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News Article | April 17, 2017

San Diego Symphony Guest Conductors and New Repertoire in 2017-2018 This season, San Diegans will have the opportunity to hear 11 guest conductors, six of whom are returning from last season: Johannes Debus, David Danzmayr, Fabien Gabel, Cristian Măcelaru, Markus Stenz and Edo de Waart. De Waart brings his decades-long experience to the orchestra, with whom he has developed a special relationship, and will open and close the season in programs featuring Wagner’s Prelude to Die Meistersinger with Strauss’ Ein Heldenleben and Bernstein’s Overture to Candide with Brahms Symphony No. 2. Returning for the first time since 1999 is conductor and pianist Jeffrey Kahane. Making their San Diego Symphony debut performances are: Jader Bignamini (resident conductor of the Orchestra Sinfonica la Verdi), Rafael Payare (chief conductor of the Ulster Orchestra) and Steve Schick (Distinguished Professor of Music at the University of California, San Diego and music director of the La Jolla Symphony and Chorus and artistic director of the San Francisco Contemporary Music Players). San Diego Symphony Conductor Laureate Jahja Ling will return for two weeks in the spring. Associate Conductor Sameer Patel, who will be making his Jacobs Masterworks Series debut, will also lead the orchestra in various programs throughout the season. San Diego Symphony chief executive officer, Martha Gilmer, stated, “In creating the Jacobs Masterworks season, we are looking to bring familiar works to life, as well as introduce new artists and new works to our audiences, not only to feed their curiosity, but also to enlighten and engage, and to earn their trust.” Fourteen classical works will receive their San Diego debut during the 2017-18 Season. In alphabetical order they include: BACEWICZ: Overture for Orchestra; BARBER: Music for a Scene from Shelley; BERNSTEIN: Symphony No. 1: Jeremiah; DEBUSSY: Iberia; DEBUSSY: Jeux; HAYDN: Symphony No. 103: Drum Roll; KODÁLY: Concerto for Orchestra; MAZZOLLI: River Rouge Transfiguration; WYNTON MARSALIS: Violin Concerto; RAMEAU: Selections from Les Indes Galantes; RESPIGHI: La Boutique fantasque: Suite; Adam SCHOENBERG: Violin Concerto (World Premiere); ROBERTO SIERRA: Con Madera, Metal y Cuero (Percussion Concerto); TAKEMITSU: From Me Flows What You Call Time; TCHAIKOVSKY: Sérénade mélancolique. Sure to excite audiences all season long are several young, highly acclaimed and accomplished musicians making their San Diego debuts. While these artists may be new to performing in San Diego, they represent the highest achievement in their field from around the globe. Guests include: Behzod Abduraimov, piano; Nicola Benedetti, violin; Jennifer Johnson Cano, mezzo-soprano; Martin Helmchen, piano; Aiyun Huang, percussion; Andrei Ioniţă, cello; Simone Lamsma, violin; Adam Lau, bass; George Li, piano; Christina and Michelle Naughton, duo piano; and Audra McDonald, actress and singer. The San Diego Symphony is proud to be presenting the world premiere of Adam Schoenberg’s violin concerto, commissioned by violinist Anne Akiko Meyers, who will be performing the work in February. Schoenberg (no relation to composer Arnold Schoenberg) is considered one of the leading composers working today, and was recently named one of the top 10 most performed living classical composers by orchestras in the U.S. He is also an accomplished and versatile film composer, scoring two feature-length films and several shorts. His work was last performed by the San Diego Symphony as part of the 2015 – 2016 season. The season features several major piano concertos and brings to San Diego returning and debuting artists, including Jean-Yves Thibaudet, who opens the season, performing Liszt’s Piano Concerto No. 2. In November pianist Louis Lortie performs Ravel’s G Major Concerto, and 21 year-old pianist George Li performs Chopin’s Piano Concerto No. 1. Pinchas Zukerman returns February 2 and 3 conducting and performing as violin soloist in two works by Tchaikovsky. Andrei Ioniţă, a Romanian cellist who won the 1st prize in the 2015 International Tchaikovsky competition, performs the Elgar Cello Concerto, a cornerstone of the solo cello repertoire. In April, Behzod Abduraimov will perform one of the most famous concertos: Rachmaninoff’s Piano Concerto No. 3, hailed by most as one of the most technically challenging piano concertos in the classical repertoire. “Our vision programmatically is to ensure the San Diego Symphony is presenting fresh and new talent that will excite our audiences,” said Gilmer. “It’s thrilling to get to know so many young and gifted musicians who are making an impact internationally. We look forward to presenting these exceptional artists in a variety of programs to the San Diego community throughout 2017-18.” It’s About Time: A Festival of Rhythm. Sound. And Place. In January 2018, the San Diego Symphony will explore the world of percussion in a month-long celebration