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Patent
SGT Co. and We | Date: 2017-03-22

Provided is a plastic waste solid fuel incinerator comprising: an incinerator housing which has, on the upper portion thereof, a gas outlet through which combustion gas is discharged; a fuel supply unit which transfers and supplies a plastic waste solid fuel; a first combustion unit which continuously transfers and burns the supplied plastic waste solid fuel; a first air supply unit which supplies air needed for combustion to the first combustion unit; a combustion gas induction unit which induces the combustion gas generated from the first combustion unit toward the lower portion of a first combustion chamber; a second combustion unit which is arranged in the lower portion of the first combustion unit and comprises a downward injection nozzle unit which downwardly injects the combustion gas supplied through the combustion gas induction unit in order to reburn the combustion gas; and a second air supply unit which is arranged in the lower portion of the second combustion unit and supplies the air needed for combustion to the second combustion unit by downwardly injecting the air. Accordingly, there is an advantage of allowing continuous combustion using combustion gas generated during the combustion of the plastic waste solid fuel without using a separate auxiliary fuel, thereby reducing incineration costs.


LONDON, UK / ACCESSWIRE / April 19, 2017 / Active Wall St. blog coverage looks at the headline from Clean Energy Company Synthesis Energy Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ: SYMX) as the Houston, Texas based Company announced the acquisition of a 270 million ton JORC compliant coal resource lease near Pentland, Queensland, Australia on April 18, 2017. Register with us now for your free membership and blog access at: http://www.activewallst.com/register/. One of Synthesis Energy Systems' competitors within the Specialty Chemicals space, Westlake Chemical Corp. (NYSE: WLK), is estimated to report earnings on May 02, 2017. AWS will be initiating a research report on Westlake Chemical following the release of its next earnings results. Today, AWS is promoting its blog coverage on SYMX; touching on WLK. Get all of our free blog coverage and more by clicking on the link below: http://www.activewallst.com/register/. The mine development lease MDL361 was acquired by Great Northern Energy Pty Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Australian Future Energy Pty Ltd (AFE). Great Northern Energy Pty Ltd was formed by AFE specifically to manage the Pentland project. SES owns 40% stake in AFE, a privately owned Australian Company. As per the agreed terms of acquiring the mine development lease, AFE has already paid the first two instalments and will be making the third and final payment within the next six months. Commenting on the acquisition of mine development lease, Robert W. Rigdon, Vice Chairman of SES and Deputy Chairman of AFE said: "AFE once again delivers another important component of its business plan. When developed, this significantly sized Pentland resource acquisition of marketable coal additionally represents a significant amount of unmarketable coal from which AFE can manufacture low-cost urea and substitute natural gas, among other products." The Pentland mining resource is located in the northern part of the Galilee Basin, which is known for its vast quantities of Permian thermal coal. The quality of coal at this location is JORC compliant thermal coal. The site has an existing rail access to Townsville, Queensland. The JORC Code is a professional code of practice overseen by the global Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO). The Code sets minimum standards and a mandatory system for public reporting of results, mineral resources, and ore reserves. SES is a technology Company that uses its proprietary technology by converting low-cost and low-grade coal, biomass and municipal solid waste into clean, high-value synthesis gas (syngas) and methane. SES's technology can also produce high-purity hydrogen which can be used as transportation fuel. SES technology can easily cater to the fuel needs for both large-scale and efficient small- to medium-scale operations. AFE's main purpose is to develop business opportunities in Australia for manufacturing a range of clean energy and chemical products from unmarketable and waste coals generated in the coal mining process. AFE uses SES's proprietary technology for conversion of these waste products into clean energy products like fertilizers, natural gas, power, and industrial fuel gas. The technology benefits both the coal owners / operators as well as the environment at the same time provides a low-cost energy source for feedstocks. In 2016, AFE had acquired Callide coal mine operations and founded Batchfire Pty, Ltd (‘Batchfire'). Batchfire currently owns and operates the Callide coal mines. Recently on April 12, 2017, SES together with its joint venture partner China's Suzhou THVOW Technology Company announced the completion of the first and largest SES Gasification Technology (SGT) project. The project, which became operational, was one of the three SGT projects being installed by Aluminum Corporation of China. SES has a total of 12 commercial gasification systems in China. At the closing bell, on Tuesday, April 18, 2017, Synthesis Energy Systems' stock tumbled 5.38%, ending the trading session at $0.88. A total volume of 57.74 thousand shares were traded at the end of the day. In the previous three months, shares of the Company have surged 14.29%. At Tuesday's closing price, the stock's net capitalization stands at $76.62 million. Active Wall Street (AWS) produces regular sponsored and