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Chaudhary R.K.,SGPGIMS | Das S.S.,Apollo Gleneagles Hospitals
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science | Year: 2014

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is not an uncommon clinical disorder and requires advanced, efficient immunohematological and transfusion support. Many AIHA patients have underlying disorder and therefore, it is incumbent upon the clinician to investigate these patients in detail, as the underlying condition can be of a serious nature such as lymphoproliferative disorder or connective tissue disorder. Despite advances in transfusion medicine, simple immunohematological test such as direct antiglobulin test (DAT) still remains the diagnostic hallmark of AIHA. The sensitive gel technology has enabled the immunohematologist not only to diagnose serologically such patients, but also to characterize red cell bound autoantibodies with regard to their class, subclass and titer in a rapid and simplified way. Detailed characterization of autoantibodies is important, as there is a relationship between in vivo hemolysis and strength of DAT; red cell bound multiple immunoglobulins, immunoglobulin G subclass and titer. Transfusing AIHA patient is a challenge to the immunohematologist as it is encountered with difficulties in ABO grouping and cross matching requiring specialized serological tests such as alloadsorption or autoadsorption. At times, it may be almost impossible to find a fully matched unit to transfuse these patients. However, transfusion should not be withheld in a critically ill patient even in the absence of compatible blood. The «best match» or «least incompatible units» can be transfused to such patients under close supervision without any serious side-effects. All blood banks should have the facilities to perform the necessary investigations required to issue «best match» packed red blood cells in AIHA. Specialized techniques such as elution and adsorption, which at times are helpful in enhancing blood safety in AIHA should be established in all transfusion services.


Atlani M.,SGPGIMS
Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia | Year: 2013

Anti-IL-2 receptor has been proven to be effective in reducing the rate of acute rejection in kidney transplantation and also in improving the graft and patient survival rates. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the role of the anti-IL-2 receptor, basiliximab, as an induction immunosuppression. Fifty-seven kidney transplant recipients from living donors who received the IL-2 blocker basiliximab (Group 1) as induction therapy in combination with cyclosporine (CsA), steroids and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or azathioprine (AZA) were compared with similarly matched renal transplant recipients (N = 312) who did not receive induction therapy (Group 2). Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meir method. Chi-square test was used to compare the outcome difference of various parameters between the two groups. Both the groups were similar in terms of demographic characteristcs and maintenance immunosuppression used. The total number of rejections was significantly less in Group 1, 14% vs 25% in Group 2 (P = 0.04, Odds ratio = 0.44). A higher number of patients in Group 2 had steroid-resistant rejections, although the difference was not statistically significant (9.9% in Group 2 vs 5.3% in Group 1). Death-censored graft survival was not significantly better in Group 1 at five years as compared with Group 2 (79.4% vs 47.2%, P = 0.09). On multivariate analysis for association with graft survival, only late acute rejections and steroid-resistant rejections were independently associated with poor graft survival, while the type of maintenance immuno-suppression (MMF vs AZA), use of basiliximab induction therapy and total number of acute rejection episodes had no association. Our study suggests that the use of anti-IL-2 receptor antibody basiliximab as induction immuno-suppression results in significantly better prevention of acute rejection, but it does not result in a significantly improved graft survival at five years. It also results in reduced severity of acute rejection.


Ghatak T.,SGPGIMS | Samanta S.,SGPGIMS | Baronia A.K.,SGPGIMS
North American Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2013

Background: Insertion of a nasogastric tube in an unconscious intubated patient may be difficult as they cannot follow the swallowing instructions, and therefore has a high first attempt failure rate. Aim and Methods: We describe here a new technique to insert nasogastric tube in an unconscious intubated patient by neck flexion and using angiography catheter as a stylet and manipulating the cricoid ring of trachea for easy passage of nasogastric tube. Results and Conclusions: The technique is easy and helpful for nasogastric insertion in unconscious intubated patients. Additionally, it neither alters vital responses nor increases intracranial pressure like with laryngoscopy.


Need and Purpose: The scarcity of literature and lack of published guidelines on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) from India, have necessitated this review. Methods: A literature search in PubMed was conducted with regard to epidemiology, clinical features, investigation and management of GERD in children. English language studies published full over the last 20 years were considered and relevant information was extracted. Results: Nearly half of all healthy babies regurgitate at least once a day by 4 months of age and this subsides in 90% of them by 1 year. In contrast, GERD prevalence increases with age and by adolescence it is similar to adults (20%). While regurgitation in infancy does not need investigation or therapy, 'empirical' proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 4 weeks is justified in older children with classical GERD symptoms. There is no gold-standard investigation for GERD. A pH study with or without impedance is useful in extraesophageal manifestations and endoscopy in esophagitis. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) play a pivotal role in the management of GERD and its long-term use has been shown to be safe in children. Antireflux surgery plays a minor role due to, its associated morbidity and high failure rate, especially in the high risk group who needs it most. Conclusions: Regurgitation in infancy need not be investigated unless there are warning features. Empirical PPI therapy is justified in older children and adolescents with typical reflux symptoms. pH study in extraesophageal manifestations and endoscopy for esophagitis are the investigations of choice. PPI is the mainstay of therapy in GERD. © 2013 Indian Academy of Pediatrics.


