Sewanee: The University of the South, also known as Sewanee, is a private, coeducational liberal arts college located in Sewanee, Tennessee, United States. It is owned by 28 southern dioceses of the Episcopal Church, and its School of Theology is an official seminary of the church. The university's School of Letters offers graduate degrees in American Literature and Creative Writing. The campus consists of 13,000 acres of scenic mountain property atop the Cumberland Plateau, with the developed portion occupying about 1,000 acres .The school was ranked 38th in the 2014 U.S. News & World Report list of liberal arts colleges. In 2013, Forbes ranked it 91st on its America's Top Colleges list. Sewanee is a member of the Associated Colleges of the South. Wikipedia.
Deegan L.A.,Ecosystems Center |
Johnson D.S.,Ecosystems Center |
Johnson D.S.,Sewanee: The University of the South |
Warren R.S.,Connecticut College |
And 4 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2012
Salt marshes are highly productive coastal wetlands that provide important ecosystem services such as storm protection for coastal cities, nutrient removal and carbon sequestration. Despite protective measures, however, worldwide losses of these ecosystems have accelerated in recent decades. Here we present data from a nine-year whole-ecosystem nutrient-enrichment experiment. Our study demonstrates that nutrient enrichment, a global problem for coastal ecosystems, can be a driver of salt marsh loss. We show that nutrient levels commonly associated with coastal eutrophication increased above-ground leaf biomass, decreased the dense, below-ground biomass of bank-stabilizing roots, and increased microbial decomposition of organic matter. Alterations in these key ecosystem properties reduced geomorphic stability, resulting in creek-bank collapse with significant areas of creek-bank marsh converted to unvegetated mud. This pattern of marsh loss parallels observations for anthropogenically nutrient-enriched marshes worldwide, with creek-edge and bay-edge marsh evolving into mudflats and wider creeks. Our work suggests that current nutrient loading rates to many coastal ecosystems have overwhelmed the capacity of marshes to remove nitrogen without deleterious effects. Projected increases in nitrogen flux to the coast, related to increased fertilizer use required to feed an expanding human population, may rapidly result in a coastal landscape with less marsh, which would reduce the capacity of coastal regions to provide important ecological and economic services. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Yang S.,Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research |
Bachman R.E.,Sewanee: The University of the South |
Feng X.,Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research |
Feng X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University |
Mullen K.,Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013
The development of high-performance electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices, including supercapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cells, is an important step on the road to alternative energy technologies. Carbon-containing nanomaterials (CCNMs), defined here as pure carbon materials and carbon/metal (oxide, hydroxide) hybrids with structural features on the nanometer scale, show potential application in such devices. Because of their pronounced electrochemical activity, high chemical and thermal stability and low cost, researchers areinterested in CCNMs to serve as electrodes in energy-related devices.Various all-carbon materials are candidates for electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices. Furthermore, carbon-based hybrid materials, which consist of a carbon component with metal oxide- or metal hydroxide-based nanostructures, offer the opportunity to combine the attractive properties of these two components and tune the behavior of the resulting materials. As such, the design and synthesis of CCNMs provide an attractive route for the construction of high-performance electrode materials. Studies in these areas have revealed that both the composition and the fabrication protocol employed in preparing CCNMs influence the morphology and microstructure of the resulting material and its electrochemical performance. Consequently, researchers have developed several synthesis strategies, including hard-templated, soft-templated, and template-free synthesis of CCNMs.In this Account, we focus on recent advances in the controlled synthesis of such CCNMs and the potential of the resulting materials for energy storage or conversion applications. The Account is divided into four major categories based on the carbon precursor employed in the synthesis: low molecular weight organic or organometallic molecules, hyperbranched or cross-linked polymers consisting of aromatic subunits, self-assembling discotic molecules, and graphenes. In each case, we highlight representative examples of CCNMs with both new nanostructures and electrochemical performance suitable for energy storage or conversion applications. In addition, this Account provides an overall perspective on the current state of efforts aimed at the controlled synthesis of CCNMs and identifies some of the remaining challenges. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
