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Nantes, France

Hesso N.,British Petroleum | Hesso N.,University of Nantes | Hesso N.,University of Minnesota | Loisel C.,British Petroleum | And 10 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Starch is the major ingredient in cakes which are composed from flour, eggs, fat and sugar. Starch gelatinization plays an important role - together with the protein network - in defining the structure and quality of the final product. Rheology, texture and batter thermal and pasting properties were used to determine the effect of ingredients on batter and microcake (cake without bubbles) properties. The rheology of the batter was controlled by the water content which governed the phase transitions of the batter constituents. Differential scanning calorimetry clearly attested that ingredients addition shifted the gelatinization endotherm to higher temperatures. This was in agreement with the MicroViscoAmyloGraph (MVAG) measurements, where the batter ingredients addition to flour increased the pasting temperature and the peak viscosity. When 20% of the flour was replaced by the pregelatinized wheat or maize starch, a decrease in the peak viscosity and setback was observed which could explain the texture improvement. The association of these different techniques helped to better understand the effects of the different ingredients of the batter on starch properties that are important for improving the quality of these high sugar and fat content cakes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Hesso N.,British Petroleum | Hesso N.,University of Nantes | Hesso N.,University of Minnesota | Marti A.,University of Minnesota | And 10 more authors.
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2015

Cake batters - made of flour, egg, sugar and fat - are complex systems. Ingredients interactions and their impact on protein secondary structure and starch conformational structures were studied in model batter systems using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed the possibility of using the pregelatinized starch without affecting protein conformation. The estimation of protein secondary structure highlighted the prevalence of α-helical structures in the model batter system, while β-sheets are predominant in flour systems as known in dough systems. The protein conformation in batter system is related to fat-protein interactions and could explain fat functionality in the final product. Starch crystallinity increased when each ingredient - except for pregelatinized starches - was added to the flour. Changes in starch conformation could be related to the redistribution of water between the batter ingredients. The overall results highlighted the importance of ingredients on the structural conformation of the batter polymers - starch and proteins - which could be the key factor to understand the functional properties of the batter. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Hesso N.,British Petroleum | Hesso N.,University of Nantes | Le-Bail A.,British Petroleum | Le-Bail A.,University of Nantes | And 10 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2015

Cake staling is a complex problem which has still not been fully understood. Starch polymers retrogradation, which is linked to biopolymers recrystallisation, is the most important factor affecting cake firmness in addition to water migration and fat crystallization. In this study, the effect of storage temperatures of 4°C and 20°C on starch retrogradation and fat recrystallization was investigated. Starch retrogradation can be tracked through changes in crystalline structure via X-rays diffraction as well as through melting of crystals via calorimetry. These techniques have been coupled to study the different phenomena occurring during staling. The results revealed that the storage of cakes at 20°C for 25 days showed more starch polymer retrogradation and more intense fat recrystallization in the β form than at 4°C. Consequently, the staling was delayed when a low storage temperature like 4°C was used, which is recommended to retain high quality cakes during storage. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Hesso N.,British Petroleum | Hesso N.,University of Nantes | Loisel C.,British Petroleum | Loisel C.,University of Nantes | And 10 more authors.
Food Hydrocolloids | Year: 2015

Cake batter is a complex matrix essentially composed of lipids, egg, sugar and flour. The baking process plays an important role in the structural, textural and physical properties of cakes, as in all bakery products. Knowledge of the interactions between the ingredients and the induced phenomena, such as starch gelatinization and complexation, protein denaturation and competition for water at the different stages of batter baking, can be used as the key quality control of the end-product "cake". The aim of this work was to investigate in depth the interactions between the different constituents of the batter by differential scanning analysis and heating cell X-ray diffraction on model and real batter systems. The results show that 'three ingredients' model systems can explain the different phenomena occurring during the baking of cake batter (real system). In the presence of sugar and fat, in a limited water system, starch gelatinization takes place in two steps, the largest part being combined with protein denaturation at high temperature. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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