of rhythm, sound and place curated by UCSD professor and famed percussionist, Steve Schick. “Steve is a force of nature. His curiosity, energy and vision is breathtaking and I could not be more excited that he has infused this festival with his tremendous ideas,” stated Gilmer. Schick will also be making his conducting debut. It’s About Time: A Festival of Rhythm. Sound. And Place. starts on January 13, 2018 with Puerto Rico-born American composer Roberto Sierra’s percussion concerto, Con Madera, Metal, y Cuero, a Caribbean mash-up of rhythm and energy in which festival curator Steve Schick will perform on an array of percussion instruments stretching across the front of the stage. Audiences will have a chance to admire the excellent percussion section of the San Diego Symphony on full display in Rimsky-Korsakov’s lively Capriccio espagnol. The festival will culminate on the stage of Copley Symphony Hall with a rare performance of Toru Takemitsu’s glorious From me flows what you call Time, for five solo percussionists and large orchestra—an essay of transcendental beauty, featuring percussion instruments from five continents. The festival will move beyond the confines of the concert hall in an outdoor performance of John Luther Adams’s Inuksuit, for a US/Mexican bi-national percussion group of more than 50 players. Three “Percussion Love Fests,” hosted at Bread & Salt, will showcase a display of local percussion talent, local rising stars and established legends, from jazz and rock drummers to Brazilian, African and Latin percussionists. For an immersive, “surround-sound” experience, audiences will be offered a rare performance of Michael Pisaro’s A Wave and Waves. One hundred percussionists will rustle, gently scrape, bow or drop rice upon a menagerie of percussion instruments to create a 70-minute sonic environment. More festival events will be announced including drop-in concerts, informal conversations, hands-on experiments, and up-close encounters with artists throughout the month. In addition to the formal programming being offered in concerts throughout the festival, emphasis will be placed on community engagement activities that celebrate percussion throughout San Diego. The San Diego Symphony looks forward to exploring both the diversity and similarity of this instrument family through drum circles, craft workshops, and performances in community venues. Beyond The Score® is a program of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra that began in 2004 as an audience development initiative. The format is that of a live documentary, with the first half of the performance including a narrative that explores a single piece of a composer’s music. Through the words of the composer and his contemporaries, the narrative behind and around the music evolves. Actors and projected images combine with musical examples performed by the orchestra. The first Beyond The Score®, on February 9, 2018, features Rachmaninov’s Isle of the Dead conducted by Associate Conductor Sameer Patel. The second performance on April 15, is Mozart’s Piano Concerto No. 27, K. 595 with Jeffrey Kahane as both conductor and piano soloist. Beyond The Score® has more than 30 titles in its library with these productions being performed by orchestras nationally and internationally. The extremely popular and successful Jazz @ The Jacobs returns with Gilbert Castellanos continuing in his role as series curator. From November through April, the five-concert series features a new and exciting lineup of programs and guest artists. The season opens with a tribute to the First Lady of Song, Ella Fitzgerald, in her Centennial year and features her favorite accompanist in her later years, pianist Mike Wofford. In January it’s The Roots of Rhythm followed in February with Affinity: A Ray Brown and Oscar Peterson Tribute. Jazz @ The Jacobs Series Curator Gilbert Castellanos closes out the series presenting a live performance of every track of Miles Davis’ Kind of Blue in collaboration with some of today’s hottest young jazz artists. Continuing its great success as a dedicated film series, the Fox Theatre Film Series for the 2017-18 season enters its second year of a four-year project in which the San Diego Symphony, as part of a national network of orchestras, will screen all eight Harry Potter films. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban – will be shown on the big screen while the San Diego Symphony performs the John Williams’ film score live on stage. Harry Potter is one of those once-in-a-lifetime cultural phenomena that continue to delight millions of fans around the world. This series kicks off with Ratatouille and also includes the classic Christmas movie It’s A Wonderful Life. Two silent films will be shown during the season as well: The Passion of Joan of Arc with small chamber music accompaniment in the spring and concluding the series in May, Metropolis, accompanied by Russ Peck on the Fox Theatre Pipe Organ. The Family Concerts are the perfect way to introduce children (and their parents) to symphonic music through an engaging and enlightening program that often features a guest artist or narrator. The concerts include activities prior to the start of the performance, which give children the chance to see some of the instruments up close and to perhaps even try making their own music. This season’s Family concerts run the gamut from 1001 Symphonic Tales, Rimsky-Korsakov’s adventure-filled masterpiece Scheherazade to Tchaikovsky Deconstructed, where with the help of actors from San Diego Junior Theatre we’ll discover how this Russian composer built a masterpiece – the famous 1812 Overture. There is also the Family holiday concert, Noel Noel, featuring timeless holiday classics. Family concerts are one hour—designed to engage the attention of the youngest concertgoers. For those looking to enhance the Jacobs Masterworks concert-going experience, San Diego Symphony offers “What’s The Score?”, a 20-minute, pre-concert lecture to enlighten and illuminate audiences about the evening’s program. Our resident classical music commentator, Nuvi Mehta, offers a fascinating look into the meaning of the music and the motivation of the composer—all the highs, lows, drama and intrigue. In addition to the genius and personalities of the individual composers, Mehta often discusses the social, economic and political forces of the day that contributed to how and why a piece of music was written. The popular music series City Lights makes a triumphant return with appearances by The Manhattan Transfer, Louisiana soul-rocker Marc Broussaurd and Friends, our annual Noel Noel holiday celebration, and a special appearance by Broadway’s fabulous Audra McDonald with the San Diego Symphony. This season the San Diego Symphony is introducing three new mini-subscription options. Classical Subscription Package pricing ranges from $72 - $1,344. On sale:      Subscriptions on sale: Sunday, April 9, 2017      Single tickets on sale for 2017-18: Sunday, August 20, 2017 SAT NOV 11 | SUN NOV 12 FABULOUS FRANCE Johannes Debus, conductor Louis Lortie, piano RAMEAU: Selections from Les Indes Galantes RAVEL: Piano Concerto in G Major FAURÉ: Suite from Pelléas et Mélisande DEBUSSY: Iberia FRI DEC 1 | SAT DEC 2 CHOPIN AND DVOŘÁK David Danzmayr, conductor George Li, piano BACEWICZ: Overture for Orchestra CHOPIN: Piano Concerto No. 1 DVOŘÁK: Symphony No. 8 SAT DEC 9 | SUN DEC 10 WINTER DAYDREAMS Johannes Debus, conductor Rose Lombardo, flute Julie Phillips, harp HUMPERDINCK: Prelude to Hansel and Gretel MOZART: Concerto for Flute and Harp TCHAIKOVSKY: Symphony No. 1: Winter Daydreams SAT JAN 20 | SUN JAN 21 PLACES IN TIME Jader Bignamini, conductor ROSSINI: Overture to William Tell MARTUCCI: Notturno RIMSKY-KORSAKOV: Capriccio espagnole RESPIGHI: La Boutique fantasque: Suite RESPIGHI: Pines of Rome FRI JAN 26 | SUN JAN 28 STORIES IN TIME Steven Schick, conductor Aiyun Huang, percussion Percussionists of the San Diego Symphony RAVEL: Mother Goose Suite TAKEMITSU: From me flows what you call Time MAZZOLLI: River Rouge Transfiguration BARTÓK: Miraculous Mandarin Suite FRI FEB 2 | SAT FEB 3 ZUKERMAN PLAYS TCHAIKOVSKY Pinchas Zukerman, conductor/violin TCHAIKOVSKY: "Melodie" from Souvenir d'un lieu cher TCHAIKOVSKY: Sérénade mélancolique TCHAIKOVSKY: Serenade for Strings MENDELSSOHN: Symphony No. 4: Italian FRI FEB 9 BEYOND THE SCORE: ISLE OF THE DEAD Sameer Patel, conductor RACHMANINOFF: Isle of the Dead *Beyond The Score* FRI MAR 9 | SUN MAR 11 BACH AND MAHLER Edo de Waart, conductor; Jeff Thayer, violin BACH: Violin Concerto in A minor MAHLER: Symphony No. 1 FRI APR 13 | SAT APR 14 JEFFREY KAHANE PLAYS MOZART Jeffrey Kahane, conductor/piano MOZART: Piano Concerto No. 27, K. 595 BARBER: Music for a Scene from Shelley SCHUMANN: Symphony No. 3: Rhenish SUN APR 15 BEYOND THE SCORE: MOZART’S PIANO CONCERTO NO. 27 Jeffrey Kahane, conductor/piano MOZART: Piano Concerto No. 27, K. 595 *Beyond The Score* FRI APR 20 | SAT APR 21 | SUN APR 22 RACH 3 Jahja Ling, conductor Behzod Abduraimov, piano BERNSTEIN: "Times Square Ballet" from On the Town RACHMANINOFF: Piano Concerto No. 3 SHOSTAKOVICH: Symphony No. 5 FRI MAY 4 | SUN MAY 6 DANCES, SUITES AND SERENADES Fabien Gabel, conductor; Simone Lamsma, violin BERNSTEIN: Three Dance Variations from Fancy Free BERNSTEIN: Serenade for Violin and Orchestra R. STRAUSS: Suite from Der Rosenkavalier OFFENBACH: Suite from Gaîté Parisienne FRI MAY 11 | SAT MAY 12 | SUN MAY 13 BARBER, BERNSTEIN, BEETHOVEN Jahja Ling, conductor Kelley O'Connor, mezzo-soprano Martin Helmchen, piano BARBER: Adagio for Strings BERNSTEIN: Symphony No. 1: Jeremiah BEETHOVEN: Piano Concerto No. 5: Emperor FRI MAY 25 | SAT MAY 26 | SUN MAY 27 SEASON FINALE WITH EDO DE WAART Edo de Waart, conductor Christina and Michelle Naughton, duo piano BERNSTEIN: Overture to Candide POULENC: Concerto for Two Pianos BRAHMS: Symphony No. 2 SAT | NOV 25 | 8pm THE FIRST LADY OF SONG: AN ELLA FITZGERALD TRIBUTE The Great American Songbook