News Article | March 18, 2016
If having happy, engaged employees is a goal of most businesses, is flextime the simple solution for getting there? Workplace experts admit offering flexible schedules comes with benefits, and a lot of employees say it's important to them. But before you let your employees make their own hours experts say companies need to know the potential pitfalls. Scheduling meetings, and getting prompt answers to calls and emails suffer when employees are on varying work hours, and this could slow the progress on important projects, says Charles Mitchell, cofounder of the recruiting and staffing firm All About People. "The wasted time could really add up," he says. "To head this off, make sure expectations are communicated well ahead of deadlines, and agree on a time during regular hours for that employee to always be available by email or phone." Flextime could impact your relationship with customers, creating bottlenecks when some employees are out, says Mitchell. "Being understaffed can lead to costly gaps in service, and disappoint otherwise loyal customers," he says. "This is another situation that would be partly solved by agreeing on a time during regular business hours that your employee will always be available." If there's competition in the office or if the boss never takes time off, employees may feel pressured to not use the program, and this can lead to a workaholic culture, says Angela Howell, author of Finding the Gift: Daily Meditations for Mindfulness. "At least with nine-to-five employees, there's a suggested starting and stopping point, and a realistic gauge of what's acceptable productivity in a regular workday," she says. Having employees working from home or nontraditional hours also results in less face time and bonding. "In the entrepreneurship world, they call it ‘collision points’ where coffee spots and ping pong tables are intended to ensure employees run into each other to communicate, socialize, and build camaraderie," says Chip Manning, director of the Babson Center for Global Commerce at Sewanee: The University of the South. "Flextime can run counter to this desire." A flextime employee may actually burn out quicker, says Howell. "They may not be working any more hours than before, but they may begin to feel they are always working, or always feel compelled to be working due to the absence of structured hours and a designated work space," she says. You can’t account for distractions outside of the office, adds Mitchell. "If the employee is using work-from-home time when they should probably just be taking a personal day, this can quickly cut into your bottom line," he says. "It helps to communicate clear deadlines and outline everything that employee is responsible for, so there is no confusion." If your flextime policy is too lax, it might lead employees to set up an arrangement where they can do less work and have more time for recreation, says Mitchell. "An unfortunate aspect of human nature is that we seek out what makes us feel good, sometimes at the expense of others," he says. You and your employee must set clear expectations on the scope of work, realistic timetables, and how work is to be delivered. "If anything does not meet these standards, the flextime arrangement should be reevaluated," he says. The biggest challenge with flexibility of all types today, whether it’s flextime or remote work, is that more than half of employees are not trained how to use it, says Cali Williams Yost, CEO of Flex+Strategy Group, a flexible workplace consultant. "As a result a majority who work flexible hours are flying by the seat of their pants," she says. "To optimize the potential of flexibility you first have to know what it is you are trying to achieve on and off the job. Then, you can determine how working flexibly can help you get there as productively as possible." Leaders who view flextime as a surefire vehicle to attract and keep top performers should rethink its power, says Kent Burns, president of Simply Driven Executive Search. Flextime and work-life balance are both 20th-century concepts, he says. "There is no more work-life balance; it’s all life," he says. "The same is true with flextime. It doesn’t exist anymore; there’s just time. Those who experience the most success are the people who can appropriately manage their lives around achieving results versus adhering to concepts like balance and flextime." Burns suggests managing by results, not hours. "Your whole life is an exercise in flextime," he says. "We don’t spend time discussing balance or lack of balance in our lives. I’ve found that if you hire the right people, then you don’t need programs like flextime."