non-sponsored reports, articles, stock market blogs, and popular investment newsletters covering equities listed on NYSE and NASDAQ and micro-cap stocks. AWS has two distinct and independent departments. One department produces non-sponsored analyst certified content generally in the form of press releases, articles and reports covering equities listed on NYSE and NASDAQ and the other produces sponsored content (in most cases not reviewed by a registered analyst), which typically consists of compensated investment newsletters, articles and reports covering listed stocks and micro-caps. Such sponsored content is outside the scope of procedures detailed below. AWS has not been compensated; directly or indirectly; for producing or publishing this document. The non-sponsored content contained herein has been prepared by a writer (the "Author") and is fact checked and reviewed by a third party research service company (the "Reviewer") represented by a credentialed financial analyst [for further information on analyst credentials, please email info@activewallst.com. Rohit Tuli, a CFA® charterholder (the "Sponsor"), provides necessary guidance in preparing the document templates. The Reviewer has reviewed and revised the content, as necessary, based on publicly available information which is believed to be reliable. Content is researched, written and reviewed on a reasonable-effort basis. The Reviewer has not performed any independent investigations or forensic audits to validate the information herein. The Reviewer has only independently reviewed the information provided by the Author according to the procedures outlined by AWS. AWS is not entitled to veto or interfere in the application of such procedures by the third-party research service company to the articles, documents or reports, as the case may be. Unless otherwise noted, any content outside of this document has no association with the Author or the Reviewer in any way. AWS, the Author, and the Reviewer are not responsible for any error which may be occasioned at the time of printing of this document or any error, mistake or shortcoming. No liability is accepted whatsoever for any direct, indirect or consequential loss arising from the use of this document. AWS, the Author, and the Reviewer expressly disclaim any fiduciary responsibility or liability for any consequences, financial or otherwise arising from any reliance placed on the information in this document. Additionally, AWS, the Author, and the Reviewer do not (1) guarantee the accuracy, timeliness, completeness or correct sequencing of the information, or (2) warrant any results from use of the information. The included information is subject to change without notice. This document is not intended as an offering, recommendation, or a solicitation of an offer to buy or sell the securities mentioned or discussed, and is to be used for informational purposes only. Please read all associated disclosures and disclaimers in full before investing. Neither AWS nor any party affiliated with us is a registered investment adviser or broker-dealer with any agency or in any jurisdiction whatsoever. To download our report(s), read our disclosures, or for more information, visit http://www.activewallst.com/disclaimer/. For any questions, inquiries, or comments reach out to us directly. If you're a company we are covering and wish to no longer feature on our coverage list contact us via email and/or phone between 09:30 EDT to 16:00 EDT from Monday to Friday at: CFA® and Chartered Financial Analyst® are registered trademarks owned by CFA Institute. LONDON, UK / ACCESSWIRE / April 19, 2017 / Active Wall St. blog coverage looks at the headline from Clean Energy Company Synthesis Energy Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ: SYMX) as the Houston, Texas based Company announced the acquisition of a 270 million ton JORC compliant coal resource lease near Pentland, Queensland, Australia on April 18, 2017. Register with us now for your free membership and blog access at: http://www.activewallst.com/register/. One of Synthesis Energy Systems' competitors within the Specialty Chemicals space, Westlake Chemical Corp. (NYSE: WLK), is estimated to report earnings on May 02, 2017. AWS will be initiating a research report on Westlake Chemical following the release of its next earnings results. Today, AWS is promoting its blog coverage on SYMX; touching on WLK. Get all of our free blog coverage and more by clicking on the link below: http://www.activewallst.com/register/. The mine development lease MDL361 was acquired by Great Northern Energy Pty Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Australian Future Energy Pty Ltd (AFE). Great Northern Energy Pty Ltd was formed by AFE specifically to manage the Pentland project. SES owns 40% stake in AFE, a privately owned Australian Company. As per the agreed terms of acquiring the mine development lease, AFE has already paid the first two instalments and will be making the third and final payment within the next six months. Commenting on the acquisition of mine development lease, Robert W. Rigdon, Vice Chairman of SES and Deputy Chairman of AFE said: "AFE once again delivers another important component of its business plan. When developed, this significantly sized Pentland resource acquisition of marketable coal additionally represents a significant amount of unmarketable coal from which AFE can manufacture low-cost urea and substitute natural gas, among other products." The Pentland mining resource is located in the northern part of the Galilee Basin, which is known for its vast quantities of Permian thermal coal. The quality of coal at this location is JORC compliant thermal coal. The site has an existing rail access to Townsville, Queensland. The