hydrolases, however a few chitinases that belong to families 23 and 48 have also been identified in recent years. In this review, different aspects of chitinases and chi-lectins from bacteria, fungi, insects, plants and mammals are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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