had few interpreters with more grace, style and vocal excellence than the wonderful Ella Fitzgerald. The Jazz @ The Jacobs season opens with a tribute to the First Lady of Song in her Centennial year and features her favorite accompanist in her later years, pianist Mike Wofford. SAT | JAN 27 | 8pm THE ROOTS OF RHYTHM As part of the January “It’s About Time” festival, this concert will explore the origins and evolution of the various rhythmic styles that made their way from all over the world to America, becoming part of the modern jazz idiom. John Santos, one of the foremost exponents of Afro-Latin music in the world today (as both musician and historian), will survey jazz’s “root system” by way of his remarkable personal collection of percussion instruments in performance with several special guests. SAT | FEB 24 | 8pm AFFINITY: A RAY BROWN AND OSCAR PETERSON TRIBUTE From 1951 to 1966, bassist Ray Brown and pianist Oscar Peterson were partners in the Oscar Peterson Trio, recording some of the most exciting and beloved jazz music of that era. This concert catches the spirit of this famous and fruitful collaboration with some of today’s finest keyboard and string bass artists. Our special guest will be bassist John Clayton, considered Ray Brown’s main protégé and legacy-keeper, who performs on Mr. Brown’s bass. SAT | MAR 24 | 8pm JAZZ @ THE JACOBS SPECIAL: CHICK COREA WITH THE JAZZ AT LINCOLN CENTER ORCHESTRA One of the major jazz piano voices of the last fifty years, Chick Corea, comes to Copley Symphony Hall with the world-famous Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra in a one-night-only special concert. From his avant garde early work with Miles Davis to later explorations of free jazz, jazz fusion and contemporary classical music, Chick Corea remains at the cutting edge of the art form. SAT | APR 28 | 8pm KIND OF BLUE – IN CONCERT Miles Davis released his classic Kind of Blue album in 1959; it subsequently became one of the best-selling jazz albums of all time and changed the possibilities of jazz forever. Jazz @ The Jacobs Series Curator Gilbert Castellanos will present a live performance of every track of Kind of Blue in collaboration with some of today’s hottest young jazz artists. SAT | NOV 4 | 8pm (SPECIAL) DAY OF THE DEAD CONCERT WITH EUGENIA LEÓN* *San Diego Symphony musician do not appear in these performances SUN | OCT 15 | 2pm 1001 SYMPHONIC TALES Sameer Patel, conductor Every story is better with music! Come dive into the wonder of Rimsky-Korsakov’s adventure-filled masterpiece Scheherazade and discover how a composer can conjure exotic worlds using just a few magical musical seeds. SUN | DEC 17 | 2pm NOEL NOEL – A FAMILY CONCERT Sameer Patel, conductor Who doesn’t love holiday music? Gathering together as a family, listening to timeless classics and singing along to your favorite carols is a traditional everyone enjoys! In one short afternoon concert, you’ll see and hear the Symphony…and maybe even a certain jolly North Pole resident! SUN | FEB 25 | 2pm BEAT QUEST! A Musical Journey through Rhythm, Time and Place Sameer Patel, conductor Music is a passport that can take our imagination to a certain time and place. From swingin’ jazz, to the Habanera from Carmen, to Beethoven’s symphonies, we’ll explore how these beats came to be, and how distinctive rhythms transport us to cities like Vienna, Seville and New Orleans. SUN | MAR 25 | 2pm TCHAIKOVSKY DECONSTRUCTED Sameer Patel, conductor Melodies. Cannons. Fireworks. Lots of people recognize the famous 1812 Overture, but few know the story behind it. What inspired Tchaikovsky to write this piece? With the help of actors from San Diego Junior Theatre, we’ll look at the creative process, take this piece apart and put it back together to discover how this Russian composer built a masterpiece for all time. SAT | OCT 28 | 8pm Ratatouille For the first time ever, Disney and Pixar release their Academy Award winning film Ratatouille in high-definition on the big screen while the beloved score by composer Michael Giacchino is performed live by symphony orchestra. SUN | DEC 3 | 2pm It’s A Wonderful Life Experience one of the most cherished holiday movies of all time like you’ve never seen it before: It’s a Wonderful Life — in Concert. You know the story: struggling Bedford Falls hero George Bailey discovers, through the timely intervention of his Guardian Angel Clarence on Christmas Eve, that he’s the “richest man in town.” Now this timeless classic will be accompanied by the San Diego Symphony performing Dmitri Tiomkin’s richly sentimental score LIVE. FRI | FEB 16 | 8pm (subscriber night) SUN | FEB 18 | 2pm Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban™ Relive the magic of your favorite wizard in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban™ — in Concert. Based on the third installment of J.K. Rowling’s classic saga, fans of all ages can now experience the thrilling tale accompanied by the music of a live symphony orchestra as Harry soars across