Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti Viniculture

Yangling, China

Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti Viniculture

Yangling, China
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Zhao P.,Northwest University, China | Gao J.,Northwest University, China | Qian M.,Oregon State University | Li H.,Northwest University, China | Li H.,Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti Viniculture
Molecules | Year: 2017

The key aroma compounds and the organoleptic quality of two Chinese Syrah wines from the Yunnan Shangri-La region and Ningxia Helan mountain region were characterized. The most important eighty aroma-active compounds were identified by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry. In both Syrah samples, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, 2- and 3-methyl-1-butanol, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, 2-phenethyl acetate, methional, 3-methylbutanoic acid, hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, β-damascenone, guaiacol, 2-phenylethanol, trans-whiskylactone, 4-ethylguaiacol, eugenol, 4-ethylphenol, and sotolon were detected to have the highest odor intensities. In the chemical analysis, 72 compounds were quantitated by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction combined with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Based on the Odor Activity Value (OAV), the aromas were reconstituted by combining aroma compounds in the synthetic wine, and sensory descriptive analysis was used to verify the chemical data. Fatty acid ethyl esters, acetate esters, and β-damascenone were found with higher OAVs in the more fruity-smelling sample of Helan Mountain rather than Shangri-La. 2017 by the authors.

Wang X.-C.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Li A.-H.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Dizy M.,University of La Rioja | Ullah N.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2017

To improve the aroma profile of Ecolly dry white wine, the simultaneous and sequential inoculations of selected Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were performed in wine making of this work. The two yeasts were mixed in various ratios for making the mixed inoculum. The amount of volatiles and aroma characteristics were determined the following year. Mixed fermentation improved both the varietal and fermentative aroma compound composition, especially that of (Z)-3-hexene-1-ol, nerol oxide, certain acetates and ethyls group compounds. Citrus, sweet fruit, acid fruit, berry, and floral aroma traits were enhanced by mixed fermentation; however, an animal note was introduced upon using higher amounts of R. mucilaginosa. Aroma traits were regressed with volatiles as observed by the partial least-square regression method. Analysis of correlation coefficients revealed that the aroma traits were the multiple interactions of volatile compounds, with the fermentative volatiles having more impact on aroma than varietal compounds. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

He Y.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Ning P.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Yue T.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Zhang Z.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Zhang Z.,Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti Viniculture
International Journal of Food Properties | Year: 2017

The volatile profiles of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet wines in vintages 2010 and 2011 from rain-shelter cultivation and open-field cultivation were compared and detected by headspace solid phase micro-extraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the number and concentration of volatile compounds quantified in wine were lower under rain-shelter cultivation compared with open-field cultivation. The strength of the fruity, fatty, caramel, and floral aromas of the 2010 vintage wines was lower under rain-shelter cultivation condition, and the compounds contributing to herbaceous aroma series were also lower with rain-shelter cultivation in the 2011 vintage wines. However, the strength of fruity, fatty, caramel, floral, and chemical aromas was higher with rain-shelter cultivation in vintage 2011. The cultivations in the two vintages could be clearly divided into three groups by principal component analysis. The difference between two treatments was significant in vintage 2010, whereas there was no significant difference in vintage 2011. The present work reveals the effects of rain-shelter cultivation on Cabernet Gernischet wine volatile compounds and explains that the technique is helpful in improving the wine quality in some rainy regions. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

Meng J.-F.,Northwest University, China | Ning P.-F.,Northwest University, China | Xu T.-F.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Zhang Z.-W.,Northwest University, China | Zhang Z.-W.,Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti Viniculture
Molecules | Year: 2013

Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011). The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of "Cabernet Gernischet" grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry. © 2013 by the authors.

Meng J.-F.,Northwest University, China | Xu T.-F.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Wang Z.-Z.,Northwest University, China | Fang Y.-L.,Northwest University, China | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Pineal Research | Year: 2014

Grapes are an important economic crop and are widely cultivated around the world. Most grapes are grown in arid or semi-arid regions, and droughts take a heavy toll in grape and wine production areas. Developing effective drought-resistant cultivation measures is a priority for viticulture. Melatonin, an indoleamine, mediates many physiological processes in plants. Herein, we examined whether exogenously applied melatonin could improve the resistance of wine grape seedlings grown from cuttings to polyethylene glycol-induced water-deficient stress. The application of 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG) markedly inhibited the growth of cuttings, caused oxidative stress and damage from H2O2 and O2-, and reduced the potential efficiency of Photosystem II and the amount of chlorophyll. Application of melatonin partially alleviated the oxidative injury to cuttings, slowed the decline in the potential efficiency of Photosystem II, and limited the effects on leaf thickness, spongy tissue, and stoma size after application of PEG. Melatonin treatment also helped preserve the internal lamellar system of chloroplasts and alleviated the ultrastructural damage induced by drought stress. This ameliorating effect may be ascribed to the enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes, increased levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants, and increased amount of osmoprotectants (free proline). We conclude that the application of melatonin to wine grapes is effective in reducing drought stress. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Meng J.-F.,Northwest University, China | Xu T.-F.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Qin M.-Y.,Jiangxi Gentleman Valley Wild Fruits World Co. | Zhuang X.-F.,Jiangxi Gentleman Valley Wild Fruits World Co. | And 4 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2012