JORC Code is a professional code of practice overseen by the global Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO). The Code sets minimum standards and a mandatory system for public reporting of results, mineral resources, and ore reserves. SES is a technology Company that uses its proprietary technology by converting low-cost and low-grade coal, biomass and municipal solid waste into clean, high-value synthesis gas (syngas) and methane. SES's technology can also produce high-purity hydrogen which can be used as transportation fuel. SES technology can easily cater to the fuel needs for both large-scale and efficient small- to medium-scale operations. AFE's main purpose is to develop business opportunities in Australia for manufacturing a range of clean energy and chemical products from unmarketable and waste coals generated in the coal mining process. AFE uses SES's proprietary technology for conversion of these waste products into clean energy products like fertilizers, natural gas, power, and industrial fuel gas. The technology benefits both the coal owners / operators as well as the environment at the same time provides a low-cost energy source for feedstocks. In 2016, AFE had acquired Callide coal mine operations and founded Batchfire Pty, Ltd (‘Batchfire'). Batchfire currently owns and operates the Callide coal mines. Recently on April 12, 2017, SES together with its joint venture partner China's Suzhou THVOW Technology Company announced the completion of the first and largest SES Gasification Technology (SGT) project. The project, which became operational, was one of the three SGT projects being installed by Aluminum Corporation of China. SES has a total of 12 commercial gasification systems in China. At the closing bell, on Tuesday, April 18, 2017, Synthesis Energy Systems' stock tumbled 5.38%, ending the trading session at $0.88. A total volume of 57.74 thousand shares were traded at the end of the day. In the previous three months, shares of the Company have surged 14.29%. At Tuesday's closing price, the stock's net capitalization stands at $76.62 million. Active Wall Street (AWS) produces regular sponsored and non-sponsored reports, articles, stock market blogs, and popular investment newsletters covering equities listed on NYSE and NASDAQ and micro-cap stocks. AWS has two distinct and independent departments. One department produces non-sponsored analyst certified content generally in the form of press releases, articles and reports covering equities listed on NYSE and NASDAQ and the other produces sponsored content (in most cases not reviewed by a registered analyst), which typically consists of compensated investment newsletters, articles and reports covering listed stocks and micro-caps. Such sponsored content is outside the scope of procedures detailed below. AWS has not been compensated; directly or indirectly; for producing or publishing this document. The non-sponsored content contained herein has been prepared by a writer (the "Author") and is fact checked and reviewed by a third party research service company (the "Reviewer") represented by a credentialed financial analyst [for further information on analyst credentials, please email info@activewallst.com. Rohit Tuli, a CFA® charterholder (the "Sponsor"), provides necessary guidance in preparing the document templates. The Reviewer has reviewed and revised the content, as necessary, based on publicly available information which is believed to be reliable. Content is researched, written and reviewed on a reasonable-effort basis. The Reviewer has not performed any independent investigations or forensic audits to validate the information herein. The Reviewer has only independently reviewed the information provided by the Author according to the procedures outlined by AWS. AWS is not entitled to veto or interfere in the application of such procedures by the third-party research service company to the articles, documents or reports, as the case may be. Unless otherwise noted, any content outside of this document has no association with the Author or the Reviewer in any way. AWS, the Author, and the Reviewer are not responsible for any error which may be occasioned at the time of printing of this document or any error, mistake or shortcoming. No liability is accepted whatsoever for any direct, indirect or consequential loss arising from the use of this document. AWS, the Author, and the Reviewer expressly disclaim any fiduciary responsibility or liability for any consequences, financial or otherwise arising from any reliance placed on the information in this document. Additionally, AWS, the Author, and the Reviewer do not (1) guarantee the accuracy, timeliness, completeness or correct sequencing of the information, or (2) warrant any results from use of the information. The included information is subject to change without notice. This document is not intended as an offering, recommendation, or a solicitation of an offer to buy or sell the securities mentioned or discussed, and is to be used for informational purposes only. Please read all associated disclosures and disclaimers in full before investing. Neither AWS nor any party affiliated with us is a registered investment adviser or broker-dealer with any agency or in any jurisdiction whatsoever. To download our report(s), read our disclosures, or for more information, visit http://www.activewallst.com/disclaimer/. For any questions, inquiries, or comments reach out to us directly. If you're a company we are covering and wish to no longer feature on our coverage list contact us via email and/or phone between 09:30 EDT to 16:00 EDT from Monday to Friday at: CFA® and Chartered Financial Analyst® are registered trademarks owned by CFA Institute.