the big screen. Get ready to encounter a Dementor™, ride the Knight Bus™ and discover just who Sirius Black™ really is! HARRY POTTER, characters, names and related indicia are © & ™ Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. J.K. ROWLING'S WIZARDING WORLD™ J.K. Rowling and Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. Publishing Rights © JKR. (s17) SAT | MAR 17 | 8pm Metropolis (1927): Silent Film with Organ Accompaniment German expressionist director Fritz Lang’s colossal Silent Era sci-fi masterpiece Metropolis is more timely than ever, with its depiction of class struggle and the dangers of society’s servitude to technology. Organist Russ Peck accompanies this involving, dramatic work on the mighty Fox Theatre Pipe Organ. Film is free for Fox Theatre Film Series Subscribers. SAT | MAY 19 | 8pm The Passion of Joan of Arc (1928): Silent Film with Ensemble Accompaniment Carl Theodor Dreyer’s The Passion of Joan of Arc is often cited as one of the most remarkable films ever made. Its series of mesmerizing close-ups and the yearning, hypnotic performance of Renée Jeanne Falconetti as Joan are simply unforgettable. The film’s sense of religious transcendence will be heightened by a unique collaboration with San Diego art music collective Luscious Noise, who will perform John Luther Adams’ stunning In the White Silence live as the film plays. Film is free for Fox Theatre Film Series Subscribers. SUN | OCT 8 | 2pm – JACOBS MUSIC CENTER JEAN-YVES THIBAUDET Jean-Yves Thibaudet, piano Enjoy an afternoon of pure Parisian style as pianist Jean-Yves Thibaudet completes his opening weekend visit with this Chamber Music Series concert inside Copley Symphony Hall. TUE | NOV 28 | 7:30pm – TSRI CHRISTOPHER O’RILEY: SHUFFLE. PLAY. LISTEN. Christopher O’Riley, piano As the longtime host of NPR’s hugely popular From the Top series, Christopher O’Riley has stayed close to the freshest ideas and performances of today’s classical music world. His highly acclaimed recordings have featured works by everyone from Stravinsky and Piazzolla to Radiohead and Elliot Smith. WED | DEC 20 | 7:30pm – JACOBS MUSIC CENTER FANFARES AND CELEBRATIONS As the heart of the holiday season approaches, the San Diego Symphony Orchestra will perform music with that special festive sparkle. TUE | JAN 16 | 7:30pm – JACOBS MUSIC CENTER A LISTENER’S GUIDE Part of the “It’s About Time” festival, this concert will feature music that emphasizes touch, rhythm and the many intriguing sound textures available to our talented battery of San Diego Symphony percussion musicians. TUE | FEB 13 | 7:30pm – TSRI THE WORLD OF WU MAN Wu Man, pipa She chooses to live in San Diego County (lucky us!), but Wu Man’s fame and influence span the globe, with her numerous performances and commissions for her unique string instrument, the pipa, as well as her prominent participation in Yo-Yo Ma’s transcendent Silk Road Project as one of its founding members. TUE | MAR 6 | 7:30pm – TSRI J.S. BACH AND FRIENDS Musicians of the San Diego Symphony invite you to an intimate evening at the Auditorium of TSRI featuring the sublime music of Johann Sebastian Bach and his contemporaries. TUE | APR 10 | 7:30pm – TSRI ANDREI IONIȚĂ, ROMANIAN RHAPSODIST Andrei Ioniță, cello Andrei Ioniță is an emerging young cellist from Romania who won First Prize at the International Tchaikovsky Competition in Moscow in June 2015. He recently made his debut with the Berlin Philharmonic and has been engaged regularly by Valery Gergiev. TUE | MAY 8 | 7:30pm – JACOBS MUSIC CENTER BERNSTEIN AND BEETHOVEN WITH ORLI SHAHAM Orli Shaham, piano Pianist Orli Shaham, who has been acclaimed for her flawless technique, reflective grace and subtlety of touch, returns to the Chamber Music Series for our season finale, part of our month-long Bernstein Centennial celebration. *San Diego Symphony musicians appear on each Chamber Music Program. About the San Diego Symphony Founded in 1910, the San Diego Symphony is the oldest orchestra in California and one of the largest and most significant cultural organizations in San Diego. The Orchestra performs for over 250,000 people each season, offering a wide variety of programming at its two much loved venues, Copley Symphony Hall in downtown San Diego and the Embarcadero Marina Park South on San Diego Bay. The orchestra’s 81 full-time musicians, graduates of the finest and most celebrated music schools in the United States and abroad, also serve as the orchestra for the San Diego Opera each season, as well as performing at several regional performing arts centers. For over 30 years, the San Diego Symphony has provided comprehensive music education and community engagement programs reaching more than 65,000 students annually and bringing innovative programming to San Diego’s diverse neighborhoods and schools. For more information, visit

Bernstein N.,Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences | Shushan S.,Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences | Shargil D.,Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences | Perzelan Y.,Institute of Postharvest and Food Science | And 10 more authors.
