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PubMed | Complutense University of Madrid, University of Sassari, Comparative Physiology Laboratory RA, SGIT INIA and French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2016

The concept of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) addresses, from a large set of epidemiological evidences in human beings and translational studies in animal models, both the importance of genetic predisposition and the determinant role of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on adult morphomics and homeostasis. Compelling evidences suggest that both overnutrition and undernutrition may modify the intrauterine environment of the conceptus and may alter the expression of its genome and therefore its phenotype during prenatal and postnatal life. In fact, the DOHaD concept is an extreme shift in the vision of the factors conditioning adult phenotype and supposes a drastic change from a gene-centric perspective, only modified by lifestyle and nutritional strategies during juvenile development and adulthood, to a more holistic approach in which environmental, parental, and prenatal conditions are strongly determining postnatal development and homeostasis. The implications of DOHaD are profound in all the mammalian species and the present review summarizes current knowledge on causes and consequences of DOHaD in pigs, both for meat production and as a well-recognized model for biomedicine research.

PubMed | Complutense University of Madrid, Institute Investigacion Hospital 12 Of Octubre I12, SGIT INIA and IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2016

A quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) method, employing novel primer sets designed on Jug r 1, Jug r 3, and Jug r 4 allergen-coding sequences, was set up and validated. Its specificity, sensitivity, and applicability were evaluated. The DNA extraction method based on CTAB-phenol-chloroform was best for walnut. RT-PCR allowed a specific and accurate amplification of allergen sequence, and the limit of detection was 2.5pg of walnut DNA. The method sensitivity and robustness were confirmed with spiked samples, and Jug r 3 primers detected up to 100mg/kg of raw walnut (LOD 0.01%, LOQ 0.05%). Thermal treatment combined with pressure (autoclaving) reduced yield and amplification (integrity and quality) of walnut DNA. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) did not produce any effect on the walnut DNA amplification. This RT-PCR method showed greater sensitivity and reliability in the detection of walnut traces in commercial foodstuffs compared with ELISA assays.

Cabanillas B.,Hospital Universitario 12 Of Octubre | Pedrosa M.M.,SGIT INIA | Rodriguez J.,Hospital Universitario 12 Of Octubre | Gonzalez A.,Hospital Universitario 12 Of Octubre | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2010

Enzymatic hydrolysis and further processing are commonly used to produce hypoallergenic dietary products derived from different protein sources, such as cow's milk. Lentils and chickpeas seem to be an important cause of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity in the Mediterranean area and India. Some studies have investigated the effects of enzymatic treatments on the in vitro immunological reactivity of members of the Leguminosae family, such as soybean, chickpea, lentil, and lupine. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies carried out to evaluate the effect on IgE reactivity of these food-hydrolysis products with sera from patients with well-documented allergy to these foods. In this study, lentil protein extract was hydrolyzed by sequential action of an endoprotease (Alcalase) and an exoprotease (Flavourzyme). Immunoreactivity to raw and hydrolyzed lentil extract was evaluated by means of IgE immunoblotting and ELISA using sera from five patients with clinical allergy to lentil. The results indicated that sequential hydrolysis of lentil results in an important proteolytic destruction of IgE-binding epitopes shown by in vitro experiments. However, some allergenic proteins were still detected by sera from four out of five patients in the last step of sequential hydrolyzation. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.