Srivastava S.,SGPGIMS | Tewari P.,SGPGIMS
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia | Year: 2014

Association of LA myxoma with cerebral aneurysm is rare. We describe a patient who had LA mass and cerebral aneurysm and developed stroke. The patient underwent clipping of the cerebral aneurysm. We discuss the pathology of the association and the anesthetic management.


Sharma B.,Allahabad University | Singh S.,SGPGIMS | Siddiqi N.J.,King Saud University
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

Several workers have extensively worked out the metal induced toxicity and have reported the toxic and carcinogenic effects of metals in human and animals. It is well known that these metals play a crucial role in facilitating normal biological functions of cells as well. One of the major mechanisms associated with heavy metal toxicity has been attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which develops imbalance between the prooxidant elements and the antioxidants (reducing elements) in the body. In this process, a shift to the former is termed as oxidative stress. The oxidative stress mediated toxicity of heavy metals involves damage primarily to liver (hepatotoxicity), central nervous system(neurotoxicity),DNA (genotoxicity), and kidney (nephrotoxicity) in animals and humans. Heavy metals are reported to impact signaling cascade and associated factors leading to apoptosis. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the effects of heavymetals (mainly arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium) induced oxidative stress as well as the possible remedies of metal(s) toxicity through natural/synthetic antioxidants, which may render their effects by reducing the concentration of toxic metal(s). This paper primarily concerns the clinicopathological and biomedical implications of heavy metals induced oxidative stress and their toxicity management in mammals. Copyright © 2014 Bechan Sharma et al.


Khan S.A.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Gambhir S.,SGPGIMS | Ahmad A.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory
Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology | Year: 2014

As a part of our programme to develop nanobioconjugates for the treatment of cancer, we first synthesized extracellular, proteincapped, highly stable and well-dispersed gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles by using thermophilic fungus Humicola sp. The biodistribution of the nanoparticles in rats was checked by radiolabelling with Tc-99m. Finally, these nanoparticles were bioconjugated with the chemically modified anticancer drug taxol with the aim of characterizing the role of this bioconjugate in the treatment of cancer. The biosynthesized Gd2O3 nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The Gd2O3-taxol bioconjugate was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy and was purified by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). © 2014 Khan et al.


Joshi G.,SGPGIMS | Pradhan S.,SGPGIMS | Pradhan S.,Institute of Human Behaviour and Allied science IHBAS | Mittal B.,SGPGIMS
Cephalalgia | Year: 2010

We aimed to explore the single-locus, haplotype and epistasis patterns and the contribution of oestrogen receptor [ESR1 PvuII (rs2234693), ESR1 325 C→G (rs1801132)] and progesterone receptor [PROGINS (rs1042838)] polymorphisms in genetic susceptibility to migraine by analysing 613 subjects consisting of 217 migraine patients, 217 healthy controls (HC) and 179 patients with tension-type headache (TTH). Entire data were analysed by taking the Bonferroni corrected P-value into account. We found significant association of TT genotype [odds ratio (OR) 3.458, confidence interval (CI) 1.757, 6.806; P = 0.0003] and Tallele (OR 1.729, CI 1.309, 2.284; P = 0.0001) of ESR1 PvuII single nucleotide polymorphism with migraine when compared with HC. Significant association was seen only in female migraine patients at both genotype (P = 0.002; OR 3.834, CI 1.625, 9.043) and allele level (P = 0.002; OR 1.721, CI 1.228, 2.413). Moreover, higher risk was limited to migraine with aura (MA) (in case of TT genotype, P = 0.002; OR 4.377, CI 1.703, 1.246; in case of T allele, P = 0.001; OR 1.888, CI 1.305, 2.735) rather than migraine without aura (MoA) (P-value of TT genotype = 0.003; OR 3.082, CI 1.465, 6.483; P-value Tallele = 0.002; OR 1.630, CI 1.188, 2.236). In case of a recessive model, risk was seen with migraine patients (P = 0. 0003; OR 2.514, CI 1.635, 3.867), MA (P = 0. 0001; OR 3.583, CI 1.858, 6.909) and MoA patients (P = 0.002; OR 2.125, CI 1.304, 3.464) when compared with HC. No risk was observed when TTH patients were compared with HC. No significance of ESR 325 G→C polymorphism was seen in any of the models under study. Significant differences in genotypic (P = 0.0001) and allelic frequency (P = 0.0002) were seen in case of PROGINS polymorphism when migraine patients were compared with HC, showing a protective effect (for A1A2 genotype, OR 0.292, CI 0.155, 0.549; for A2 allele, OR 0.320, CI 0.174, 0.589). Moreover, significance was seen only in case of female migraine patients at genotype (P = 0.002; OR 0.344, CI 0.176, 0.684) as well as allele levels (P = 0.004; OR 0.379, CI 0.198, 0.727) in case of PROGINS polymorphism. ESR1 PvuII TT*ESR1 325 C→G CG genotype, PROGINS A1A2 *ESR1 325 C→G CG genotype and ESR1 PvuII CT *PROGINS A1A2 interacted significantly, but significance was lost after Bonferroni correction. In conclusion, ESR1 PvuII polymorphism is a significant risk factor for migraine particularly in women and MA patients, but ESR 325 C→G polymorphism is not associated with migraine susceptibility. PROGINS polymorphism seems to play a protective role in genetic susceptibility to migraine in the North Indian population. © International Headache Society 2010.


