Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: NMP-24-2015 | Award Amount: 7.95M | Year: 2016
Shortage of fresh water has become one of the major challenges for societies all over the world. Water desalination offers an opportunity to significantly increase the freshwater supply for drinking, industrial use and irrigation. All current desalination technologies require significant electrical or thermal energy, with todays Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination units consuming electric energy of at least 3 kWh/m3 in extensive tests about ten years ago, the Affordable Desalination Collaboration (ADC) in California measured 1.6 kWh/m3 for RO power consumption on the best commercially available membranes, and total plant energy about twice as high. To overcome thermodynamical limitations of RO, which point to 1.09 kwh/m3 for seawater at 50 % recovery, Microbial Desalination Cells (MDC) concurrently treat wastewater and generate energy to achieve desalination. MDCs can produce around 1.8 kWh of bioelectricity from the handling of 1 m3 of wastewater. Such energy can be directly used to i) totally remove the salt content in seawater without external energy input, or ii) partially reduce the salinity to lower substantially the amount of energy for a subsequent desalination treatment. MIDES aims to develop the Worlds largest demonstrator of an innovative and low-energy technology for drinking water production, using MDC technology either as stand-alone or as pre-treatment step for RO. The project will focus on overcoming the current limitations of MDC technology such as low desalination rate, high manufacturing cost, biofouling and scaling problems on membranes, optimization of the microbial-electrochemical process, system scaling up and economic feasibility of the technology. This will be achieved via innovation in nanostructured electrodes, antifouling membranes (using nanoparticles with biocide activity), electrochemical reactor design and optimization, microbial electrochemistry and physiology expertise, and process engineering and control.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: GC.NMP.2013-1 | Award Amount: 9.01M | Year: 2013
MARS-EV aims to overcome the ageing phenomenon in Li-ion cells by focusing on the development of high-energy electrode materials (250 Wh/kg at cell level) via sustainable scaled-up synthesis and safe electrolyte systems with improved cycle life (> 3000 cycles at 100%DOD). Through industrial prototype cell assembly and testing coupled with modelling MARS-EV will improve the understanding of the ageing behaviour at the electrode and system levels. Finally, it will address a full life cycle assessment of the developed technology. MARS-EV proposal has six objectives: (i) synthesis of novel nano-structured, high voltage cathodes (Mn, Co and Ni phosphates and low-cobalt, Li-rich NMC) and high capacity anodes (Silicon alloys and interconversion oxides); (ii) development of green and safe, electrolyte chemistries, including ionic liquids, with high performance even at ambient and sub-ambient temperature, as well as electrolyte additives for safe high voltage cathode operation; (iii) investigation of the peculiar electrolyte properties and their interactions with anode and cathode materials; (iv) understanding the ageing and degradation processes with the support of modelling, in order to improve the electrode and electrolyte properties and, thus, their reciprocal interactions and their effects on battery lifetime; (v) realization of up to B5 format pre-industrial pouch cells with optimized electrode and electrolyte components and eco-designed durable packaging; and (vi) boost EU cell and battery manufacturers via the development of economic viable and technologically feasible advanced materials and processes, realization of high-energy, ageing-resistant, easily recyclable cells. MARS-EV brings together partners with complementary skills and expertise, including industry covering the complete chain from active materials suppliers to cell and battery manufacturers, thus ensuring that developments in MARS-EV will directly improve European battery production capacities.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2011.3.1.9-1 | Award Amount: 4.53M | Year: 2012
Natural phosphate sources low in heavy metals are getting scarce. Containing about 15 mass-% of P2O5, sewage sludge ash can be considered a secondary phosphorus (P-) source. The P-content in the European sewage sludge could currently replace roughly 15% of the phosphate imports into the EU. Hence already for many years, almost decades, it has been tried to recover phosphorus from sewage, sludge and ashes in various ways of which none has yet been realised at industrial scale. The reason for this failure lies firstly in the wet chemical approach, meaning complex and little efficient processes with liquids hard to handle; and secondly in the use of liquid or dewatered sludge as well as waste water, which results in a further decrease in efficiency mostly because of high mass flow and matrix effects. The RecoPhos process is a thermal process using ash from sludge mono-incineration. The principle of the used so-called InduCarb process is similar to the one of the known Woehler process; dried sludge can be added as heat source or reducing agent as an option. The phosphate (amongst other constituents) is reduced on an inductively heated coke bed to white phosphorus, which is later condensed and thus separated from other gaseous reaction products; white phosphorous is the most valuable form of phosphorous and highly asked for by the industry. Further products are an iron alloy as well as a heavy metal mixture, both usable in steel industry; a silicate slag for the use in cement ovens as well as a high calorific gas. The RecoPhos process uses an innovative reactor (InduCarb) designed for the reductive recovery of steel work dusts. By the use of ashes the material flow is minimal; if only sludge is available, it can be also used as input, adding flexibility to the concept. If additives are needed, suitable industrial wastes can be used. The innovative RecoPhos process has never been realised before. It is planned to apply it for a patent .