LONDON, UK / ACCESSWIRE / April 19, 2017 / Active Wall St. blog coverage looks at the headline from Clean Energy Company Synthesis Energy Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ: SYMX) as the Houston, Texas based Company announced the acquisition of a 270 million ton JORC compliant coal resource lease near Pentland, Queensland, Australia on April 18, 2017. Register with us now for your free membership and blog access at: http://www.activewallst.com/register/. One of Synthesis Energy Systems' competitors within the Specialty Chemicals space, Westlake Chemical Corp. (NYSE: WLK), is estimated to report earnings on May 02, 2017. AWS will be initiating a research report on Westlake Chemical following the release of its next earnings results. Today, AWS is promoting its blog coverage on SYMX; touching on WLK. Get all of our free blog coverage and more by clicking on the link below: http://www.activewallst.com/register/. The mine development lease MDL361 was acquired by Great Northern Energy Pty Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Australian Future Energy Pty Ltd (AFE). Great Northern Energy Pty Ltd was formed by AFE specifically to manage the Pentland project. SES owns 40% stake in AFE, a privately owned Australian Company. As per the agreed terms of acquiring the mine development lease, AFE has already paid the first two instalments and will be making the third and final payment within the next six months. Commenting on the acquisition of mine development lease, Robert W. Rigdon, Vice Chairman of SES and Deputy Chairman of AFE said: "AFE once again delivers another important component of its business plan. When developed, this significantly sized Pentland resource acquisition of marketable coal additionally represents a significant amount of unmarketable coal from which AFE can manufacture low-cost urea and substitute natural gas, among other products." The Pentland mining resource is located in the northern part of the Galilee Basin, which is known for its vast quantities of Permian thermal coal. The quality of coal at this location is JORC compliant thermal coal. The site has an existing rail access to Townsville, Queensland. The JORC Code is a professional code of practice overseen by the global Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO). The Code sets minimum standards and a mandatory system for public reporting of results, mineral resources, and ore reserves. SES is a technology Company that uses its proprietary technology by converting low-cost and low-grade coal, biomass and municipal solid waste into clean, high-value synthesis gas (syngas) and methane. SES's technology can also produce high-purity hydrogen which can be used as transportation fuel. SES technology can easily cater to the fuel needs for both large-scale and efficient small- to medium-scale operations. AFE's main purpose is to develop business opportunities in Australia for manufacturing a range of clean energy and chemical products from unmarketable and waste coals generated in the coal mining process. AFE uses SES's proprietary technology for conversion of these waste products into clean energy products like fertilizers, natural gas, power, and industrial fuel gas. The technology benefits both the coal owners / operators as well as the environment at the same time provides a low-cost energy source for feedstocks. In 2016, AFE had acquired Callide coal mine operations and founded Batchfire Pty, Ltd (‘Batchfire'). Batchfire currently owns and operates the Callide coal mines. Recently on April 12, 2017, SES together with its joint venture partner China's Suzhou THVOW Technology Company announced the completion of the first and largest SES Gasification Technology (SGT) project. The project, which became operational, was one of the three SGT projects being installed by Aluminum Corporation of China. SES has a total of 12 commercial gasification systems in China. At the closing bell, on Tuesday, April 18, 2017, Synthesis Energy Systems' stock tumbled 5.38%, ending the trading session at $0.88. A total volume of 57.74 thousand shares were traded at the end of the day. In the previous three months, shares of the Company have surged 14.29%. At Tuesday's closing price, the stock's net capitalization stands at $76.62 million. Active Wall Street (AWS) produces regular sponsored and non-sponsored reports, articles, stock market blogs, and popular investment newsletters covering equities listed on NYSE and NASDAQ and micro-cap stocks. AWS has two distinct and independent departments. One department produces non-sponsored analyst certified content generally in the form of press releases, articles and reports covering equities listed on NYSE and NASDAQ and the other produces sponsored content (in most cases not reviewed by a registered analyst), which typically consists of compensated investment newsletters, articles and reports covering listed stocks and micro-caps. Such sponsored content is outside the scope of procedures detailed below. AWS has not been compensated; directly or indirectly; for producing or publishing this document. The non-sponsored content contained herein has been prepared by a writer (the "Author") and is fact checked and reviewed by a third party research service company (the "Reviewer") represented by a credentialed financial analyst [for further information on analyst credentials, please email [email protected]. Rohit Tuli, a CFA® charterholder (the "Sponsor"), provides necessary guidance in preparing the document templates. The Reviewer has reviewed and revised the content, as necessary, based on publicly available information which is believed to be reliable. Content is researched, written and reviewed on a reasonable-effort basis. The Reviewer has not performed any independent investigations or forensic audits to validate the information herein. The Reviewer has only independently reviewed the information provided by the Author according to the procedures outlined by AWS. AWS is not entitled to veto or interfere in the application of such procedures by the third-party research service company to the articles, documents or reports, as the case may be. Unless otherwise noted, any content outside of this document has no association with the Author or the Reviewer in any way. AWS, the Author, and the Reviewer are not responsible for any error which may be occasioned at the time of printing of this document or any error, mistake or shortcoming. No liability is accepted whatsoever for any direct, indirect or consequential loss arising from the use of this document. AWS, the Author, and the Reviewer expressly disclaim any fiduciary responsibility or liability for any consequences, financial or otherwise arising from any reliance placed on the information in this document. Additionally, AWS, the Author, and the Reviewer do not (1) guarantee the accuracy, timeliness, completeness or correct sequencing of the information, or (2) warrant any results from use of the information. The included information is subject to change without notice. This document is not intended as an offering, recommendation, or a solicitation of an offer to buy or sell the securities mentioned or discussed, and is to be used for informational purposes only. Please read all associated disclosures and disclaimers in full before investing. Neither AWS nor any party affiliated with us is a registered investment adviser or broker-dealer with any agency or in any jurisdiction whatsoever. To download our report(s), read our disclosures, or for more information, visit http://www.activewallst.com/disclaimer/. For any questions, inquiries, or comments reach out to us directly. If you're a company we are covering and wish to no longer feature on our coverage list contact us via email and/or phone between 09:30 EDT to 16:00 EDT from Monday to Friday at: CFA® and Chartered Financial Analyst® are registered trademarks owned by CFA Institute.


