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Roy G.C.,Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College
Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is frequently associated with CKD, which is important because individuals with CKD are more likely to die from CVD than to develop kidney failure. CVD in CKD is treatable and potentially preventable and CKD appears to be a risk factor for CVD. In order of incidence and frequency systemic hypertension, left ventricular failure, congestive cardiac failure, ischemic heart disease, anaemic heart failure, rhythm disturbances, pericarditis with or without effusion, cardiac tamponade, uraemic cardiomyopathy are various cardiovascular complications encountered in patients with chronic renal failure. A patient may present with one or more complications of cardiovascular system. The survival rate and prognosis to a great extent depends on proper management of these complications. Use of regular dialysis and renal transplant has changed the death pattern in developed countries but it is still a major problem in developing country. The aim of this article is early detection of CKD and proper management of it thereby preventing the major cardiovascular complications. Source

Barua U.K.,Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College
Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ

Pulmonary involvement is common in patients with portal hypertension and can manifest in diverse manners. Changes in pulmonary arterial resistance, manifesting either as the hepatopulmonary syndrome or portopulmonary hypertension (POPH), have been increasingly recognized in these patients in recent years. The prognosis in patients with liver disease who also suffer from significant POPH is considered to be poor. Higher degree of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) may preclude a patient from liver transplant as mortality in these patients is high. This review summarizes the clinicopathologic features, diagnostic criteria, as well as the latest concepts in the pathogenesis and management of POPH, which is defined as is a form of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with portal hypertension with or without underlying chronic liver disease. Source

Ashley E.A.,Mahidol University | Ashley E.A.,University of Oxford | Dhorda M.,University of Oxford | Dhorda M.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | And 106 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has emerged in Southeast Asia and now poses a threat to the control and elimination of malaria. Mapping the geographic extent of resistance is essential for planning containment and elimination strategies. METHODS: Between May 2011 and April 2013, we enrolled 1241 adults and children with acute, uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an open-label trial at 15 sites in 10 countries (7 in Asia and 3 in Africa). Patients received artesunate, administered orally at a daily dose of either 2 mg per kilogram of body weight per day or 4 mg per kilogram, for 3 days, followed by a standard 3-day course of artemisinin-based combination therapy. Parasite counts in peripheral-blood samples were measured every 6 hours, and the parasite clearance half-lives were determined. RESULTS: The median parasite clearance half-lives ranged from 1.9 hours in the Democratic Republic of Congo to 7.0 hours at the Thailand-Cambodia border. Slowly clearing infections (parasite clearance half-life >5 hours), strongly associated with single point mutations in the "propeller" region of the P. falciparum kelch protein gene on chromosome 13 (kelch13), were detected throughout mainland Southeast Asia from southern Vietnam to central Myanmar. The incidence of pretreatment and post-treatment gametocytemia was higher among patients with slow parasite clearance, suggesting greater potential for transmission. In western Cambodia, where artemisinin-based combination therapies are failing, the 6-day course of antimalarial therapy was associated with a cure rate of 97.7% (95% confidence interval, 90.9 to 99.4) at 42 days. CONCLUSIONS: Artemisinin resistance to P. falciparum, which is now prevalent across mainland Southeast Asia, is associated with mutations in kelch13. Prolonged courses of artemisinin-based combination therapies are currently efficacious in areas where standard 3-day treatments are failing. Copyright © 2014 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

Sarwar A.F.M.,Dhaka Dental College | Ahmad Sk.A.,National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine NIPSOM | Khan M.H.,National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine NIPSOM | Sayed M.H.S.U.,National Institute of Preventive and Social Medicine NIPSOM | Kabir Md.H.,Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College
Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin

This cross-sectional study was carried out in some selected arsenic contaminated rural areas of Bangladesh to determine any clinical changes in oral cavity, among the arsenic exposed population through drinking water. Total 600 respondents (200 arsenicosis patients, 200 non-patients but having the history of taking arsenic contaminated water and another 200 arsenic non-exposed). 75.5% of arsenicosis patients had swelled vallate papillae whereas only 44.5% and 8.5% in case of arsenic exposure and non-exposure subjects respectively. The differences were found statistically significant (p<0.001). This study suggests that there is a tendency of developing swelled vallate papillae among the arsenic exposed population. Source

Harris J.B.,Northumbria University | Faiz M.A.,Sir Salimullah Medical College | Rahman M.R.,Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College | Jalil M.M.A.,University of Dhaka | And 4 more authors.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

The demographics, epidemiology, first aid, clinical management, treatment and outcome of snake bites causing no significant signs of systemic envenoming were documented in Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh, between May 1999 and October 2002. Among 884 patients admitted, 350 were systemically envenomed and 534 were without signs of either systemic or significant local envenoming. The average age of patients with physical evidence of snake bite but no systemic envenoming was 26.4 years. Most had been bitten on their feet or hands. Ligatures had been applied proximal to the bite site in >95% of cases and the bite site had been incised in 13%. Patients were typically discharged at 24. h. Those with clinical signs of systemic envenoming resembled the non-envenomed cases demographically and epidemiologically except that they arrived at hospital significantly later than non-envenomed patients, having spent longer with traditional healers. No non-envenomed patient was treated with antivenom and none went on to develop symptoms of systemic envenoming after discharge. The potential complications and confusing signs caused by ligatures and incision demand that all patients admitted with a history of snake bite be kept under observation for 24. h after admission even if they have no signs of systemic envenoming. © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

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