Spine grape (Vitis davidii Foex) is an important wild grape species in South China. Recently, some researchers attempted to convert its juice to wine, but the phenolic profiles of the spine grape wines are unknown. In this study, five cultivars of spine grape from Chongyi County, China, were used to produce wines using exactly the same technology. And the phenolic profiles of these young spine grape wines were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS). The results showed that anthocyanins mainly exist as the diglucoside form of anthocyanidins and malvidin-3,5-diglucoside was the most abundant anthocyanin. Similar to most vinifera wines, flavan-3-ols were the major class of phenolic compounds present in spine grape wines. Quercetin-3-rhamnoside was the main singular flavonol. In addition, syringetin-3-glucoside and dihydroquercetin-3-hexoside were the characteristic flavonols of red and white spine grape wines, respectively. With regard to phenolic acids, coutaric acid and fertaric acid are dominant phenolic acids. Within these spine grape wines, Yishan wines showed the most different features regarding practically all of the phenolic profiles. © 2012.

Meng J.-F.,Northwest University, China | Fang Y.-L.,Northwest University, China | Fang Y.-L.,Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti Viniculture | Qin M.-Y.,Jiangxi Gentleman Valley Wild Fruits World Co. | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Spine grape (Vitis davidii Foex) is an important wild plant species in South China. To provide sufficient experimental evidence for the strong antioxidant activity of spine grapes, four cultivars from Chongyi County, China, including three red varieties (Junzi #1, Junzi #2, and Liantang) and one white variety (Baiyu) were evaluated. The Junzi #1 had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids, flavanols, and anthocyanins) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, cupric-reducing capacity and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity) among the four varieties. HPLC analysis of spine grapes revealed that the (+)-catechin was the most abundant phenolics and the hydroxycinnamic acids were the major phenolic acids in the four varieties. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the Junzi #1 belongs to the group with high phenolic content and strong antioxidant power. The results suggest the Junzi #1 has the best health promoting properties, and the higher utilization value and potential for development. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Peng C.-T.,Northwest University, China | Wen Y.,Northwest University, China | Tao Y.-S.,Northwest University, China | Tao Y.-S.,Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti viniculture | Lan Y.-Y.,Northwest University, China
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The influence of a prefermentative freezing process on changes of aromatic characteristics and volatile compounds in Meili wines was studied to optimize freezing parameters and reveal the mathematical relationship between aromatic characteristics and volatile compounds. The wines obtained were characterized by sensory evaluation and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) followed by a thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 28 aromatic descriptors from 6 categories of wine aroma terminology were identified by judging with high "modified frequency (MF%)". In addition, 19 varietal aroma compounds and 36 fermentation aroma compounds were quantitated, followed by the determination of odor activity values (OAVs). On the basis of the data obtained, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to find the relationship between characteristic aroma terms and different freezing conditions, and then partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was proposed to establish the mathematical relationship between the resulting terms and impact odorants. Natural thawing treatment on frozen must resulted in higher aroma quality with higher extraction of varietal aroma compounds. Lower frozen maceration temperature contributed to higher esters and organic acids. Impact aroma compounds were related to models for floral, sweet fruit, temperate fruit, and vegetal, whereas the model of rose and strawberry contained only varietal volatile compounds, and temperate fruit could be regressed by impact fermentation aroma compounds. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Xi Z.-M.,Northwest University, China | Xi Z.-M.,Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti Viniculture | Zhang Z.-W.,Northwest University, China | Zhang Z.-W.,Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti Viniculture | And 6 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of application of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the antioxidant capacity, anthocyanins and phenolics content of Vitis vinifera grape berry (cvs. Yan 73 and Cabernet Sauvignon). The grapevine clusters were sprayed with 0 (control), 0.10, 0.40, or 0.80 mg/l of 24-epibrassinolide during veraison, respectively. The EBR application increased the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), the content of total phenolics, tannins, flavonoids and anthocyanins, individual anthocyanins and the antioxidant capacity of matured grape skins in both varieties. The application also increased the content of flavonoids and anthocyanins in Yan73 pulp. Compared to the other treatments, the treatment of EBR at 0.40 mg/l had significantly higher level than the control in all above assays. Our results indicated that the exogenous EBR treatment can significantly promote grape ripening and enhance anthocyanins and other phenolics contents and antioxidant capacity in the grape skin. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wang C.,Northwest University, China | Liu Y.,Northwest University, China | Liu Y.,Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Viti Viniculture
Food Microbiology | Year: 2013

The evolution of yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae genotypes during spontaneous fermentations of Muscat blanc planted in 1957 in Jingyang region of China was followed in this study. Using a combination of colony morphology on Wallerstein Nutrient (WLN) medium, sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain and 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis, a total of 686 isolates were identified at the species level. The six species identified were S. cerevisiae, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Issatchenkia terricola, Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis) and Trichosporon coremiiforme. This is the first report of T. coremiiforme as an inhabitant of grape must. Three new colony morphologies on WLN medium and one new 5.8S-ITS-RFLP profile are described. Species of non- Saccharomyces, predominantly H. opuntiae, were found in early stages of fermentation. Subsequently, S. cerevisiae prevailed followed by large numbers of P. kudriavzevii that dominated at the end of fermentations. Six native genotypes of S. cerevisiae were determined by interdelta sequence analysis. Genotypes III and IV were predominant. As a first step in exploring untapped yeast resources of the region, this study is important for monitoring the yeast ecology in native fermentations and screening indigenous yeasts that will produce wines with regional characteristics. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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