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Hitachi Solutions Asia Pacific, the leading provider of Microsoft-based ERP and CRM solutions, will be holding Lunch-and-Learn Events in Singapore, Philippines, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Australia. These events will focus on how Hitachi Solutions and Microsoft Dynamics 365 can address the challenges that Insurance companies face today. The CRM for Insurance Lunch and Learn Events and Webinars will showcase Hitachi’s Solution for Insurance built on Microsoft Dynamics. The solution helps: Hitachi Solutions Asia Pacific will also discuss how insurers can further improve their relationship with their clients and business partners by providing a customer-centric approach in doing business. With this solution, insurers are able to easily create and maintain a clear view of their customers from first contact through post-sales, improving agent productivity and thus expanding business growth. The Digital Insurer – Becoming a Customer-centric Insurer in the Digital Age Webinar (Hong Kong) Date: Wednesday, May 10th, 2017 Time: 10:00 AM to 11:00 AM HKT Register Here: http://bit.ly/2q0Xq20 CRM for Insurance Lunch and Learn Event (Philippines) Date: Thursday, May 11th, 2017 Time: 11:00 AM to 1:00 PM PHT Register Here: http://bit.ly/2oQI8fQ CRM for Insurance Lunch and Learn Event (Singapore) Date: Wednesday, May 31st, 2017 Time: 11:00 AM to 1:00 PM SGT Register Here: http://bit.ly/2pgxyy9 CRM for Insurance Lunch and Learn Event (Kuala Lumpur) Date: Wednesday, July 26th, 2017 Time: 11:00 AM to 1:00 PM MYT Register Here: http://bit.ly/2qqYBaU CRM for Insurance Lunch and Learn Event (Australia) Date: Tuesday, August 1st, 2017 Time: 11:00 AM to 1:00 PM AEST Register Here: http://bit.ly/2ouNz4m “We understand the business of Insurance and its IT needs. We are pleased to provide our global solution to Insurers in Asia Pacific and the Australia New Zealand region that will help them improve Customer Satisfaction, Customer Retention and Increase Policy Production per agent.” said Sandeep Walia, President, Hitachi Solutions Asia Pacific. For more information on the CRM for Insurance Webinar and Lunch and Learn events, please email apacsales(at)hitachi-solutions(dot)com. Hitachi Solutions Asia Pacific helps its customers to successfully compete with the largest global enterprises using powerful, easy-to-use, and affordable industry solutions built on Microsoft Dynamics AX and Microsoft Dynamics CRM enhanced with world class Business Analytics, and Portals and Collaboration. Recognized as the Microsoft ERP Partner of year in 2015 and 2015 and Microsoft Partner of the Year in Asia Pacific in 2015, Microsoft CRM Global Partner of the Year in 2014 and the 2014 Dynamics Global Outstanding Reseller of the Year. Hitachi Solutions Group provides global capabilities with regional offices and team members in the Asia Pacific region including Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. For more information visit: http://apac.hitachi-solutions.com/. Hitachi Solutions, Ltd., headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, is one of the core IT Companies of Hitachi Group and a recognized leader in delivering proven business and IT strategies and solutions to companies across many industries. The company provides value-driven services throughout the IT life cycle from systems planning to systems integration, operation and maintenance. Hitachi Solutions delivers products and services of superior value to customers worldwide through key subsidiaries in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, India, China, and Asia Pacific. For more information on Hitachi Solutions, please visit: http://www.hitachi-solutions.com. Hitachi, Ltd. (TSE: 6501), headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, delivers innovations that answer society’s challenges with our talented team and proven experience in global markets. The company’s consolidated revenues for fiscal 2015 (ended March 31, 2016) totaled 10,034 billion yen ($88.8 billion). Hitachi is focusing more than ever on the Social Innovation Business, which includes power & infrastructure systems, information & telecommunication systems, construction machinery, high functional materials & components, automotive systems, healthcare and others. For more information on Hitachi, please visit the company’s website at http://www.hitachi.com.


