Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University

www.sbbu.edu.pk
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University is a higher education institution, established in 2009 with a presidential order. which is located at Sharingal in the Upper Dir District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. Wikipedia.

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Rossello J.,University of the Balearic Islands | Waqas A.,University of the Balearic Islands | Waqas A.,Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University
Weather, Climate, and Society | Year: 2016

Last-minute decisions to take vacations overseas have become popular in recent years. Because of the reduction of the time between the booking and the trip (lead time), and because climate conditions are acknowledged to be key factors in tourism decisions, this study aims to investigate whether weather anomalies are becoming a new key determinant in tourism destination interest. Using data from Google Trends, different time series models are estimated analyzing whether potential tourists' interest in Majorca, a popular Mediterranean "sun, sea, and sand" destination, is determined by previous and contemporaneous weather conditions both at the destination and in two main tourist countries of origin, Germany and the United Kingdom. Results show how favorable weather conditions at the destination but also adverse weather conditions at the origin are significantly related to a higher interest in Majorca. © 2016 American Meteorological Society.


Kwon K.S.,Kyungpook National University | Nayab S.,Kyungpook National University | Nayab S.,Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University | Jeong J.H.,Kyungpook National University
Polyhedron | Year: 2015

Two dichlorozinc complexes, (CIP)ZnCl2 and (CIPMe)ZnCl2 where CIP is (E)-1-(pyridin-2-yl)-N-(1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-ylidene)methanamine and CIPMe is (E)-1-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N-(1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-ylidene)methanamine, were synthesised and characterised using X-ray diffraction. The coordination geometry around the four-coordinated zinc centres in these mononuclear complexes could be best described as distorted tetrahedral. Diisopropoxide derivatives of these complexes, generated in situ, efficiently initiated the ring-opening polymerisation (ROP) of rac-lactide (rac-LA). These metal initiators showed a preference for heterotactic polylactide (PLA), with a Pr value of 0.80 at -25°C. ©2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zia-Ul-Haq M.,European Patent office | Riaz M.,Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University | De Feo V.,University of Salerno | Jaafar H.Z.E.,University Putra Malaysia | Moga M.,Transilvania University of Brasov
Molecules | Year: 2014

Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food. © 2014 by the authors.


Naseem R.,University for Information Science and Technology | Maqbool O.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Muhammad S.,Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University
Journal of Systems and Software | Year: 2013

Clustering is a useful technique to group data entities. Many different algorithms have been proposed for software clustering. To combine the strengths of various algorithms, researchers have suggested the use of Consensus Based Techniques (CBTs), where more than one actors (e.g. algorithms) work together to achieve a common goal. Although the use of CBTs has been explored in various disciplines, no work has been done for modularizing software. In this paper, the main research question we investigate is whether the Cooperative Clustering Technique (CCT), a type of CBT, can improve software modularization results. The main contributions of this paper are as follows. First, we propose our CCT in which more than one similarity measure cooperates during the hierarchical clustering process. To this end, we present an analysis of well-known measures. Second, we present a cooperative clustering approach for two types of well-known agglomerative hierarchical software clustering algorithms, for binary as well as non-binary features. Third, to evaluate our proposed CCT, we conduct modularization experiments on five software systems. Our analysis identifies certain cases that reveal weaknesses of the individual similarity measures. The experimental results support our hypothesis that these weaknesses may be overcome by using more than one measure, as our CCT produces better modularization results for test systems in which these cases occur. We conclude that CCTs are capable of showing significant improvement over individual clustering algorithms for software modularization. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Hazrat A.,University of Malakand | Nisar M.,University of Malakand | Shah J.,Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University | Ahmad S.,Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

This article is based on the results of an ethno-botanical research of wild plants of Dir Kohistan Valley, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The main objective was to enlist the wealth of ethnobotanicaly important plants of the area. A total 40 species, belonging to 25 families of wild herbs, shrubs and trees were found to be used by the inhabitants in the valley for various diseases.


Shah A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Shahzad S.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Munir A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Nadagouda M.N.,Wright State University | And 4 more authors.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2016

Contaminated soil and water pose a serious threat to human health and ecosystem. For the treatment of industrial effluents or minimizing their detrimental effects, preventive and remedial approaches must be adopted prior to the occurrence of any severe environmental, health, or safety hazard. Conventional treatment methods of wastewater are insufficient, complicated, and expensive. Therefore, a method that could use environmentally friendly surfactants for the simultaneous removal of both organic and inorganic contaminants from wastewater is deemed a smart approach. Surfactants containing potential donor ligands can coordinate with metal ions, and thus such compounds can be used for the removal of toxic metals and organometallic compounds from aqueous systems. Surfactants form host-guest complexes with the hydrophobic contaminants of water and soil by a mechanism involving the encapsulation of hydrophobes into the self-assembled aggregates (micelles) of surfactants. However, because undefined amounts of surfactants may be released into the aqueous systems, attention must be paid to their own environmental risks as well. Moreover, surfactant remediation methods must be carefully analyzed in the laboratory before field implementation. The use of biosurfactants is the best choice for the removal of water toxins as such surfactants are associated with the characteristics of biodegradability, versatility, recovery, and reuse. This Review is focused on the currently employed surfactant-based soil and wastewater treatment technologies owing to their critical role in the implementation of certain solutions for controlling pollution level, which is necessary to protect human health and ensure the quality standard of the aquatic environment. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