Israel Journal of Plant Sciences | Year: 2017

Eucalyptus silver dollar (Eucalyptus cinerea) is cultivated under intensive agronomic practices for production of cut foliage branches for the floriculture industry. A range of damage symptoms, suspected to be related to unoptimized mineral nutrition, routinely occur in the leaves at the production plantations and reduce yield quality. No information is available about the nutritional requirements of Eucalyptus silver dollar, or of any other Eucalyptus species under intense cultivation for cut foliage branches production. In this study we evaluated the hypotheses that: (1) leaf damage symptoms in the Eucalyptus silver dollar plantations might be related to the nutritional status of the leaves; and (2) they are affected by environmental and growing conditions, and will therefore differ between seasons and location of the plantations. To test these hypotheses we studied the seasonal and location variations in the ionomics of damaged and healthy leaves, physiological parameters, and postharvest attributes of cut foliage branches during vase life in four plantations of Eucalyptus silver dollar in Israel. The observed leaf symptoms were also characterized anatomically. The range of concentrations for individual macronutrients in the leaves was (in g kg−1): N (18–40); P (1.2–3.0); K (5.5–17.0); Ca (3.5–14.0); Mg (1.1–2.8); S (1.3–2.6). The concentrations range for micronutrients was (in mg kg−1): B (10–100); Fe (30–170); Zn (14–27); Mn (38–190); Cu (3.5–5.9). None of the identified leaf symptoms correlated with a consistent increase or decrease of the content of a specific mineral nutrient or heavy metal compared to the healthy leaves, suggesting that they were not caused by mineral deficiency or toxicity. The leaf ionomics was affected by season and varied between locations. The main damage symptoms observed in the four examined plantations during the four harvests were red and purple spots, and oil stains. Postharvest experiments showed that the quality of branches was reduced during 7–15 days of vase life following transport simulation to the local market. The degree of reduced quality during vase life was also dependent on the location of the plantation and the season of harvest. The oil stains appeared in the two most southern locations during summer, suggesting that this symptom might be derived from the summer conditions such as the high temperatures and high light intensities occurring in the southern part of Israel. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

News Article | April 8, 2016

Some cells are meant to live, and some are meant to die. The linker cell of Caenorhabditis elegans, a tiny worm that is a favored model organism for biologists, is among those destined for termination. This cell helps determine the shape of the gonad in male worms--and then it dies, after two days, just as the worms are transitioning from larvae into adults. This programmed cell death is a normal part of the animal's development, yet the genetic and molecular mechanisms underpinning it have not been worked out. Scientists in Rockefeller University's Laboratory of Developmental Genetics, headed by Shai Shaham, had previously shown that the linker cell does not expire by apoptosis, a more commonly studied form of programmed cell death. "Everything about this death process is different from apoptosis," he says. "It looks different under the microscope, it requires different genes, and it has different kinetics." Many ways for cells to die have been observed and described in the artificial milieu of a tissue culture dish, but not in a living organism. Now, the Shaham lab has been able to study the molecular mechanism that causes linker cell death in worms. Their findings, reported in eLife, suggest that the linker cell's newly discovered dying process resembles that which leads to the loss of neurons, or neuronal parts, in people with some neurodegenerative disorders. A new role for an old protein To figure out the molecular processes that cause linker cell death, Shaham's team introduced mutations at random in worms and then searched for animals in which the linker cell survives for longer than normal. They identified a number of mutations that prolong the survival of linker cells, including one that affects the function of HSF-1, a protein known to shield cells from physiological stresses like heat. "It was a big surprise that HSF-1, which typically plays a protective role in the cell, was found to be such a key regulator of this cell death," notes Shaham. His lab found that the protein performs two separate tasks in the cell that are independent from one another. So much so that when worms with a normal, functional HSF-1 were raised at high temperatures, their linker cells survived for longer than they normally do--presumably because the protein was kept