Wang Y.M.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Yang X.,SGT Inc.
Journal of Geodesy | Year: 2013

This paper is devoted to the spherical and spheroidal harmonic expansion of the gravitational potential of the topographic masses in the most rigorous way. Such an expansion can be used to compute gravimetric topographic effects for geodetic and geophysical applications. It can also be used to augment a global gravity model to a much higher resolution of the gravitational potential of the topography. A formulation for a spherical harmonic expansion is developed without the spherical approximation. Then, formulas for the spheroidal harmonic expansion are derived. For the latter, Legendre's functions of the first and second kinds with imaginary variable are expanded in Laurent series. They are then scaled into two real power series of the second eccentricity of the reference ellipsoid. Using these series, formulas for computing the spheroidal harmonic coefficients are reduced to surface harmonic analysis. Two numerical examples are presented. The first is a spherical harmonic expansion to degree and order 2700 by taking advantage of existing software. It demonstrates that rigorous spherical harmonic expansion is possible, but the computed potential on the geoid shows noticeable error pattern at Polar Regions due to the downward continuation from the bounding sphere to the geoid. The second numerical example is the spheroidal expansion to degree and order 180 for the exterior space. The power series of the second eccentricity of the reference ellipsoid is truncated at the eighth order leading to omission errors of 25 nm (RMS) for land areas, with extreme values around 0.5 mm to geoid height. The results show that the ellipsoidal correction is 1.65 m (RMS) over land areas, with maximum value of 13.19 m in the Andes. It shows also that the correction resembles the topography closely, implying that the ellipsoidal correction is rich in all frequencies of the gravity field and not only long wavelength as it is commonly assumed. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Luthcke S.B.,NASA | Sabaka T.J.,NASA | Loomis B.D.,SGT Inc. | Arendt A.A.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Glaciology | Year: 2013

