Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Tehran, Iran

Shahid Beheshti University of Medical science and Health Services University of Iran) is a large medical school and one of the two medical universities in northern Tehran, Iran.It began its mission in 1959 with establishing the Schools of Medicine and Dentistry. Following the merge of some of the treatment and educational units and organizations affiliated to the then Ministry of Health and “Melli University” in 1986, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical science began its activities independently. Wikipedia.

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OBJECTIVES:: This study investigated the association between habitual consumption of allium vegetables (garlic and onion) and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes, hypertension (HTN), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS:: Adult men and women, participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006–2008 to 2012–2014), were recruited. Habitual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and during follow-up examinations. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate the development of CVD outcomes, HTN, CKD, and T2D in relation to allium vegetable intakes. RESULTS:: Mean age of participants (44.2% men) was 40.3?±?14.3 years, at baseline. During an average of 6 years of follow-up, the incidence rate of CVD outcomes, HTN, CKD, and T2D were 3.3, 15.5, 17.9, and 6.7%, respectively. A higher habitual intake of allium vegetables was associated with a 64% reduced risk of CVD outcomes (hazard ratio?=?0.36, 95% confidence interval, CI?=?0.18–0.71; P for trend?=?0.011), 32% lower incidence of CKD (hazard ratio?=?0.69, 95% CI?=?0.46–0.98; P for trend?=?0.11), and 26% decreased HTN development (hazard ratio?=?0.74, 95% CI?=?0.54–1.00; P for trend?=?0.06). No significant association was observed between allium vegetable intakes and the risk of T2D. Allium vegetable intake was related to 6 years’ changes of triglyceride levels (β?=?−0.81, P?=?0.01) and creatinine clearance (β?=?0.56, P?=?0.01). CONCLUSION:: Data of the current study support the available mechanistic findings regarding cardiorenal protective properties of allium vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Hajiali H.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011

In this study, gelatin was blended with polyglycolic acid (PGA) at different ratios (0, 10, 30, and 50 wt%) and electrospun. The morphology and structure of the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical properties were also measured by the tensile test. Furthermore, for biocompatibility assessment, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells were cultured on these scaffolds, and cell attachment and viability were evaluated. PGA with 10 wt% gelatin enhanced the endothelial cells whilst PGA with 30 wt% gelatin increased smooth muscle cell adhesion, penetration, and viability compared with the other scaffold blends. Additionally, with the increase in gelatin content, the mechanical properties of the scaffolds were improved due to interaction between PGA and gelatin, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Incorporation of gelatin improves the biological and mechanical properties of PGA, making promising scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering.

With advent of transcatheter aortic valve implantation, using multislice computed tomography (MSCT) to provide detailed data about aortic root has become more crucial. We compared aortic dimension changes during cardiac cycle in patients with and without aortic valve calcification and evaluated its correlation with aortic valve calcium score in former group. Fifty-two patients with and 52 subjects without aortic valve calcification underwent coronary MSCT using two 64-slice and a dual-source 256-slice CT scanners. Aortic root dimensions were measured in both systolic and diastolic phases. Changes in annular maximum diameter (D(max)), minimum diameter (D(min)), cross sectional area and perimeter, three diameters of sinuses of Valsalva (V(a), V(b) and V(c)), sinotubular junction maximum (STJ(max)) and minimum (STJ(min)) diameters between systolic and diastolic phases (systole minus diastole) were -0.59 mm, -0.05 mm, -2.53 mm(2), -1.48 mm, +0.91 mm, +1.08 mm, +0.42 mm, +0.63 mm, +0.40 mm and in those without aortic calcification -0.33 mm, 0.00 mm, -6.92 mm(2), -0.41 mm, +0.30 mm, +0.38 mm, +0.61 mm, +0.33 mm, +0.20 mm in patients with aortic calcification, respectively. Apart from two diameters in sinuses of Valsalva (V(a) and V(b)), changes in all other diameters of aortic root during cardiac cycle were not significantly different between the two groups. Furthermore, in patients with aortic calcification, no significant correlation was detected between changes in nearly all aortic root dimensions during cardiac cycle and aortic valve calcium score or location of calcification (annular, commissural or both).