Amin M.U.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Khurram M.,Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University | Khattak B.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Khan J.,Kohat University of Science and Technology
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: To determine the effect of flavonoids in conjunction with antibiotics in methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) a study was designed. The flavonoids included Rutin, Morin, Qurecetin while antibiotics included ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefixime, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, methicillin, cephradine, erythromycin, imipenem, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin and levolfloxacin. Test antibiotics were mostly found resistant with only Imipenem and Erythromycin found to be sensitive against 100 MRSA clinical isolates and S. aureus (ATCC 43300). The flavonoids were tested alone and also in different combinations with selected antibiotics. Methods: Antibiotics and flavonoids sensitivity assays were carried using disk diffusion method. The combinations found to be effective were sifted through MIC assays by broth macro dilution method. Exact MICs were determined using an incremental increase approach. Fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI) were determined to evaluate relationship between antibiotics and flavonoids is synergistic or additive. Potassium release was measured to determine the effect of antibiotic-flavonoids combinations on the cytoplasmic membrane of test bacteria. Results: Antibiotic and flavonoids screening assays indicated activity of flavanoids against test bacteria. The inhibitory zones increased when test flavonoids were combined with antibiotics facing resistance. MICs of test antibiotics and flavonoids reduced when they were combined. Quercetin was the most effective flavonoid (MIC 260μg/ml) while morin + rutin + quercetin combination proved most efficient with MIC of 280 + 280 + 140μg/ml. Quercetin + morin + rutin with amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephradine, ceftriaxone, imipenem, and methicillin showed synergism, while additive relationship was indicated between morin + rutin and amoxicillin, cephradine, ceftriaxone, imipenem, and methicillin. Quercetin alone had an additive effect with ampicillin, cephradine, ceftriaxone, imipenem, and methicillin. Potassium leakage was highest for morin + rutin + quercetin that improved further in combination with imipenem. Morin and rutin alone had no activity but in combination showed activity against test bacteria. Conclusions: The flavonoids when used in combination with antibiotics were found to increase each other activity against test bacteria. The relationship between the flavonoids and antibiotics in most of the cases was additive. However in a few cases synergism was also observed. Flavonoids alone or in combinations also damaged bacterial cell membrane. © Amin et al.


Bhutto A.M.,Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC | Year: 2011

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are widespread in Pakistan and have not been fully documented particularly in Sindh Province. The aim of this study is to determine the number and clinical pattern of various types of STIs in general population of Larkana division and its surrounding cities. A hospital based prospective study was carried out at Male-STD-Clinic in the Department of Dermatology, Shaheed Muhtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University Hospital Larkana from January 2000 to December 2009. Among 4,288 patients, 3,947 (92.04%) had the history of extra marital sexual contact and simultaneously had developed the clinical signs of STIs; 341 (7.95%) had history of extra marital sexual contact but did not have the manifestation of STIs. Majority of the patients (3,860, 90.01%) had the history of heterosexual contact with different partners, but only few 171 (3.98%) of them had the history of homosexual contact. According the syndromic diagnosis 1930 (45.00%) patients had genital ulcer (including herpes genitals) with or without skin manifestations, 690 (16.09%) had urethral discharge, 431 (10.05%) had genital warts, 349 (8.14%) had lesions other than STIs related, 304 (7.08%) had more than one syndrome, 193 (4.50%) had scrotal swelling, 46 (1.07%) had inguinal bubo, 3 (0.06%) were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive, and 1 (0.02%) had ophthalmia neonatorum. Based on the clinical and etiological grounds: 2560 (59.70%) had syphilis, 640 (14. 92%) had gonorrhoea, 399 (9.30%) had mixed infections, 40 (0.93%) had chancroid, 431 (10.05%) had genital warts, 40 (0.93%) had lymphogranuloma venerum (LGV) and granuloma inguinale (GI), 3 (0.06%) were HIV positive, 208 (4.85%) had genital herpes, 120 (2.79%) had orchitis, 56 (1.30%) had non gonococcal urethritis (chlamydia were 19), and 1 (0.02%) had ophthalmia neonatorum. Mode of transmission of STIs in this region is mainly by heterosexual contact and syphilis is the commonest followed by gonorrhoea.


Khan A.,Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University | Byer K.,Florida College | Khan S.R.,Florida College
Urology | Year: 2014

Objective To investigate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase activity in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and the production of reactive oxygen species on exposure to oxalate (Ox) or calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. Methods Monolayers of confluent Madin-Darby canine kidney cells were exposed to 100, 300, 500 μmol, 1 mmol Ox or 33, 66, 132 μg/cm2 CaOx crystals for 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, or 3 hours. After specified periods of exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals, lactate dehydrogenase release, trypan blue exclusion, activation of NADPH oxidase, and superoxide production were determined using standard procedures. The production of Nox4, a membrane associated subunit of the NADPH oxidase enzyme, was determined by western blot analysis. Results Exposure to Ox and CaOx crystals leads to time- and concentration-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase. Western blot analysis showed an increase in the production of Nox4. The production of superoxide also changed in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with maximum increases after 30-minute exposure to the highest concentrations of Ox and CaOx crystals. Longer exposures did not change the results or resulted in decreased activities. Exposure to higher concentrations also caused increased lactate dehydrogenase release and trypan blue exclusion indicating cell damage. Conclusion Results indicate that cells of the distal tubular origin are equipped with NADPH oxidase that is activated by exposures to Ox and CaOx crystals. Higher concentrations of both lead to cell injury, most probably through the increased reactive oxygen species production by the exposed cells. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Inc.


Hazrat A.,University of Malakand | Hazrat A.,Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University | Nisar M.,University of Malakand | Zaman S.,University of Malakand
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

The methanol extract of 16 species of medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity, using Agar well diffusion method. They were tested against 6 species of tested pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, crude extract and subsequent fractions demonstrated moderate to excellent antibacterial activities. Highest antibacterial activity was displayed by the methanol fraction showed good and significant activity in 10 species of medicinal plants.

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