Cabanillas B.,Hospital Universitario 12 Of Octubre | Maleki S.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Rodriguez J.,Hospital Universitario 12 Of Octubre | Burbano C.,SGIT INIA | And 5 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Peanut allergy is recognized as one of the most severe food allergies. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in IgE binding capacity of peanut proteins produced by thermal-processing methods, including autoclaving. Immunoreactivity to raw and thermally processed peanut extracts was evaluated by IgE immunoblot and skin prick test in patients with clinical allergy to peanut. Roasted peanut and autoclaved roasted peanut were selected for IgE ELISA experiments with individual sera, immunoblot experiments with antibodies against peanut allergens (Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3), digestion experiments, and circular dichroism spectroscopy. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed IgE immunoreactivity of roasted peanut proteins decreased significantly at extreme conditions of autoclaving. Circular dichroism experiments showed unfolding of proteins in autoclave treated samples, which makes them more susceptible to digestion. Autoclaving at 2.56 atm, for 30 min, produces a significant decrease of IgE-binding capacity of peanut allergens. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Aguilera Y.,Institute Investigacion Of Ciencias Of La Alimentacion Cial | Diaz M.F.,Institute Ciencia Animal | Jimenez T.,Institute Investigacion Of Ciencias Of La Alimentacion Cial | Benitez V.,Institute Investigacion Of Ciencias Of La Alimentacion Cial | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The present study describes the effects of germination on nonnutritional factors and antioxidant activity in the nonconventional legumes Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean), Lablab purpureus (dolichos), and Stizolobium niveum (mucuna). Protease inhibitors and lectins were detected in raw legumes and were significantly decreased during the germination. Regarding total and individual inositol phosphates (IP5-IP3), important reductions of IP6 and high increases in the rest of inositol phosphates were also detected during this process. In addition, total phenols, catechins, and proanthocyanidins increased, accompanied by an overall rise of antioxidant activity (79.6 μmol of Trolox/g of DW in the case of mucuna). Germination has been shown to be a very effective process to reduce nonnutritional factors and increase bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of these nonconventional legumes. For this reason, they could be used as ingredients to obtain high-value legume flours for food formulation. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Cabanillas B.,Institute Investigacion Hospital 12 Of Octubre I12 | Pedrosa M.M.,SGIT INIA | Rodriguez J.,Institute Investigacion Hospital 12 Of Octubre I12 | Muzquiz M.,SGIT INIA | And 4 more authors.
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2012

Background: Peanut allergy is recognized as one of the most severe food allergies. Some studies have investigated the effects of enzymatic treatments on the in vitro immunological reactivity of members of the Leguminosae family, such as the soybean, chickpea and lentil. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies carried out with sera from patients with a well-documented allergy. Methods: Roasted peanut protein extract was hydrolyzed by the sequential and individual action of 2 food-grade enzymes, an endoprotease (Alcalase) and an exoprotease (Flavourzyme). Immunoreactivity to roasted peanut extract and hydrolyzed samples was evaluated by means of IgE immunoblot, ELISA and 2-dimensional electrophoresis using sera from 5 patients with a clinical allergy to peanuts and anti-Ara h 1, anti-Ara h 2 and anti-Ara h 3 immunoblots. Results: Immunoblot and ELISA assays showed an important decrease of IgE reactivity and Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3 levels in the first 30 min of hydrolyzation with Alcalase. In contrast, individual treatment with Flavourzyme caused an increase in IgE reactivity detected by ELISA at 30 min and led to a 65% inhibition of IgE reactivity at the end of the assay (300 min). Ara h 1 and the basic subunit of Ara h 3 were still recognized after treatment with Flavourzyme for 300 min. Conclusion: Hydrolysis with the endoprotease Alcalase decreases IgE reactivity in the soluble protein fraction of roasted peanut better than hydrolysis with the exoprotease Flavourzyme. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Pedrosa M.M.,SGIT INIA | Cuadrado C.,SGIT INIA | Burbano C.,SGIT INIA | Allaf K.,University of La Rochelle | And 5 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Well-controlled technologies for seed treatment have become a necessity for the food industry. Instant controlled pressure drop treatment (DIC®) is a new and highly controlled process that combines steam pressure (up to 8 bar) with heat (up to 170 °C) for a short time (up to 3 min). The end-product is a whole seed with a porous texture. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of this new (DIC) process on the contents of nutritionally active factors (NAFs) in soybean, lupin, lentil, chickpea and roasted peanut. Unprocessed (control) and processed (DIC treatment under different pressure and time conditions) ground samples were analysed for oligosaccharides, inositol phosphates, trypsin inhibitors and lectins. The effect of DIC treatment on NAFs in legume seeds has shown that this process considerably reduces most of these components; the optimum condition for DIC treatment in all the seeds was DIC-3 (6 bar, 1 min). The main advantages of DIC are its short processing time and the possibility of treating whole seeds for industrial applications. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Munoz M.,SGIT INIA | Alves E.,SGIT INIA | Ramayo-Caldas Y.,University of Barcelona | Casellas J.,University of Barcelona | And 4 more authors.
Animal Genetics | Year: 2012

