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Guo X.,Shanghai University | Zhang W.,Shanghai University | Wang L.,Shanghai University | Hao J.,SGS CSTC Standards Technical Services Shanghai Co.
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis | Year: 2016

Pyrolysis and gasification of waste rigid polyurethane foam (WRPUF) were performed in fixed-bed reactor to investigate the nitrogen migration among the products in the thermal conversion process. The influences of the temperatures and catalysts on the product distribution were also studied. Through the thorough analysis of nitrogenous products, the nitrogen migration mechanism in the pyrolysis and gasification of WRPUF was investigated so as to find out the selectivity of fuel-N migration. As the results have shown, the higher the temperature is, the more gas products are generated from catalytic pyrolysis and gasification; gas productive rate is higher in gasification process than in pyrolysis; compared with pyrolysis, more volatile N is generated in gasification process; N2 is the main gaseous nitrogen containing product in gas-phase product, followed by ammonia and hydrogen cyanide; the productions of nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide are relatively small; among all the additives, calcium oxide is the best catalyst which facilitates the migration of fuel-N in WRPUF into the pollution-free N2 in thermal conversion. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Guo X.,Shanghai University | Shu S.,Shanghai University | Zhang W.,Shanghai University | Wang E.,Shanghai University | Hao J.,SGS CSTC Standards Technical Services Shanghai Co.
ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering | Year: 2016

This study focused on the influence of inorganic salt (MnCl2, FeCl3, NaHCO3) or H2O2 combined with electron beam irradiation (EBI) at 90, 180, and 270 kGy on the content and structure of the three major components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) of corn cob in the pretreatment process. Acemonium cellulase (10 FPU/g of corn cob) were used to hydrolyze the pretreated samples for 96 h. The results indicated that the combined methods showed an obvious synergetic effect on the removal of hemicellulose and lignin and the reduction of degree of polymerization (DP) of cellulose, while the cellulose recovery decreased slightly during the treatment. Particularly, at the optimum conditions (2% NaHCO3 with EBI at 180 kGy), the highest 70.5% hemicellulose and 34.7% lignin removal were achieved with the DP of cellulose decreasing from 1081 of raw to 82. The results of Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the IR crystallinity index of cellulose decreased, and the structure was disrupted deeply after pretreatment due to the effective removal of the amorphous zone. After hydrolyzing the sample under optimum pretreatment conditions, the glucose yield was significantly higher than that of the controlled sample, which proved that an inorganic salt solution combined with EBI is an effective way to reduce the recalcitrance of lignocellulose biomass and improve the production of glucose. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

Jin Y.,Jiangnan University | Wang H.,SGS CSTC Standards Technical Services Shanghai Co. | Yang N.,Jiangnan University | Wu F.,Jiangnan University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Parallel plate electrode method was adopted to determine the dielectric properties and physical and chemical characteristics of egg albumen and egg yolk stored at room temperature in low frequency range of 100 Hz~12 MHz. The result shows that the dielectric constant of egg albumen and yolk drops with frequency increases and the dielectric constant of egg albumen is higher than that of egg yolk. Dielectric constant and loss factor of egg albumen increases at different storing time in the same frequency, but that of egg yolk reduces. The penetration depth is gradually reduced with increasing frequency. There is a good linear relationship between frequency and numerical absolute differences among experimental and calculated dielectric loss and the dielectric loss of the low frequency band was mainly caused by ionic conduction. Partial least-squares calibrations models on the dielectric constant of albumen and yolk was built to predict Haugh Unit and the moisture content of yolk with R2=0.9640, 0.9891 and RMSEP=0.9202, 0.0653. This study provides a reference for the research and development of the egg quality testing instruments. ©, 2015, Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology. All right reserved.

Yang J.,SGS CSTC Standards Technical Services Shanghai Co. | Ou D.,SGS CSTC Standards Technical Services Shanghai Co. | Cai J.,SGS CSTC Standards Technical Services Shanghai Co. | Yang L.,SGS CSTC Standards Technical Services Shanghai Co. | Xue J.,SGS CSTC Standards Technical Services Shanghai Co.
Disaster Advances | Year: 2012

The measurement of halogenated hydrocarbon degradation materials in groundwater is important to evaluate and remediate the contaminated aquifer. The research has established an analytical method for monitoring dissolved gases methane, ethylene and ethane in groundwater by a GC headspace equilibration technique which had been optimized the equilibration time. This method has been applied in monitoring groundwater samples in the contaminated sites. The relative standard deviations of target compounds in seven spiked water samples are in the range of 2.15 to 3.66 % and the recoveries are in the range of 92 to 97 %. The method detection limit is 5 ptg/L. The method provides the advantages of low detection limit, high sensitivity, high accuracy and precision, simple operation and is suitable for ground water investigation in a large scale.

Jiang J.,SGS CSTC Standards Technical Services Shanghai Co. | Zhao J.,SGS CSTC Standards Technical Services Shanghai Co.
Journal of the Society of Leather Technologies and Chemists | Year: 2014

Chromium exists in nature in various oxidation states (from -2 valence to +6), of which trivalent chromium Cr(III) and hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) are the common forms. In the leather and textile industry, Cr(III, VI) mainly exists in various auxiliaries used in the processes of tanning, printing and dyeing, and it has often been detected in leather products. Cr(VI) can enter into human body through the digestive tract, the respiratory tract, by skin contact and other ways. Cr(VI) has been identified as one of the 129 priority pollutants by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and it has also been internationally recognized as a heavy metal carcinogen. The hazards caused by chromium pollution in the environment have been paid great attention all over the world, of these hazards the applications of Cr(VI) as well as its impact on human health are the focus of attention. This paper makes an introduction on the hazards, regulations and the alternatives of hexavalent chromium in the leather and textile industries. © 2014, Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists. All rights reserved.

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