Tavakolpour S.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2016

Pemphigus is a rare autoimmune disease, which could be fatal without treatment. Recently, target therapy is increasingly being used in different autoimmune diseases. However, there are limited studies associated with target therapy in pemphigus. In this study, it was tried to identify the role of interleukin (IL)-21 in patients with pemphigus. Based on the available studies on the role of IL-21 associated with several cells, including T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells, mast cells as well as regulatory B cells and regulatory T cells, the possible roles of this cytokine in pemphigus were discussed in detail. It was found that IL-21 is a crucial cytokine associated with pemphigus disease, which has not been discussed in this disease yet. It is able to promote T helper (Th) 2, Th17, T follicular helper (Tfh), CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), NK and NKT cells. It also causes the production of immunoglobulin (Ig)G in addition to the decrease of Tregs. All the mentioned alterations seem to be involved in disease progression via different signaling pathways. Inhibition of these changes must cause improvement of disease severity. By inhibition of IL-21 or its receptor, it is expected that patients with severe pemphigus experience relative and gradual improvement. This inhibition could be induced by tofacitinib, which was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis patients, or anti-IL-21 monoclonal antibody, NNC114-0006. However, more studies are needed to confirm it as a promising therapy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ghafouri-Fard S.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Immunotherapy | Year: 2012

Immunotherapeutic approaches have been gaining attention in the field of cancer treatment because of their possible ability to eradicate cancer cells as well as metastases by recruiting the host immune system. On the other hand, RNA-based therapeutics with the ability to silence expression of specific targets are currently under clinical investigation for various disorders including cancer. As the mechanisms of tumor evasion from the host immune system are versatile, different molecules have the capacity to be targeted by RNAi technology in order to enhance the immune response against tumors. This technology has been used to silence specific targets in tumor cells, as well as immune cells in cancer cell lines, animal models and clinical trials. siRNAs can also stimulate innate immune responses through activation of Tolllike receptors. Although currently clinical trials of the application of siRNA in cancer immunotherapy are few, it is predicted that in future this technology will be used broadly in cancer treatment. © 2012 Future Medicine Ltd.

Azizi F.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 h/day. Fasting includes avoidance of drinking liquids and eating foods. The aim of this article is to review health-related aspects of Ramadan fasting. Methods: Related abstracts from 1960 to 2009 were obtained from Medline and local journals in Islamic countries. One hundred and thirteen articles meeting the criteria for paper selection were reviewed in depth to identify details of related materials. Results: During the fasting days of Ramadan glucose homeostasis is maintained by meals taken before dawn and by liver glycogen stores. Changes in serum lipids are variable and depend on the quality and quantity of food consumption and changes in weight. Compliant, well-controlled type 2 diabetics may observe Ramadan fasting, but fasting is not recommended for type 1, noncompliant, poorly controlled and pregnant diabetics. There are no adverse effects of Ramadan fasting on the heart, lung, liver, kidney, eyes, hematologic profile, endocrine and neuropsychiatric functions. Conclusions: Although Ramadan fasting is safe for all healthy individuals, those with various diseases should consult their physicians and follow scientific recommendations. © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Khojasteh A.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants | Year: 2012