News Article | January 15, 2016
PORTLAND, Ore. — Crazily diverse shapes of male genitals across the animal kingdom — from curlicues and Y-tubes to multiknobbed, tendrilly whazzits — may evolve faster than any other animal structures. Biologists have spent more than a century debating how to explain such fast and extreme variation. Now it’s time to search for explanations in two overlooked places: the female side of sex and the vast variety of places where animals live, researchers proposed early January at the annual meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. Figuring out why male genitals of a species often differ sharply from even its closest relatives’ involves basic, big ideas in biology, said Brandon Moore of Sewanee: The University of the South in Tennessee, who coorganized a symposium on genital diversity. Species arise, flourish or fail depending on whether animals mate and produce offspring or not. “This is where the rubber meets the road in Darwinian evolution,” Moore said. Females supposedly don’t show such variety. But that notion of skimpy female diversity rests mostly on previous generations of biologists eyeballing female genitalia or taking simple measurements, said Patricia Brennan of Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, Mass. “We like to measure length and width,” she said. But maybe what matters in male-female interactions are female structures’ curvatures, slopes and ratios. Revisiting female anatomy with modern methods is what Sarah Mesnick of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Southwest Fisheries Science Center in La Jolla, Calif., and her colleagues are starting to do. Many whales and other cetacean relatives have “odd and unusual vaginal folds,” Mesnick said. A blue plastic cast of the interior cavity of a harbor porpoise vagina shows broad, slanted-sideways valleys left by the drapery of deep folds in the cavity wall. Computers can analyze variations in such hard-to-even-name shapes that plain eyeballing could miss. And more sophisticated understanding of these shapes may help explain what folds do and whether they have an evolutionary impact on male anatomy. Modern genetics suggests that there can be strong links between his and hers shapes. For some fruit flies at least, the same gene, called Poxn,has a major influence on shape in a feature of the genitals of each sex, said Eden McQueen of the University of Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh colleagues in the lab of Mark Rebeiz have identified a network of genes, including Poxn, that control the shape of a stout nubbin called a posterior lobe on male Drosophila genitals. By putting different versions of Poxn into otherwise genetically identical groups of flies, the researchers found that the gene controls not just a male lobe, but also the shape of the oviscapt pouch, a little pocket on female genitals. The lobe and pouch touch only briefly at the beginning of a mating. But altering their shapes changed the length of time flies actually spent copulating. Evolution of shape changes can get complicated under these circumstances. The best shape for the one sex may not create the best for the other. But because of the shared genes, changing one means changing the other. Genetics isn’t the only way to look for possible links between the evolution of male and female sex organs. Michael Lough-Stevens of the University of Southern California in Los Angeles and his colleagues focused on mammals’ mystifying bones: a male’s penis bone (baculum) and a female’s clitoral bone (baubellum). What benefit they offer is unknown, said Matthew Dean, Lough-Stevens’ adviser. Lough-Stevens is annotating a genealogical tree with what he can find in scientific literature about which mammals do or do not have these bones. This tree may eventually give hints about what forces drove the bones’ evolution and how their histories connect. Of the 128 species or groups on his tree so far, 111 have both bones. In gray squirrels, the male and female bones both look like asymmetric alien ice cream scoops only millimeters long. Sometimes, though, the two bones look nothing alike in the same species. Lough-Stevens showed pictures of a wavy cylinder of bone more than 60 centimeters long from a walrus penis compared with a ragged squiggle of bone only about 5 millimeters long from a walrus clitoris. Ten of the 128 groups have just a male’s baculum, and the rest, including humans, rabbits and hedgehogs, have neither. So far, Lough-Stevens hasn’t found mammals in which the females have a baubellum but the males have no baculum. He wonders whether lineages that lose genital bones over time tend to lose the female’s first. Female anatomy has not been the only overlooked topic in the discussion of male genital diversity. Animals live in wildly diverse places and the demands of adapting could explain some divergent anatomy, said Brian Langerhans of North Carolina State University in Raleigh. His recent work focuses on female fish anatomy and its links to environmental diversity, but he has found male examples, too. Gambusia mosquitofish living among predators in the Bahamas tend to grow smaller sperm-delivery organs (gonopodia) than males in safer waters. Females prefer the bigger size, but it’s a disadvantage during bursts of escape swimming. Even human changes to the landscape can affect animal genital shape, said Justa Heinen-Kay, also at NC State and Langerhans’ student. Roadbuilding in the Bahamas has blocked off some waterways that used to connect to the sea. Male mosquitofish now living in these closed-off waters no longer contend with big predatory fish from the sea cruising in. And the tips of these mosquitofish gonopodia have widened somewhat. That change may reflect tranquil circumstances that allow males to rely more on female cooperation in transferring sperm, Heinen-Kay and her colleagues reported in Evolutionary Applications in 2014. Thus highway planning could also join the list of overlooked sources of diversity in the mystery of male diversity. There’s more work in progress, although meeting attendees commiserated about people who just giggle at the work instead of grappling with the big concepts. Ultimately, what may be the biggest missing factor in this line of research is widespread grasp of its weight as science.