busy protecting the cells from the heat, and hence failed to promote linker cell death. HSF-1 kills the linker cell by activating specific components of a protein destruction machinery apparatus in the cell, called the ubiquitin proteasome system. Mutations in components of this machinery have been shown previously to influence the degradation of neuron extensions in Drosophila and mice, suggesting that the new worm pathway may be used broadly. Apoptosis, one form of programmed cell suicide, is well described--scientists know which molecules induce it, which molecules suppress it, and the processes that take place in the cell as it occurs. However, blocking apoptosis in mice appears to have little effect on overall mouse development. "This is a surprising observation, given how prevalent cell death is during growth," Shaham notes. "It suggests that other means of killing cells likely exist that we know little about." Non-apoptotic cell death is also seen in some disease states. In the current study, the researchers found that the process in which linker cells are culled during a worm's development resembles the way brain neurons die during normal development in mice, and in people with Huntington's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. It is also reminiscent of the neuronal cell death seen when nerve cells get severed, as they do during spinal injuries. Based on their recent findings in worms, Shaham and his coworkers hope to find out whether the human counterparts of the proteins promoting linker cell death in worms might be involved in neurodegeneration. If this turns out to be the case, these proteins might serve as targets for future drugs to slow the progression of Huntington's disease, or to help people regain mobility after a spinal injury. "For example, if we stress the nerve cells while they are dying, so that the HSF-1 protein is forced to go into protective mode rather than cell killing mode, perhaps we can slow their death," speculates Shaham.

Teitel M.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Garcia-Teruel M.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Alon H.,Besor Experimental Station | Gantz S.,Shaham | And 6 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

The use of screenhouses in protected cultivation is nowadays a common practice in many countries. When fine mesh screens are used in the screenhouse construction, the resistance of the screens to airflow is high and ventilation rate is strongly reduced in comparison to the open field. Thus, growers tend to move to higher screenhouses since they assume that in such structures accumulation of warm and humid air near the plants is diminished. The goal of this research was to investigate, in insect-proof screenhouses, the effect of screenhouse height on air temperature. Experiments were conducted in two flat top screenhouses each of an area of 745 m2; one with a roof height of 4 m (LSH) and the other with a roof height of 6 m (HSH) with 16 m of separation between them. The houses were covered with a '50-mesh' screen which is commonly used with tomato cultivation in Israel. The daily courses of air temperature were very similar in the two houses. The average air temperature in the HSH was nearly at all times higher than in the LSH. The largest differences in temperature between the houses, of about 1°C, were observed during day; slightly lower differences were observed during night. The most significant difference between the two houses was related to the vertical gradients of temperature. The results show that the microclimate in the vertical direction appears to be more homogenous in the HSH than in the LSH.

Teitel M.,Institute of Agricultural Engineering | Gahali Y.,Institute of Agricultural Engineering | Barak M.,Institute of Agricultural Engineering | Lemcoff H.,Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

A major problem confronting Mediterranean greenhouse horticulture is the excess of heat during summer. One of the methods to alleviate the heat load is shading with nets. Shading nets can either be fixed or mobile. They can be external (above the greenhouse) or internal (inside the greenhouse above the crop). Experiments were carried out in a greenhouse in which a tomato crop was grown. The greenhouse was divided into two separated compartments of three spans each. In one compartment a 30% shading net was applied above the greenhouse, on top of the polyethylene cover, while in the other compartment it was stretched horizontally inside the compartment, at gutter height. Solar radiation outside and inside each compartment and light intensity above the crop and at ground level, and air temperature and humidity, in each compartment, were continuously measured over the growing period. The results show that in well ventilated houses net position does not significantly affect the values of the measured parameters and hence has no significant effect on greenhouse microclimate when the shading percentage is 30% or lower.