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2013.7.3.3 | Award Amount: 4.42M | Year: 2013
SIRBATT (Stable Interfaces for Rechargeable Batteries) is a multisite collaborative project consisting of 12 full partners from the European Area (6 Universities, 1 Research Institute and 5 industrial partners). Collaboration with leading battery research groups in the USA and Japan is also considered. The diversity of the research organisations in the partnership has been chosen to provide a wide range of complementary expertise in areas relating to the study of battery electrode interfaces, covering both experimental and theoretical aspects of this important contemporary area. SIRBATT will develop microsensors to monitor internal temperature and pressure of lithium cells in order to maintain optimum operating conditions to allow long-life times that can be scaled for use in grid scale batteries. The cells will comprise of candidate electrode materials in which the complex interfacial region and surface layers have been well characterised and understood via utilisation of a suit of advanced in situ measurement techniques complemented by application of transformative modelling methods. The knowledge from these studies will be used to develop candidate electrode materials with an optimised cycle life and stability, for example by the use of novel stable lithium salts and the inclusion of stable film forming additives into the electrolyte. The scientific aim of SIRBATT is the radical improvement in the fundamental understanding of the structure and reactions occurring at lithium battery electrode/electrolyte interfaces which it will seek to achieve through an innovative programme of collaborative research and development.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: FCH2-RIA | Phase: FCH-01.1-2015 | Award Amount: 6.88M | Year: 2016
The objective is to develop and integrate the most advanced critical PEMFC stack components, many from recent FCH JU programmes, into an automotive stack showing BOL performance of 1.5 W/cm2 at 0.6V, <10% power degradation after 6,000 hours, with a technical and economic assessment showing a cost of less than 50/kW at a 50,000 annual production scale. This will be achieved by leading industrial and academic partners with expertise in the design and manufacture of PEMFC stacks, their components and materials. They will select and build on components which can achieve key target metrics, e.g. catalyst materials showing mass activities of 0.44 A/mg Pt. There will be focus on integration of the key components and optimisation of the interfaces regarding the electrochemistry, mass and heat transport, and mechanical interactions. Several iterations of an advanced stack design will be evaluated. Work is organised to optimise the flow of development, which begins with catalysts being advanced and down-selected, scaled then fed into the design and development of catalyst layers, integration with membranes and the demonstration of CCM performance. The CCMs feed into stack component development where they will be integrated with GDLs to form MEAs; and where bipolar plates will be designed and developed and supplied with the MEAs for iterative stack design, assembly and testing. All mandatory and optional objectives of the FCH 2 JU Work Plan are addressed. Performance and durability are evaluated from small single cell to stack level using standardised test protocols. Degradation is addressed by stability testing, structural visualisation and modelling. Interfaces and specification alignment is an important focus, being integrated with the evaluation of new architectures and synthesis methods and informing balance of plant component specifications. Dismantling and recycling for the recovery and re-use of all critical MEA components is included in the costing evaluation.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2011.1.5 | Award Amount: 3.69M | Year: 2013
The prime focus of IMMEDIATE is to develop high performing MEAs aimed for automotive applications through material R&D & process optimisation. The technical targets aimed in IMMEDIATE are addressing the JTI targets for automotive MEAs with respect to performance & cost. The proposed project is a continuation of the recently terminated and very successful FP6 R&D-project: IPHE-GENIE. The IMMEDIATE project approach is based on utilisation and further improvement of the materials and processes. Thus, the approach and the technical IMMEDIATE targets are as follows: -Development of a membrane with -A proton conductivity of at least 0.1 S/cm at 120C & 25% RH -Thermal stability up to 160C -Low dimensional changes (<10%, wet/dry) -Development of MEAs that show high performance [1 W/cm2 @ UCell=0.68V (hEl=55%)] at low Platinum loadings [ 0.15g Pt/kW] through: -Catalyst development and design -Ionomer and membrane optimisation -Electrode design -GDL optimisation -Process optimisation -Testing of the developed MEAs on single cell and on small stacks level at realistic automotive operating conditions i.e. T=120C, RH 25%, P=1.5bar, yet being able to start from -20C -Application of automotive AST protocols to make a 5,000 hs lifetime probable It is considered that especially the combination of these targets is both challenging and a significant step forward. The project is scheduled for 3 years. The Consortium is well balanced, with the following 9 partners complementing one another to achieve the project target goals: A PEM MEA manufacturing company (IRD [SME]) - coordinator A leading manufacturer of ion exchange polymers and membranes (FuMa) A huge producer of specialised carbon and graphite (TC) A huge GDL manufacturing company (SGL) A leading supplier (OEM) of commercial transport solutions (Volvo) -4 R&D centres/universities, with more than 15 years experience working within PEM catalyst, ionomer, membrane & MEA development (ICPF, CNRS, SJTU & JRC)
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: Fission-2010-2.3.1 | Award Amount: 10.12M | Year: 2011
In line with the Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) and Deployment Strategy (DS), the ARCHER project will extend the state-of-the-art European (V)HTR technology basis with generic technical effort in support of nuclear cogeneration demonstration. The partner consortium consists of representatives of conventional and nuclear industry, utilities, Technical Support Organisations, R&D institutes and universities. They jointly propose generic efforts composed of: -System integration assessment of a nuclear cogeneration unit coupled to industrial processes -Critical safety aspects of the primary and coupled system: oPressure boundary integrity oDust oIn-core hot spots oWater and air ingress accident evaluation -Essential HTR fuel and fuel back end R&D oPIE for fuel performance code improvement and validation oBack end research focused on radiolysis -Coupling component development: oIntermediate heat exchanger development oSteam generator assessment -High temperature material R&D: oCompletion of graphite design curves oMaking use of the experience of state of the art metal in conventional industry -Nuclear cogeneration knowledge management, training and communication The activities proposed are imbedded in the international framework via GIF; direct collaboration within the project with international partners from the US, China, Japan, and the republic of Korea; and cooperation with IAEA and ISTC. The proposal is a technical building block supporting nuclear cogeneration as fossil fuel alternative for industry and as such supports a high potential contribution to European energy strategy as defined in the SET-Plan. The results of the proposal will be reported to SNETP, to support the strategic pillar of other uses of nuclear energy, and the establishment of a Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative, which shall include effective (international) nuclear cogeneration demonstration.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2011.1.5 | Award Amount: 5.08M | Year: 2012
The purpose of the IMPALA project is to manufacture improved GDL to increase performance (up to 1 W/cm) and durability of PEMFC for automotive applications. Two approaches will be followed: i) Homogeneous GDL will be modified to ensure a better water management on anode and on cathode side (formulation of the MPL, wettability, stability of the hydrophobic treatment, hydrophilic layers, and conductive additives). Most of these modifications should be transferable to industry. ii) More innovative non uniform GDL will be manufactured to adjust their local properties to the non uniform local operating conditions of a PEMFC (gradients of porosity and of wettability, patterns of hole). This is a higher risk approach as some modifications could be difficult to transfer to industry but the improvements should be higher and lead to breakthrough GDL. This technological work will be supported by a deep water management analysis combining the most advanced two-phase models (Pore Network Modelling) and the most advanced experimental diagnostics (liquid visualisation by X-Ray, local instrumentation). This will allow having a much better understanding on water management and on the link between main properties of GDL (thickness, pore size and wettability distribution) and their performance in PEMFC. This will ensure important scientific progress and provide recommendations for design. The project is focused on standard automotive conditions but special attention will be paid to ensure the improvements will be valid for higher operating temperatures and different stack design for back-up applications. The consortium gathers the necessary international complementary leading expertise to reach the project targets: INPT: two-phase modelling, PSI: X-Ray visualisation, JRC: modelling and tests, CEA: performance modelling, tests and modification of GDL, DLR: characterization, SGL: manufacturing performing GDL, and NEDSTACK: stack tests for automotive and back-up application.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: TPT.2013-1. | Award Amount: 4.56M | Year: 2013