News Article | February 15, 2017
Given our culture’s fixation on apps and automation, it’s easy to overlook the most important element in every organization’s success: people—their aspirations and fears, their attachment to place and craving for respect, their desire for dignity and receptivity to fads. This focus on identifying, addressing and leveraging the drivers of human action is the premise behind the re-launch of the Brandsinger consulting firm, which has expanded its team of partners to bring clients cross-disciplinary perspectives—from economics to psychology to the history of ideas. The new Brandsinger works in small, efficient teams to develop business and brand strategies that are grounded in renewed appreciation for the primacy of humanity over technology, values over abstract agendas, and relationships over sterile processes. “There’s a huge opportunity to humanize organizations and better leverage their culture and values,” said Claude Singer, the firm’s Managing Partner. “Since the industrial revolution, progress has threatened to turn workers into machine parts. In today’s turbulent markets, respecting the dignity of employees—and by extension, customers—amplifies what an organization can accomplish. It’s the perfect time to focus on the human element.” Since its founding in 2008, Brandsinger has provided solutions for organizations of all sizes—from Fortune 500 companies to small colleges—helping them reach and motivate customers, staff and partners. Said Singer: “Our team is able to equip clients with strategies that solve their problems and have emotional punch through a nimble, tightly run process.“ Remington Tonar, a new partner with a diverse background in the social sciences and IT, is a longtime champion of applying humanities-influenced thinking to business. “Technological innovation is undoubtedly critical to success. But in the rush to digitize products and automate work, leaders must make sure to consider the convictions, culture and capabilities of customers, employees and other stakeholders.” Tennyson Singer, a new partner with a background in finance and linguistics, said: “Organizations that lead in the 21st century will be those that analyze their issues from a people-first perspective. Leading hospitals will be the ones that improve care delivery, not just medical technologies. Leading manufacturers will be those who recognize that productivity is as much about internal culture as it is about incentives. The leading universities will have redefined their value proposition for the first time in a century to attract the right students today. As the world changes, strategies that start and end with people will end up being the most effective, differentiating and successful.” _________ Brandsinger is the consulting firm that solves critical business and brand problems by focusing on the human dimension of organizations and markets. Because organizations are made of people and sell their products and services to people, we believe that the best strategies are anchored in a deep understanding and leveraging of the cultural, economic and psychological drivers of human behavior. With clients of all sizes from multinational companies to startups, and with expertise spanning sectors from manufacturing to financial services to higher education, Brandsinger helps clients develop strategies that solve problems, inspire action and drive growth. Brandsinger was founded in 2008 as a Connecticut-based LLC and is headquartered in New York City. _________ Claude Singer is the firm’s Founder and Managing Partner. He is a veteran of senior positions at branding firms Siegelvision, Siegel+Gale, and Lippincott. A former corporate speechwriter, VP at Aetna and VP at Chemical Bank, Claude holds a BA from Reed College and PhD from the University of Washington. Remington Tonar is an accomplished consultant and social scientist whose expertise ranges from strategic planning to digital innovation to market research. He holds graduate degrees from NYU and Loyola University Chicago. Tennyson Singer is a proven brand and marketing strategist. A former senior consultant at Siegelvision, he previously worked in analysis in private equity. He holds degrees in economics and French from Sewanee: The University of the South.