We have determined the ice mass evolution of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets (AIS and GIS) and Gulf of Alaska (GOA) glaciers from a new GRACE global solution of equal-area surface mass concentration parcels (mascons) in equivalent height of water. The mascons were estimated directly from the reduction of the inter-satellite K-band range-rate (KBRR) observations, taking into account the full noise covariance, and formally iterating the solution. The new solution increases signal recovery while reducing the GRACE KBRR observation residuals. The mascons were estimated with 10 day and 1 arcdeg equal-area sampling, applying anisotropic constraints. An ensemble empirical mode decomposition adaptive filter was applied to the mascon time series to compute annual mass balances. The details and causes of the spatial and temporal variability of the land-ice regions studied are discussed. The estimated mass trend over the total GIS, AIS and GOA glaciers for the time period 1 December 2003 to 1 December 2010 is-380 ±31 Gt a-1, equivalent to-1.05 ±0.09 mm a-1 sea-level rise. Over the same time period we estimate the mass acceleration to be -41 ± 27 Gta-2, equivalent to a -0.11 ±0.08 mm a-2 sea-level acceleration. The trends and accelerations are dependent on significant seasonal and annual balance anomalies.


McClelland R.S.,SGT Inc.
IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings | Year: 2015

Lightweight and high resolution optics are needed for future space-based X-ray telescopes to achieve advances in high-energy astrophysics. The Next Generation X-ray Optics (NGXO) team at NASA GSFC is nearing mission readiness for a 10 arc-second Half Power Diameter (HPD) slumped glass mirror technology while laying the groundwork for a future 1-2 arc-second technology based on polished silicon mirrors. Technology Development Modules (TDMs) have been designed, fabricated, integrated with mirrors segments, and extensively tested to demonstrate technology readiness. Tests include X-ray performance, thermal vacuum, acoustic load, and random vibration. The thermal vacuum and acoustic load environments have proven relatively benign, while the random vibration environment has proven challenging due to large input amplification at frequencies above 500 Hz. Epoxy selection, surface preparation, and larger bond area have increased bond strength while vibration isolation has decreased vibration amplification allowing for space launch requirements to be met in the near term. The next generation of TDMs, which demonstrate a lightweight structure supporting more mirror segments, has been recently fabricated. Analysis predicts superior performance characteristics due to the use of E-60 Beryllium-Oxide Metal Matrix Composite material, with only a modest cost increase. These TDMs are larger, lighter, stiffer, and stronger than the current generation. Preliminary steps are being taken to enable mounting and testing of 1-2 arc-second mirror segments expected to be available in the future. A Vertical Beam Line (VBL) test facility will minimize mirror gravity distortion and allow for less constrained mirror mounts, such as fully kinematic mounts. Permanent kinematic mounting into a modified TDM has been demonstrated to achieve 2 arc-second level distortion free alignment. © 2015 IEEE.


Knysh S.,NASA | Knysh S.,SGT Inc.
Nature Communications | Year: 2016

A promising approach to solving hard binary optimization problems is quantum adiabatic annealing in a transverse magnetic field. An instantaneous ground state-initially a symmetric superposition of all possible assignments of N qubits-is closely tracked as it becomes more and more localized near the global minimum of the classical energy. Regions where the energy gap to excited states is small (for instance at the phase transition) are the algorithm's bottlenecks. Here I show how for large problems the complexity becomes dominated by O(log N) bottlenecks inside the spin-glass phase, where the gap scales as a stretched exponential. For smaller N, only the gap at the critical point is relevant, where it scales polynomially, as long as the phase transition is second order. This phenomenon is demonstrated rigorously for the two-pattern Gaussian Hopfield model. Qualitative comparison with the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model leads to similar conclusions.


