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Garg P.,SGT Dental College | Karjodkar F.,Nair Hospital and Dental College
International Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2012

Most oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OOSCCs) are in advanced stages at diagnosis, and treatment does not improve survival rates. Early recognition and diagnosis of OOSCCs might improve patient survival and reduce treatment-related morbidity. The purpose of this article is to create awareness among the general practitioners to recognize the premalignant and early malignant lesions and to review the different diagnostic aids for the detection of cancer.

Bhardwaj A.,SGT Dental College | Bhardwaj S.V.,SGT Dental College
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2012

Chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR) is a non-invasive technique eliminating infected dentine via a chemical agent. This is a method of caries removal based on dissolution. Instead of drilling, this method uses a chemical agent assisted by an atraumatic mechanical force to remove soft carious structure. It was introduced to dentistry as an alternative method of caries removal and is mainly indicated to overcome the inconvenience of using burs and local anesthesia, causing less discomfort to patients and preserving healthy dental structure, there by complying the concept of the minimal invasive dentistry (MID).Various agents with their methods have been used in the past for CMCR, but only a few have got into a stable clinical practice. Among them we have the Carisolv, which is the most successful and commonly used agent while Papacarie® gives the promising result as CMCR agent of the future. Carisolv came into use at the end of 20th century. It consists of two component mixtures (mainly amino acid and hypochlorite), forming an active gel. Papacarie® is an emerging CMCR agent of the 21st century. Papacarie® is composed basically of papain, chloramines and toluidine blue. Papain interacts with exposed collagen by the dissolution of dentine minerals through bacteria, making the infected dentine softer, and allowing its removal with non cutting instruments without local anesthesia and burs. Papacarie® seems to be a valuable alternative for caries removal especially in fear demonstrating and pediatric patients.

Garg P.,SGT Dental College | Karjodkar F.,Nair Hospital and Dental College | Garg S.K.,Medicity
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2011

The simultaneous occurrence of multiple cysts in both the jaws of a patient is rare and it usually occurs as the manifestation of a syndrome. Whenever multiple cysts are found, it is necessary to rule out an association with any syndrome, as the chances of recurrence are very high and a periodic follow-up is required for such patients. In our patient, cyst enucleation was done previously, but the association with the Gorlin-Goltz syndrome wasmissed and no follow-ups were advised.

Singh Nanda K.D.,SGT Dental College | Mehta A.,Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Center | Nanda J.,ITS Dental College
Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is used as the main initial diagnostic investigation for lumps in the head and neck region. Major salivary glands and some minor salivary glands are easily accessible; therefore, they are optimal targets for FNAC. The aim of this study was to discuss the advantages and pitfalls of FNAC as compared to histopathology in the salivary gland lesions. Material and methods: A total of 127 FNAC were carried out on salivary gland lesions from January 2006 to December 2010 - a 5-year period. Histopathological follow-up data were obtained in 56 cases. The study was conducted to examine the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FNAC for salivary gland swellings in comparison with histopathology. Results: The male-to-female ratio was 2.4:1. Parotid gland was involved in 51.1%, submandibular gland in 37%, sublingual gland in 4.7%, and minor salivary glands in 7% of patients. There were 55.9% cases of non-neoplastic lesions and 44.1% cases of neoplastic lesions on biopsy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of FNAC for malignant neoplastic lesions were 84.61%, 86.48%, 68.75%, and 94.11%, respectively, whereas for benign neoplastic lesions, they were 84.61%, 91.66%, 91.6%, and 85%, respectively. Conclusion: Fine-needle aspiration cytology is found to be a good sensitive and specific technique for the diagnosis of most of the salivary gland lesions. FNAC should be adopted as an initial investigation for all salivary gland swellings in conjunction with other investigations where appropriate. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Yadav A.,Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Hospitals | Kataria M.A.,Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Hospitals | Saini V.,Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Hospitals | Yadav A.,SGT Dental College
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2013

Adipose tissue is a major source of energy for the human body. It is also a source of major adipocytokines adiponectin and leptin. Insulin resistance is a condition in which insulin action is impaired in adipose tissue and is more strongly linked to intra-abdominal fat than to fat in other depots. The expression of adiponectin decreases with increase in the adiposity. Adiponectin mediates insulin-sensitizing effect through binding to its receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, leading to activation of adenosine monophosphate dependent kinase (AMPK), PPAR-α, and presumably other yet-unknown signalling pathways. Weight loss significantly elevates plasma adiponectin levels. Reduction of adiponectin has been associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis in humans. The other major adipokine is leptin. Leptin levels increase in obesity and subcutaneous fat has been a major determinant of circulating leptin levels. The leptin signal is transmitted by the Janus kinase, signal transducer and activator of transcription ((JAK-STAT) pathway. The net action of leptin is to inhibit appetite, stimulate thermogenesis, enhance fatty acid oxidation, decrease glucose, and reduce body weight and fat. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Tanwar R.,SGT Dental College
Oral health and dental management | Year: 2012

The unusual involvement of the oral cavity in tuberculosis and the non-specific nature of its presentations mean that diagnosis of tuberculosis is often delayed and is an unexpected finding. The aim of this paper is to present a case of primary tuberculosis and discuss the implications of the manifestations and diagnosis of oral tuberculosis. This paper presents an unusual case of a painless, papillary, erythematous lesion in the anterior region of a maxillary edentulous ridge. When the patient concerned was first seen by the author, the lesion had been present for six months. There was cervical lymphadenopathy and it was diagnosed initially as a malignant lesion. Eventually, after biopsy and ultrasound examination, the diagnosis of primary oral tuberculosis was reached. The patient was managed solely by anti-tubercular drug therapy.