Silber A.,Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences | Israeli Y.,Northern R and D | Levi M.,Northern R and D | Keinan A.,Northern R and D | And 8 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2013

The effects of drip irrigation frequency on 'Hass' avocado trees grown in lysimeters were examined. The experimental design comprised three irrigation frequencies: (a) pulsed irrigation (10-20min every 30min) throughout the day (Irg1); (b) one daily irrigation event beginning at night and terminated in the morning every day (Irg2); and (c) one irrigation event every two days (Irg3). Irrigation treatments induced significant differences in water availability in the root zone and in plant water uptake. The effects of the fruit sink on gas-exchange properties and water uptake were assessed by comparing the performance of fruiting and defruited avocado trees. Despite the higher vegetative growth of defruited trees, their daily water uptake was 40% lower than that of fruiting trees and therefore, crop load should play an important role on irrigation scheduling. Measurements of stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthesis per unit leaf area (A) during two vegetative years were not in accordance with irrigation treatments or with diurnal changes in atmospheric conditions. Similar pattern was observed for the defruited trees. Leaf-carbohydrate concentrations in trees with and without fruits were lowest before sunrise, and increased during the day in different patterns. In defruited trees the carbohydrate concentrations increased steeply to a maximum around 09:00, while in fruiting trees, it increased monotonically until midday. Our findings may indicate that leaf-carbohydrate plausibly play a role in the complex framework of stomata aperture. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Silber A.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Israeli Y.,Northern RandD | Levi M.,Northern RandD | Keinan A.,Northern RandD | And 6 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2012

The performance of 'Hass' avocado trees grown in lysimeters under different irrigation regimes obtained by manipulating drip irrigation frequency and root volume was examined. The experimental design comprised six treatments (3×2) with three irrigation frequencies and two container volumes (100- and 200-L). The three irrigation frequencies were: pulsed irrigation (10-20min every 30min) throughout the day (Irg1), one daily irrigation event beginning at night and terminated in the morning every day (Irg2) and one irrigation event every two days (Irg3). Irrigation management induced significant differences in water availability in the root zone and subsequently, the diurnal and periodic water uptake. Water uptake of trees in the Irg1 treatment closely followed changes in the meteorological conditions (air temperature, pan evaporation and vapour pressure deficit) while that of trees in the Irg2 and Irg3 treatments was depressed by intermediate and severe water stress, respectively. The experimental treatments had little effect on the vegetative growth, flowering or fruit-set processes. However there were significant treatment differences on fruitlet abscission and accordingly, on fruit yield. Black spots initiated from the seed became apparent on some of the fruits at the beginning of June, and about two weeks later an intensive abscission of fruitlet begun that ended at the beginning of July. The abscission was more intense in the 100-L than the 200-L containers, in the following order: Irg3>Irg2≥Irg1 regardless of the container volume. Net CO 2 assimilation during periods of fruit growth decreased in trees exposed to moderate or severe water stress (Irg2 and Irg3, respectively) and therefore, it is plausible that fruitlet abscission resulted from carbohydrate stress. Improvement of water and nutrient availability, especially in periods where the activity of the root system was weak as a result of low carbohydrate supply presumably played a dominant role in seeds or fruit function. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Harari A.R.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Zahavi T.,Shaham | Steinitz H.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization
Pest Management Science | Year: 2015

Background: Studies of the mechanisms by which mating-disruption techniques control insect pest populations have traditionally focused on the effects of the species-specific sex pheromone on the male moths, while neglecting possible direct effects of the pheromone on females. Here, the effects of exposure to synthetic species-specific sex-pheromone on Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth) females were tested. Results: Females in vineyards that were treated with mating-disruption pheromone burst into short bouts of flying more frequently, but called significantly less frequently than females in untreated plots. Reduced calling caused by exposure to the species-specific sex-pheromone may increase the age at which females mate and thereby reduce female fecundity. Females that called in a pheromone-saturated environment experienced a decrease in number of oviposited eggs. A further decrease in reproductive success may occur if females delay oviposition when exposed to access of the synthetic pheromone. Conclusions: In addition to reducing the ability of males to locate females, the mating-disruption technique can suppress pest numbers as a consequence of its direct effects on females. The two mechanisms probably act synergistically. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

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