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Salque M.,Organic Geochemistry Unit | Tagliacozzo A.,Sezione di Paleontologia del Quaternario e Archeozoologia | Pino Uria B.,Sezione di Paleontologia del Quaternario e Archeozoologia | Wolfram S.,University of Leipzig | And 8 more authors.
Anthropozoologica | Year: 2012

Analyses of organic residues preserved in ceramic potsherds enable the identification of foodstuffs processed in archaeological vessels. Differences in the isotopic composition of fatty acids allow differentiation of non-ruminant and ruminant fats, as well as adipose and dairy fats. This paper investigates the trends in milk use in areas where sheep and goats are dominant in the faunal assemblage and in some sites from the Linearbandkeramik culture. Sites include: Colle Santo Stefano, Abruzzo, Italy, and the Oldest to Young Linearbandkeramik sites of Zwenkau, Eythra and Brodau, Saxony, and Wang and Niederhummel, Bavaria, Germany. More than 160 potsherds were investigated including cooking pots, bowls, jars, and ceramic sieves. The lipid residues presented provide direct evidence for the processing of ruminant and non-ruminant commodities at Zwenkau and Eythra, despite the absence of faunal remains at the sites. No dairy residues were detected in potsherds from LBK sites, except in a ceramic sieve at Brodau. Lipids from non-ruminant and ruminant fats, including from dairy fats, were detected at the site of Colle Santo Stefano showing a reliance on dairy products during the first half of the sixth millennium at this site; where sheep and goats were the major domestic animals. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle.

Pandolfi L.,Third University of Rome | Tagliacozzo A.,Sezione di Paleontologia del Quaternario e Archeozoologia
Geobios | Year: 2015

During the 1960s, a remarkable collection of rhinoceros postcranial remains was recovered in a Late Pleistocene karst cavity at Valle Radice near Sora (Frosinone, Central Italy). Based on the morphological characters, the specimens are ascribed to Stephanorhinus hemitoechus. This record is the only one with abundant postcranial elements in Italy and Southern Europe; it enables a careful analysis of the most important morphometric features in the postcranial skeleton of the species. The palaeobiogeographic boundaries and the relative biochronological importance of the evolutionary stages of the species in Europe are investigated. The new data suggest the morphometric variability of the species is strictly related to the geographic area; the evolutionary trends described during the past for the postcrania of the species are not confirmed. In Italy, the species is characterised by the presence of large-sized specimens during the Middle and Late Pleistocene, as well as in Great Britain. In Central Europe, the species is characterised by a fluctuation in size with the occurrence of relatively small-sized specimens during MIS 11-8. In the Iberian Peninsula, during the late Middle and Late Pleistocene S. hemitoechus is characterised by the presence of relatively small-sized specimens with respect to those from other European localities; this feature could be related to a geographic isolation. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Pandolfi L.,Third University of Rome | Tagliacozzo A.,Sezione di Paleontologia del Quaternario e Archeozoologia
Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia | Year: 2013

We describe the proximal epiphysis of a rhinoceros third metacarpus collected from the level XI of Grotta Romanelli. This level is chronologically referred to a time span between approximately 80 and 69 ka. Morphological and morphometric characters of the third metacarpus suggest that it belongs to Coelodonta antiquitatis. This is the earliest record of woolly rhino in Italy.

Daujeard C.,French Natural History Museum | Moncel M.-H.,French Natural History Museum | Fiore I.,Sezione di Paleontologia del Quaternario e Archeozoologia | Tagliacozzo A.,Sezione di Paleontologia del Quaternario e Archeozoologia | And 3 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

Diversity in the used bone found in the European Middle Paleolithic is very low, but bone retouchers are the most abundant and the most common. This paper focuses on the detailed study of numerous bone retouchers found in nine Middle Paleolithic sites bordering the French Massif Central in Southeastern France. Multidisciplinary and recent data on chronology and biostratigraphy on the archaeological sequences and the great number of bone retouchers have permitted a meaningful comparative regional analysis. Their occurrences and characteristics allow us to speculate about the skills and choices of the knappers using these bone tools, for instance deliberate selection or opportunistic choices within the butchery remains, as well as commenting on the length of time and the way that sites were occupied. Furthermore, in most of the studied layers we observed a strong disparity between the abundance of bone retouchers and the number of retouched lithic products presents, raising questions about their function and their role within the stone tool reduction sequence (primary retouching, resharpening stone tool cutting-edges, producing marginal and micro-retouch or in some cases semi-Quina retouch). Results are compared with a large European database, allowing us to discuss the characteristics of the bone retouchers in the Neanderthal world. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

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