Studies of the variation in recombination rate across the genome provide a better understanding of evolutionary genomics and are also an important step towards mapping and dissecting complex traits in domestic animals. With the recent completion of the porcine genome sequence and the availability of a high-density porcine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, it is now possible to construct a high-density porcine linkage map and estimate recombination rate across the genome. A total of 416 animals were genotyped with the Porcine SNP60BeadChip, and high-density chromosome linkage maps were constructed using CRI-MAP, assuming the physical order of the Sscrofa10 assembly. The total linkage map length was 2018.79 cM, using 658 meioses and 14 503 SNPs. The estimated average recombination rate across the porcine autosomes was 0.86 cM/Mb. However, a large variation in recombination rate was observed among chromosomes. The estimated average recombination rates (cM/Mb) per chromosome ranged from 0.48 in SSC1 to 1.48 in SSC10, displaying a significant negative correlation with the chromosome sizes. In addition, the analysis of the variation in the recombination rates taking 1-Mb sliding windows has allowed us to demonstrate the variation in recombination rates within chromosomes. In general, a larger recombination rate was observed in the extremes than in the centre of the chromosome. Finally, the ratio between female and male recombination rates was also inferred, obtaining a value of 1.38, with the heterogametic sex having the least recombination. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

PubMed | CSIC - Biological Research Center and SGIT INIA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Microbial biotechnology | Year: 2016

Penicillium oxalicum strain 212 (PO212) is an effective biocontrol agent (BCA) against a large number of economically important fungal plant pathogens. For successful registration as a BCA in Europe, PO212 must be accurately identified. In this report, we describe the use of classical genetic and molecular markers to characterize and identify PO212 in order to understand its ecological role in the environment or host. We successfully generated pyrimidine (pyr-) auxotrophic mutants. In addition we also designed specific oligonucleotides for the pyrF gene at their untranslated regions for rapid and reliable identification and classification of strains of P.oxalicum and P.rubens, formerly P.chrysogenum. Using these DNA-based technologies, we found that PO212 is a strain of P.rubens, and is not a strain of P.oxalicum. This work presents PO212 as the unique P.rubens strain to be described as a BCA and the information contained here serves for its registration and commercialization in Europe.

Picon A.,SGIT INIA | Garcia-Casado M.A.,SGIT INIA | Nunez M.,SGIT INIA
International Dairy Journal | Year: 2010

The increasing demand for tasty dairy products has raised the interest for strains of lactic acid bacteria with novel properties. In this study we have explored the proteolytic system of 24 wild Lactococcus lactis strains isolated previously from Spanish raw milk cheeses, to select proteolytic strains with high peptidase activity and efficient peptide transport capability. Large variations in overall proteolysis, proteolytic activities, as well as in peptide utilization, were recorded among strains. Peptide utilization correlated well with the presence of oligopeptide transport systems (Opp and Dpp) in wild L. lactis strains. Eighteen of the 24 wild L. lactis strains possessed both Opp and Dpp systems, what supports the theory that the presence of both oligopeptide transport systems could confer an advantage to the strain. Differences in the nucleotide sequence of genes coding for the oligopeptide binding proteins were shown by means of restriction endonuclease analyses. Based on the characteristics determined in this work, L. lactis strains ESI197, M21 and P21 seem to be promising candidates for use as components of starter cultures. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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