Fibre-reinforced polymer composite materials are leading candidates as component materials to improve the efficiency and sustainability of many transport modes. The advantages of high performance composites are numerous: they include lighter weight, the ability to tailor lay-ups for optimum strength and stiffness, improved fatigue life, corrosion resistance and, with good design practice, reduced assembly costs due to fewer detail parts and fasteners. Also, the specific strength and specific modulus of high strength fibre composites are higher than other comparable metallic alloys. This translates into greater weight savings resulting in improved performance, greater payloads, fuel savings and emissions reductions. However, the current manufacturing processes used in aeronautic and automotive still represent high capital investments for SMEs and this represents a major barrier for their deployment in sectors like automotive. The proposed project will develop a low cost manufacturing process of composites dedicated to structural parts in the aeronautic, truck and automotive sectors: Low level of investment vs HP-RTM/ C-RTM and ATL/AFP, accessible for SMEs. Automated solution: high production capacity, low cost equipment and high quality level for structural application Reduction of process steps and energy consumption by investigating merging possibilities throughout the process Process for small to medium sized 3D application (automotive) Process for medium to large panel application (aerospace, cargo transportation) The main objective of the LOWFLIP project is to develop a low cost flexible and integrated preforming/moulding/curing composite parts manufacturing process for the needs of different transport sectors, such us the aerospace and the automotive-surface transport sector, which will require minimum investments in comparison with current SoA processes.
NANOCOOL - An Energy Efficient Air Conditioning systems with Temperature and Humidity independent controls based on the combination of a Liquid Desiccants Cycle with an adapted conventional air cooling system
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: EeB.NMP.2012-4 | Award Amount: 4.82M | Year: 2012
Air-conditioning is a rapidly growing electrical end-use in EU. A/C systems reduce temperature of the ambient air while removing humidity. However such combined air conditioning/dehumidification is generally inefficient. A promising approach is represented by Hybrid Liquid Desiccant (HLD) systems, where the latent load is removed by a liquid desiccant dehumidifier, while the sensible load is removed by a conventional vapor compression air cooler. The heat required for regeneration of the liquid desiccants needs however to be provided by outer sources like natural gas or solar collectors. Furthermore almost all metal alloys are corroded by the most effective liquid desiccants. HLD systems are therefore not penetrating the market. Our goal is to develop an innovative HLD system in the range 100-200 kW, where waste heat from the condenser is used for regeneration of the desiccants. The energy demand by this process is 55% of the conventional technique. In cases of severe humid environments, like swimming pools, or kitchens, the energy savings can achieve easily levels of 65%-70%. Several innovative components have to be developed, namely: - Two multifunctional heat exchangers with high corrosion resistance for either water vapour absorption from the air flow or desiccant regeneration; - Development of a liquid-liquid heat exchanger with high corrosion resistance for desiccant regeneration process pre-heat (liquid-liquid desiccant). Based on the promising results of the FP7 Thermonano project, thermally conductive polymer nano-composites will be considered as material for these components and shaped into innovative engineered heat exchange surface. The partners foresee an initial market worth up to 180 MEuro by 2020, generating/maintaining 4000 job opportunities for skilled operators and installers. The partners expect that the intended HVAC solution will allow cumulative savings on energy bill of at least 60 MEuro with a pay-back time below 2 years in case of 50% use.