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Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University is a higher education institution, established in 2009 with a presidential order. which is located at Sharingal in the Upper Dir District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. Wikipedia.

Naseem R.,University for Information Science and Technology | Maqbool O.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Muhammad S.,Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University
Journal of Systems and Software

Clustering is a useful technique to group data entities. Many different algorithms have been proposed for software clustering. To combine the strengths of various algorithms, researchers have suggested the use of Consensus Based Techniques (CBTs), where more than one actors (e.g. algorithms) work together to achieve a common goal. Although the use of CBTs has been explored in various disciplines, no work has been done for modularizing software. In this paper, the main research question we investigate is whether the Cooperative Clustering Technique (CCT), a type of CBT, can improve software modularization results. The main contributions of this paper are as follows. First, we propose our CCT in which more than one similarity measure cooperates during the hierarchical clustering process. To this end, we present an analysis of well-known measures. Second, we present a cooperative clustering approach for two types of well-known agglomerative hierarchical software clustering algorithms, for binary as well as non-binary features. Third, to evaluate our proposed CCT, we conduct modularization experiments on five software systems. Our analysis identifies certain cases that reveal weaknesses of the individual similarity measures. The experimental results support our hypothesis that these weaknesses may be overcome by using more than one measure, as our CCT produces better modularization results for test systems in which these cases occur. We conclude that CCTs are capable of showing significant improvement over individual clustering algorithms for software modularization. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Shah A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Shahzad S.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Munir A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Nadagouda M.N.,Wright State University | And 4 more authors.
Chemical Reviews

Contaminated soil and water pose a serious threat to human health and ecosystem. For the treatment of industrial effluents or minimizing their detrimental effects, preventive and remedial approaches must be adopted prior to the occurrence of any severe environmental, health, or safety hazard. Conventional treatment methods of wastewater are insufficient, complicated, and expensive. Therefore, a method that could use environmentally friendly surfactants for the simultaneous removal of both organic and inorganic contaminants from wastewater is deemed a smart approach. Surfactants containing potential donor ligands can coordinate with metal ions, and thus such compounds can be used for the removal of toxic metals and organometallic compounds from aqueous systems. Surfactants form host-guest complexes with the hydrophobic contaminants of water and soil by a mechanism involving the encapsulation of hydrophobes into the self-assembled aggregates (micelles) of surfactants. However, because undefined amounts of surfactants may be released into the aqueous systems, attention must be paid to their own environmental risks as well. Moreover, surfactant remediation methods must be carefully analyzed in the laboratory before field implementation. The use of biosurfactants is the best choice for the removal of water toxins as such surfactants are associated with the characteristics of biodegradability, versatility, recovery, and reuse. This Review is focused on the currently employed surfactant-based soil and wastewater treatment technologies owing to their critical role in the implementation of certain solutions for controlling pollution level, which is necessary to protect human health and ensure the quality standard of the aquatic environment. © 2016 American Chemical Society. Source

Zia-Ul-Haq M.,European Patent office | Riaz M.,Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University | De Feo V.,University of Salerno | Jaafar H.Z.E.,University Putra Malaysia | Moga M.,Transilvania University of Brasov

Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food. © 2014 by the authors. Source

Bhutto A.M.,Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are widespread in Pakistan and have not been fully documented particularly in Sindh Province. The aim of this study is to determine the number and clinical pattern of various types of STIs in general population of Larkana division and its surrounding cities. A hospital based prospective study was carried out at Male-STD-Clinic in the Department of Dermatology, Shaheed Muhtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University Hospital Larkana from January 2000 to December 2009. Among 4,288 patients, 3,947 (92.04%) had the history of extra marital sexual contact and simultaneously had developed the clinical signs of STIs; 341 (7.95%) had history of extra marital sexual contact but did not have the manifestation of STIs. Majority of the patients (3,860, 90.01%) had the history of heterosexual contact with different partners, but only few 171 (3.98%) of them had the history of homosexual contact. According the syndromic diagnosis 1930 (45.00%) patients had genital ulcer (including herpes genitals) with or without skin manifestations, 690 (16.09%) had urethral discharge, 431 (10.05%) had genital warts, 349 (8.14%) had lesions other than STIs related, 304 (7.08%) had more than one syndrome, 193 (4.50%) had scrotal swelling, 46 (1.07%) had inguinal bubo, 3 (0.06%) were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive, and 1 (0.02%) had ophthalmia neonatorum. Based on the clinical and etiological grounds: 2560 (59.70%) had syphilis, 640 (14. 92%) had gonorrhoea, 399 (9.30%) had mixed infections, 40 (0.93%) had chancroid, 431 (10.05%) had genital warts, 40 (0.93%) had lymphogranuloma venerum (LGV) and granuloma inguinale (GI), 3 (0.06%) were HIV positive, 208 (4.85%) had genital herpes, 120 (2.79%) had orchitis, 56 (1.30%) had non gonococcal urethritis (chlamydia were 19), and 1 (0.02%) had ophthalmia neonatorum. Mode of transmission of STIs in this region is mainly by heterosexual contact and syphilis is the commonest followed by gonorrhoea. Source

Kwon K.S.,Kyungpook National University | Nayab S.,Kyungpook National University | Nayab S.,Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University | Jeong J.H.,Kyungpook National University

Two dichlorozinc complexes, (CIP)ZnCl2 and (CIPMe)ZnCl2 where CIP is (E)-1-(pyridin-2-yl)-N-(1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-ylidene)methanamine and CIPMe is (E)-1-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N-(1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-ylidene)methanamine, were synthesised and characterised using X-ray diffraction. The coordination geometry around the four-coordinated zinc centres in these mononuclear complexes could be best described as distorted tetrahedral. Diisopropoxide derivatives of these complexes, generated in situ, efficiently initiated the ring-opening polymerisation (ROP) of rac-lactide (rac-LA). These metal initiators showed a preference for heterotactic polylactide (PLA), with a Pr value of 0.80 at -25°C. ©2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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