Mittal M.,SGT Dental College
Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry | Year: 2011

The HIV infected child has increased caloric needs, yet multiple factors interfere with adequate nutritional intake. Nutritional support is needed to maintain optimum nourishment during the symptomatic period, in order to prevent further deterioration of the nutritional status during acute episodes of infection, and to improve the nutritional status during the stable symptom free period.With the advent of better methods of detection and better therapies, we are beginning to see HIV infected children surviving longer, and thus coming under the care of a host of affiliated medical personnel, including dentists. Oral health care workers need to provide dental care for HIV-infected patients and recognize as well as understand the significance of oral manifestations associated with HIV infection.The present article reviews, on the basis of literature, nutritional status, nutrition assessment and counseling in HIV/ AIDS children and adolescents. Dental treatment considerations in these, as well as modifications in treatment if required, are also discussed.

Aggarwal V.,Jamia Millia Islamia University | Singla M.,SGT Dental College | Miglani S.,Jamia Millia Islamia University | Kohli S.,Jamia Millia Islamia University
International Endodontic Journal | Year: 2014

Aim: The aim of this randomized controlled, double-blind trial was to comparatively evaluate the anaesthetic efficacy and injection pain of 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with different concentrations of epinephrine (1 : 80 000 and 1 : 200 000) in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Methodology: Sixty-two adult volunteers, actively experiencing pain, were randomly allocated into 2 groups and received 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with either 1 : 80 000 or 1 : 200 000 epinephrine concentration. Endodontic access preparation was initiated 15 min after the initial IANB. Pain during treatment was recorded using the Heft-Parker visual analogue scale (HP VAS). The primary outcome measure, and the definition of 'success', was the ability to undertake pulp access and canal instrumentation with no or mild pain (HP VAS score <55 mm). Secondary outcome measure was the pain experienced during LA solution deposition. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U-test and chi-square test. Results: The anaesthetic success rates of 2% lidocaine solutions containing 1 : 80 000 and 1 : 200 000 epinephrine concentrations were 20% and 28%, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant. There was also no significant difference in the pain experienced during deposition of the solutions. Conclusions: Two percent lidocaine solution used for IANB achieved similar success rates when used with 1 : 80 000 or 1 : 200 000 epinephrine concentration. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal.

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of mental incisive nerve block (MINB) and inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) that were given alone or in combination to provide anesthesia to symptomatic mandibular premolars.One hundred fifty-three patients participated in this randomized, double-blind clinical trial. The patients were divided into 3 groups; first group received MINB with 2mL 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine and a mock IANB with 2mL sterile saline, patients in group 2 received mock MINB and an IANB with 2mL 2% lidocaine, and patients in group 3 received both MINB and IANB with 2mL each of 2% lidocaine. Access cavity preparation was initiated after 10minutes. Success was defined as no pain or faint/weak/mild pain during endodontic access preparation and instrumentation. The anesthetic success rates were analyzed with Pearson (2) test at 5% significance levels.The MINB and IANB gave 53% and 47% anesthetic success rates, respectively, with no significant difference between them. Adding an IANB to MINB significantly improved the success rates to 82%.A combination of MINB and IANB can provide improved local anesthesia for symptomatic mandibular premolars.

PubMed | SGT Dental College and Jamia Millia Islamia University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of conservative dentistry : JCD | Year: 2016

The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the use of simplified ethanol-wet bonding (EWB) technique improved the immediate microtensile bond strength (TBS) between resin composite and caries-affected dentin (CAD).Twenty-four extracted carious human permanent molars were sectioned to expose the carious lesion. The carious dentin was excavated until CAD was exposed. The samples were divided into two groups: water-wet bonding with Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and a simplified EWB (three 100% ethanol applications for 30 s each), followed by application of an experimental hydrophobic primer and restoration. The samples were vertically sectioned to produce 1 mm 1 mm thick slabs. The normal dentin (ND) slabs and CAD slabs were identified and were subjected to TBS evaluation. Slabs from four teeth (two from each group) were evaluated under microscope. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and post hoc Holm-Sidak test at P < 0.05.EWB improved the TBS in ND but not in CAD group. The dentinal tubules in CAD group showed sclerotic activity with minimal or no hybrid layer.Simplified ethanol bonding does not improve the bond strength in CAD.

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