To assess the efficacy of a block tenting technique for reconstruction of vertical or horizontal alveolar ridge defects. Patients who underwent a block tenting graft technique between 2005 and 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Intraoral bone blocks (ramus, chin, or tuberosity) or allogeneic blocks were fixed at 4 mm from the deficient area, and the gap was filled with bone substitutes, with or without plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF). Implants were placed simultaneously or 4 to 5 months postgrafting. Patient demographic information, amount of width/height augmentation after 4 to 5 months of healing, complications, and contributing factors were gathered and analyzed. One hundred two patients were enrolled. Among the horizontal augmentations, the greatest width increase was achieved in the anterior maxilla (4.31±0.93 mm). The average height increase in the vertically augmented regions was greatest in the posterior maxilla (5.75±2.22 mm). Mean horizontal augmentation was the greatest with ramus (3.65±0.65 mm) and allogeneic materials (3.97±0.79 mm). The greatest vertical gain was achieved with tuberosity blocks (4.25±3.06 mm) and a combination of allogeneic/autogenous bone particles (3.90±1.05 mm). Application of PRGF showed no appreciable effect. The most common primary complications of surgery were hematoma and inflammation. The most common complication in the anterior maxilla was hematoma. Inflammation was the most common complication associated with ramus grafts, while hematoma occurred most often in cases with chin and tuberosity grafts. Total graft failure occurred in 13 patients, mainly associated with the allogeneic blocks. Most patients were followed for 11 to 38 months. Five of 237 inserted implants failed to osseointegrate. The block tenting technique might be effective for localized ridge augmentation and may reduce the amount of autograft required from donor sites.

Mokhtari S.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Diagnostic Pathology | Year: 2012

Cystic change in metastatic lymph nodes occurs in certain types of tumors and mostly in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. In the majority of cases, psuedocystic change is the mechanism of cyst formation. However, sometimes a true cyst cavity is formed. This occurrence is unexplained and some theories are introduced to explain it. In this paper, related articles and introduced concepts are reviewed and the best conclusions of present hypotheses are provided. Cystic SCC in cervical lymph node is now considered as a typical presentation of metastatic SCC arising in the oro/nasopharynx. True cystic cavities have eosinophilic fluid content and present active transport mechanism across the epithelium; Cytokeratin7 is also expressed in the lining of these cysts, which is an accepted marker of ductal differentiation. These are all strong evidences that show salivary gland type cells are present among tumor cells. In fact, some squamous cell carcinomas, especially those arising in Waldeyer's ring, originate from minor salivary glands. The other probability is that these tumors are cancers of transitional type and arise from transformed keratinocytes, which have intrinsic property for cyst formation. These malignant cells in lymph nodes, rather than primary sites, found the opportunity to express their parental property.Virtual slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:. © 2012 Mokhtari; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Azithromycin is a poorly water-soluble drug with a lower dissolution rate which resulted in poor bioavailability after oral administration. The aim of this study was to enhance Azithromycin dissolution by a solid dispersion (SD) using solvent evaporation and supercritical fluid based on solvent-anti-solvent technique. Solid dispersions of Azithromycin were prepared with various concentrations of PEG 6000, Sorbitol and Poloxamer 188, SLS (in ternary systems). All samples were studied for the drug solubility. The formulations were also characterized by IR, DSC, XRD and SEM. The solubility and dissolution rate were remarkably improved in case of most SDs prepared with of PEG 6000 (in binary systems, 1:6 ratio) and both surfactants (ternary systems) compared to the related PMs and pure Azithromycin. But the best result was obtained in the dispersion (Azithromycin:PEG 6000:SLS) with a weight ratio of (1:4:2). SAS-SCF processes were signs of less crystallinity of the drug due to the transformation of its crystalline stat into amorphous state. The analysis of dissolution data indicated that enhanced drug dissolution can be achieved where the SDs obtained in the supercritical fluid process was consisted of PEG 6000 and SLS. The dissolution rate and solubility of Azithromycin improved significantly with PEG 6000 and SLS utilizing SAS-supercritical fluid. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Adrangi S.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences | Faramarzi M.A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2013

Chitinases, the enzymes responsible for the biological degradation of chitin, are found in a wide range of organisms from bacteria to higher plants and animals. They participate in numerous physiological processes such as nutrition, parasitism, morphogenesis and immunity. Many organisms, in addition to chitinases, produce inactive chitinase-like lectins that despite lacking enzymatic activity are involved in several regulatory functions. Most known chitinases belong to families 18 and 19 of glycosyl hydrolases, however a few chitinases that belong to families 23 and 48 have also been identified in recent years. In this review, different aspects of chitinases and chi-lectins from bacteria, fungi, insects, plants and mammals are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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