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Lucknow, India

Need and Purpose: The scarcity of literature and lack of published guidelines on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) from India, have necessitated this review. Methods: A literature search in PubMed was conducted with regard to epidemiology, clinical features, investigation and management of GERD in children. English language studies published full over the last 20 years were considered and relevant information was extracted. Results: Nearly half of all healthy babies regurgitate at least once a day by 4 months of age and this subsides in 90% of them by 1 year. In contrast, GERD prevalence increases with age and by adolescence it is similar to adults (20%). While regurgitation in infancy does not need investigation or therapy, 'empirical' proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 4 weeks is justified in older children with classical GERD symptoms. There is no gold-standard investigation for GERD. A pH study with or without impedance is useful in extraesophageal manifestations and endoscopy in esophagitis. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) play a pivotal role in the management of GERD and its long-term use has been shown to be safe in children. Antireflux surgery plays a minor role due to, its associated morbidity and high failure rate, especially in the high risk group who needs it most. Conclusions: Regurgitation in infancy need not be investigated unless there are warning features. Empirical PPI therapy is justified in older children and adolescents with typical reflux symptoms. pH study in extraesophageal manifestations and endoscopy for esophagitis are the investigations of choice. PPI is the mainstay of therapy in GERD. © 2013 Indian Academy of Pediatrics. Source

Chaudhary R.K.,SGPGIMS | Das S.S.,Apollo Gleneagles Hospitals
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science | Year: 2014

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is not an uncommon clinical disorder and requires advanced, efficient immunohematological and transfusion support. Many AIHA patients have underlying disorder and therefore, it is incumbent upon the clinician to investigate these patients in detail, as the underlying condition can be of a serious nature such as lymphoproliferative disorder or connective tissue disorder. Despite advances in transfusion medicine, simple immunohematological test such as direct antiglobulin test (DAT) still remains the diagnostic hallmark of AIHA. The sensitive gel technology has enabled the immunohematologist not only to diagnose serologically such patients, but also to characterize red cell bound autoantibodies with regard to their class, subclass and titer in a rapid and simplified way. Detailed characterization of autoantibodies is important, as there is a relationship between in vivo hemolysis and strength of DAT; red cell bound multiple immunoglobulins, immunoglobulin G subclass and titer. Transfusing AIHA patient is a challenge to the immunohematologist as it is encountered with difficulties in ABO grouping and cross matching requiring specialized serological tests such as alloadsorption or autoadsorption. At times, it may be almost impossible to find a fully matched unit to transfuse these patients. However, transfusion should not be withheld in a critically ill patient even in the absence of compatible blood. The «best match» or «least incompatible units» can be transfused to such patients under close supervision without any serious side-effects. All blood banks should have the facilities to perform the necessary investigations required to issue «best match» packed red blood cells in AIHA. Specialized techniques such as elution and adsorption, which at times are helpful in enhancing blood safety in AIHA should be established in all transfusion services. Source

Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2013

Anti-IL-2 receptor has been proven to be effective in reducing the rate of acute rejection in kidney transplantation and also in improving the graft and patient survival rates. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the role of the anti-IL-2 receptor, basiliximab, as an induction immunosuppression. Fifty-seven kidney transplant recipients from living donors who received the IL-2 blocker basiliximab (Group 1) as induction therapy in combination with cyclosporine (CsA), steroids and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or azathioprine (AZA) were compared with similarly matched renal transplant recipients (N = 312) who did not receive induction therapy (Group 2). Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meir method. Chi-square test was used to compare the outcome difference of various parameters between the two groups. Both the groups were similar in terms of demographic characteristcs and maintenance immunosuppression used. The total number of rejections was significantly less in Group 1, 14% vs 25% in Group 2 (P = 0.04, Odds ratio = 0.44). A higher number of patients in Group 2 had steroid-resistant rejections, although the difference was not statistically significant (9.9% in Group 2 vs 5.3% in Group 1). Death-censored graft survival was not significantly better in Group 1 at five years as compared with Group 2 (79.4% vs 47.2%, P = 0.09). On multivariate analysis for association with graft survival, only late acute rejections and steroid-resistant rejections were independently associated with poor graft survival, while the type of maintenance immuno-suppression (MMF vs AZA), use of basiliximab induction therapy and total number of acute rejection episodes had no association. Our study suggests that the use of anti-IL-2 receptor antibody basiliximab as induction immuno-suppression results in significantly better prevention of acute rejection, but it does not result in a significantly improved graft survival at five years. It also results in reduced severity of acute rejection. Source

Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences | Year: 2014

Pregnancy in patients with pan-hypopituitarism following surgery of pituitary adenoma is rare and considered high risk. Hormonal dysfunction in these patients involves more than one axis (gonadotrophic, thyroidal, and adrenal). However, advance in infertility treatment have led to the increased pregnancy rate in hypopituitarism women. We present a case of nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma, who after pituitary surgery (hypophysectomy) developed hypopituitarism followed by multiple tuberculoma brain with hydrocephalus with arachnoiditis. She conceived spontaneously after 9 years of pituitary surgery and carried her pregnancy to the term. Elective caesarean section was done at 38 weeks and both infant and mother are well. The case highlights the rarity of the phenomenon and the safe outcome of the pregnancy with proper replacement. Source

Sharma B.,Allahabad University | Singh S.,SGPGIMS | Siddiqi N.J.,King Saud University
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

Several workers have extensively worked out the metal induced toxicity and have reported the toxic and carcinogenic effects of metals in human and animals. It is well known that these metals play a crucial role in facilitating normal biological functions of cells as well. One of the major mechanisms associated with heavy metal toxicity has been attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which develops imbalance between the prooxidant elements and the antioxidants (reducing elements) in the body. In this process, a shift to the former is termed as oxidative stress. The oxidative stress mediated toxicity of heavy metals involves damage primarily to liver (hepatotoxicity), central nervous system(neurotoxicity),DNA (genotoxicity), and kidney (nephrotoxicity) in animals and humans. Heavy metals are reported to impact signaling cascade and associated factors leading to apoptosis. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the effects of heavymetals (mainly arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium) induced oxidative stress as well as the possible remedies of metal(s) toxicity through natural/synthetic antioxidants, which may render their effects by reducing the concentration of toxic metal(s). This paper primarily concerns the clinicopathological and biomedical implications of heavy metals induced oxidative stress and their toxicity management in mammals. Copyright © 2014 Bechan Sharma et al. Source

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