Pavlis N.K.,National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) | Holmes S.A.,SGT Inc. | Kenyon S.C.,National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) | Factor J.K.,National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA)
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth | Year: 2012

EGM2008 is a spherical harmonic model of the Earth's gravitational potential, developed by a least squares combination of the ITG-GRACE03S gravitational model and its associated error covariance matrix, with the gravitational information obtained from a global set of area-mean free-air gravity anomalies defined on a 5 arc-minute equiangular grid. This grid was formed by merging terrestrial, altimetry-derived, and airborne gravity data. Over areas where only lower resolution gravity data were available, their spectral content was supplemented with gravitational information implied by the topography. EGM2008 is complete to degree and order 2159, and contains additional coefficients up to degree 2190 and order 2159. Over areas covered with high quality gravity data, the discrepancies between EGM2008 geoid undulations and independent GPS/Leveling values are on the order of 5 to 10 cm. EGM2008 vertical deflections over USA and Australia are within 1.1 to 1.3 arc-seconds of independent astrogeodetic values. These results indicate that EGM2008 performs comparably with contemporary detailed regional geoid models. EGM2008 performs equally well with other GRACE-based gravitational models in orbit computations. Over EGM96, EGM2008 represents improvement by a factor of six in resolution, and by factors of three to six in accuracy, depending on gravitational quantity and geographic area. EGM2008 represents a milestone and a new paradigm in global gravity field modeling, by demonstrating for the first time ever, that given accurate and detailed gravimetric data, a single global model may satisfy the requirements of a very wide range of applications. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.


Loomis B.D.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Loomis B.D.,SGT Inc. | Nerem R.S.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Luthcke S.B.,NASA
Journal of Geodesy | Year: 2012

The gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) has been providing monthly estimates of the Earth's time-variable gravity field since its launch in March 2002. The GRACE gravity estimates are used to study temporal mass variations on global and regional scales, which are largely caused by a redistribution of water mass in the Earth system. The accuracy of the GRACE gravity fields are primarily limited by the satellite-to-satellite range-rate measurement noise, accelerometer errors, attitude errors, orbit errors, and temporal aliasing caused by un-modeled high-frequency variations in the gravity signal. Recent work by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Boulder, CO has resulted in the successful development of an interferometric laser ranging system to specifically address the limitations of the K-band microwave ranging system that provides the satellite-to-satellite measurements for the GRACE mission. Full numerical simulations are performed for several possible configurations of a GRACE Follow-On (GFO) mission to determine if a future satellite gravity recovery mission equipped with a laser ranging system will provide better estimates of time-variable gravity, thus benefiting many areas of Earth systems research. The laser ranging system improves the range-rate measurement precision to ~0. 6 nm/s as compared to ~0. 2 μm/s for the GRACE K-band microwave ranging instrument. Four different mission scenarios are simulated to investigate the effect of the better instrument at two different altitudes. The first pair of simulated missions is flown at GRACE altitude (~480 km) assuming on-board accelerometers with the same noise characteristics as those currently used for GRACE. The second pair of missions is flown at an altitude of ~250 km which requires a drag-free system to prevent satellite re-entry. In addition to allowing a lower satellite altitude, the drag-free system also reduces the errors associated with the accelerometer. All simulated mission scenarios assume a two satellite co-orbiting pair similar to GRACE in a near-polar, near-circular orbit. A method for local time variable gravity recovery through mass concentration blocks (mascons) is used to form simulated gravity estimates for Greenland and the Amazon region for three GFO configurations and GRACE. Simulation results show that the increased precision of the laser does not improve gravity estimation when flown with on-board accelerometers at the same altitude and spacecraft separation as GRACE, even when time-varying background models are not included. This study also shows that only modest improvement is realized for the best-case scenario (laser, low-altitude, drag-free) as compared to GRACE due to temporal aliasing errors. These errors are caused by high-frequency variations in the hydrology signal and imperfections in the atmospheric, oceanographic, and tidal models which are used to remove unwanted signal. This work concludes that applying the updated technologies alone will not immediately advance the accuracy of the gravity estimates. If the scientific objectives of a GFO mission require more accurate gravity estimates, then future work should focus on improvements in the geophysical models, and ways in which the mission design or data processing could reduce the effects of temporal aliasing. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

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