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Khatwani N.R.,Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is defined as an ascitic fluid infection without an evident intra-abdominal surgically treatable source. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is one of the severe complications in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Without early antibiotic treatment, this complication is associated with high mortality rate, so early diagnosis and treatment of SBP is therefore necessary for survival. Leukocyte esterase dipstick test can rapidly diagnose the SBP. Objectives were to find out the diagnostic accuracy of leukocyte esterase dipstick test for the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. This cross-sectional, validation study was conducted from January 2009 to June 2009 at Medical Unit-II, Chandka Medical College Hospital Larkana. All the Patients with cirrhosis and ascites of either gender were included in this study. Paracentesis were performed on admission. The ascitic fluid obtained at bedside was immediately tested with reagent strip Multistix 10 SG. Ascitic fluid was then analysed for PMN cell count. The result of reagent strip was compared with ascitic fluid PMN cell count for determination of sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the test, while taking ascitic fluid PMN count > or = 250/mm3 as standard for diagnosis of SBP. Leukocyte esterase dipstick read positive from +1 to +3 reaction while negative and trace reaction regarded as negative test result. Total ninety four patients were enrolled in this study. Ninety-four Ascitic fluid samples were obtained. SBP was diagnosed in 52 (55.3%) patients, 42 (44.7%) patients were negative for SBP by manual cell count. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV of leukocyte esterase dipstick test to diagnose SBP were 92%, 95%, 96%, 90% respectively. The leukocyte esterase dipstick test can be used as rapid test for diagnosis of SBP due to its high diagnostic validity. Source

Kucukkolbasi S.,Selcuk University | Temur O.,Agriculture and Rural Development Support Institution | Kara H.,Selcuk University | Khaskheli A.R.,Selcuk University | Khaskheli A.R.,Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University
Food Analytical Methods

In this study, a novel approach has been developed using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) for the simultaneous determination of Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) in edible oils at hanging mercury drop electrode. The microwave digestion of oil samples was carried out with concentrated HNO3 and H2O2. KNO3 was used as a supporting electrolyte. The experimental conditions optimized such as deposition time, stirring rate and size of mercury drop were 300 s, 600 rpm and 10 mm2, respectively. The method was applied to quantify Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) in crude and refined hazelnut, corn, sunflower and olive oils. During refining of different vegetable oils, the removal efficiencies of Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) were calculated as 98.20-99.91, 98.50-99.90, 95.26-99.76 and 95.93-99.92 %, respectively. The limits of detection for Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) were 2.1 × 10-8, 8.7 × 10-10, 7.1 × 10-9 and 3.4 × 10-9 and the limits of quantification were 6.8 × 10-8, 2.9 × 10-9, 2.3 × 10-8 and 1.1 × 10-8 M with linear regression coefficients (R 2) of 0.9930, 0.9928, 0.9893 and 0.9931, respectively. It was observed that the above metals in crude and refined vegetable oils could be determined simultaneously by the DPASV method. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Kashif S.,Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University | Kashif M.A.,Frontier Medical College | Saeed A.,Frontier Medical College
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association

Objective: To determine the association of factor V Leiden mutation with recurrent pregnancy loss. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at the Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, fromJanuary to June 2012, and comprised women of 18 to 45 years of age who had a history of recurrent pregnancy loss, and controls with no history of pregnancy loss. All the subjects belonged to Punjabi ethnic group. Three ml blood was taken from cases and controls and deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted. In order to identify Factor V Leiden mutation, polymerase chain reaction method was utilised combined with the amplification refractory mutation system. Data was analysed using SPSS 17. Results: Of the 112 subjects, 56(50%) were in each of the two groups. The presence of factor V Leiden mutation among the cases was 3(5.4%) while it was absent among the controls. The mutation was significantly associated with recurrent pregnancy loss (p=0.017).Recurrent pregnancy loss was higher in cases than controls (p=0.001). Conclusion: Factor V Leiden mutation was significantly associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. It should be considered one of the causes of recurrent pregnancy loss. © 2015, Pakistan Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

Channa M.A.,Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC

Administration of quinolone therapy is controversial during growing age as stated by earlier authors. The flouroquinolones are currently not indicated for young children because of arthropathy and adverse effect as new born shown by studies. However the effects of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl2 on prenatal conceptus have remained undocumented. The present study was designed to compare the effects on conceptus after maternal ingestion of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl2 using Wastar albino rats. Ciprofloxacin and ZnCl2 was administrated to pregnant female albino rats. Ciprofloxacin with a dose of 20 mg/Kg bodyweight and ZnCl2 120 microg/100 gm bodyweight two times therapeutic dose for 10 days (from day 8-18 of pregnancy). Each animal was weighted on day 1, day 8 and day 18 of pregnancy. Abortion resulted on day 18th of pregnancy. Each group of pregnant animals were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation by over dose of either anaesthesia, abdomen opened, uterus and both cornua containing conceptus identified, removed, there weight recorded, crown rump length was measured and was compared with similar value of control animals. The results were statistically analysed to find out the significance. The ciprofloxacin induces a mordanting effect as obviated by increased basophilia. Our study reveals that ciprofloxacin administered in maternal, decreased maternal body weight to 38.4 +/- 0.9 gm. However simultaneous ZnCl2 maintained the body weight to 41.4 +/- 0.7 gm, while ZnCl2 increased the body weight to 46.5 +/- 2.25 gm. The body weight and Crown Rump length (CR Length) in conceptus decreased by 4.52 +/- 0.10 gm and 3.06 +/- 0.09 Cm respectively. That ciprofloxacin and ZnCl2 administration maintained the body weight and CR length by 5.46 +/- 0.09 gm and 3.79 +/- 0.13 Cm respectively. That ZnCl2 administration increased the body weight and CR length by 6.71 +/- 0.05 gm and 4.15 +/- 0.08 Cm respectively. Prenatal administration of Ciprofloxacin caused reduction in growth rate and CR length, and ZnCl2 maintained body weight and CR length and growth of the rat conceptus. Source

Shaikh A.W.,Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University | Shaheena,Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences

Objective: To study the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on indices of lipid profiles in maternal blood samples and compare them with normal pregnancies. Methodology: Blood samples were collected from 50 normal pregnant women and 46 women with GDM. Fasting blood sugar and hemoglobin A1c were estimated by colorimetry. Serum lipids and lipoproteins (Total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-Cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and HDLcholesterol) using automated clinical analyzer. Results: The results of the lipid profile showed no significant difference between GDM and controls. However HDL-cholesterol was significantly reduced in GDM group B (P<0.001). Conclusion: In gestational diabetes mellitus the lipid profile alters in such manner that could be atherogenic and possibly harmful to the fetus. Source

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