Jaiswal P.K.,SGPGIMS | Singh V.,SGPGIMS | Mittal R.D.,SGPGIMS
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2014

Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) is a potent immunoregulatory molecule that suppresses antitumor response by down-regulating T cell activation. We examined candidate disease-susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) of CTLA4 at +49A/G, CT60A/G and -318C/T genes in bladder cancer (BC) patients of North Indian population. Histopathologically confirmed 200 patients of BC and 200 unrelated, healthy controls of similar ethnicity were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and amplification refractory mutation specific (PCR-ARMS) methods. In present study SNP CTLA4 +49A/G, variant genotype showed 3.74-fold risks for BC. While looking at G allele carrier level, risk for BC was high (OR = 1.54). The risk for BC was also evident in case G allele (OR = 1.58). CTLA4 CT60A/G gene polymorphism variant genotype showed 1.36-fold risks for BC. While at G allele carrier and with variant G allele it showed significantly reduced risk for BC. CTLA4 +49A/G genotype exhibited 1.57-fold risks with smoking in BC patients in homozygous mutant condition. In silico analysis further supports the results of SNP at CTLA4 +49A/G and CTLA4 CT60A/G. None of the above SNPs of CTLA4 demonstrated association with tumor stage/grade for BC severity and progression. BCG immunotherapy had no impact on CTLA4 gene polymorphism revealing no significant association. Haplotype GAC showed high risk for BC while other haplotype AGT showed reduced risk for BC. Our results indicated that genetic variations in CTLA4 gene (+49A/G, CT60A/G) play role in susceptibility to BC. Haplotype GAC showed high risk for BC. An association study utilizing a larger sample size and different ethnicity warrant further investigation through replication and advance techniques. © Springer Science+Business Media 2014.


Kumar V.,SGPGIMS | Mandhani A.,SGPGIMS
Indian Journal of Urology | Year: 2010

Introduction : Double J stent has been an important adjunct to laparoscopic pyeloplasty. It is also associated with symptoms and significant morbidity. This study analyses the outcome of transperitoneal laparoscopic pyeloplasty without a double J stent. Materials and Methods : Sixteen patients of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (age range: 1.5-50 yrs) were selected to undergo transperitoneal stentless laparoscopic pyeloplasty after obtaining the informed consent from August 2004 to December 2008. Ten patients were under the age of 14 years (pediatric age group). Some additional steps in the standard technique of laparoscopic pyeloplasty included anatomical spatulation of the ureter to avoid rotation, temporary splinting while suturing ureteropelvic junction and ensuring water tightness of suture line. Preoperative differential renal function, operative time, post operative complications (pain, drain output, fever), hospital stay and renal functional outcomes (Tc99 DTPA) were recorded. Results : The median age of the pediatric age group was eight (1.5-14) years and adult group - 27 (20-50) years. Median operative time was 100 min (72-140) in pediatric and 110 min (90-138) in adult group. The preoperative ipsilateral differential renal function ranged from 16-45% and 16-50% in pediatric and adult groups respectively. Five of the 10 pediatric patients had persistent leak of urine for which stenting was done in four and ureteric re-implantation in one. Only one of the six adult patients (who had secondary UPJO following Endopyelotomy) needed postoperative stenting for persistent urinary leak. Conclusions : Though the need for postoperative stenting is high in smaller children, stentless laparoscopic pyeloplasty can be considered in adult patients with primary ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

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