Finkelhor D.,University of New Hampshire |
Shattuck A.,University of New Hampshire |
Turner H.A.,University of New Hampshire |
Hamby S.L.,Sewanee: The University of the South
Journal of Adolescent Health | Year: 2014
Purpose To estimate the likelihood that a recent cohort of children would be exposed to sexual abuse and sexual assault by age 17 in the United States. Methods This analysis draws on three very similarly designed national telephone surveys of youth in 2003, 2008, and 2011, resulting in a pooled sample of 708 17-year-olds, 781 15-year-olds, and 804 16-year-olds. Results The lifetime experience of 17-year-olds with sexual abuse and sexual assault was 26.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19.8-33.5) for girls and 5.1% (95% CI 2.6-7.6) for boys. The lifetime experience with sexual abuse and sexual assault at the hands of adult perpetrators exclusively was 11.2% (95% CI 6.4-16.1) for females and 1.9% (95% CI.5-3.4) for males. For females, considerable risk for sexual abuse and assault was concentrated in late adolescence, as the rate rose from 16.8% (95% CI 11.5-22.2) for 15-year-old females to 26.6% (95% CI 19.8-33.5) for 17-year-old females. For males, it rose from 4.3% (95% CI 1.9-6.8) at 15 years to 5.1% (2.6-7.6) at 17 years. Conclusions Self-report surveys in late adolescence reveal high rates of lifetime experience with sexual abuse and sexual assault at the hands of both adults and peers. Because of high continuing victimization during the late teen years, assessments are most complete when conducted among the oldest youth. © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
News Article | December 14, 2016
In the aftermath of November's election, many have expressed distress at an apparent wave of reported bias incidents. There were 867 reported incidents of language or behavior in which bias or prejudice played a role in the 10 days following the election, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center, an antibigotry advocacy group. One of the most visible such events occurred on December 6, when a man screamed “terrorist” at a hijab-wearing New York City transit worker and pushed her down the stairs in Grand Central Station. An unidentified “good Samaritan” stepped in and took the woman to the hospital. Was that the right thing to do? Did the helpful bystander risk danger? Was the action typical of most bystanders? Over the past few decades researchers have studied the behavior of bystanders at violent incidents. They have discovered factors that motivate these people to act or do nothing. They have also studied the result of various forms of intervention, both for the bystanders and for the victims. Early research found that the more witnesses there were to an incident, the less individual responsibility to act each person felt. Subsequent study has discovered, however, that witness response is far more complicated. In fact, experts say, whether and how to act in such a situation involves a complex calculus in almost all circumstances. But learning the best possible approaches can help prepare you, should you ever witness an aggressor threatening or harming someone. —Prepare yourself by thinking ahead or getting training. If you see a news story about a bias incident, suggests Sherry Hamby, an expert on the psychology of violence at Sewanee: The University of the South, “Role-play in your head what you would do and say. That may help you be more ready.” —Stay alert to potential incidents. That’s one of the things taught by Elena Waldman, executive director and instructor of Artemis, a self-defense training organization located in New York and other east coast cities. “If I see an agitated or menacing person stalking another person,” she says, “maybe I’ll strike up a conversation with the vulnerable person. I might even say, ‘That guy over there is giving me a bad vibe. Is it okay if I stand here?’ I might ask another person to stand near us, just to create a safer space.” —Call 911 immediately if there’s violence. This sounds obvious, but in the heat of the moment not everyone thinks to do it first, experts say. Then try to apply first aid if you have had training. Offer comfort and a sense of safety. —Consider what feels safe before you attempt any intervention. Research by Hamby and her colleagues shows that a significant number of people are harmed when intervening. That's bad enough—but in addition, she says, “It was more traumatizing to the victim if the bystander made it worse or got harmed. It’s trickier than it’s treated to be a helpful bystander.” —Don’t confront the aggressor with angry talk or violence. If you talk to the aggressor at all, do it in a mild and unchallenging way. “We all think we are going to be Harrison Ford in a movie,” Hamby says. It’s important, she says, not to escalate the situation. Instead, defuse the tension by changing the subject or even using humor. If the attacks are just verbal, she suggests you move closer to the victim and talk to him or her about something unrelated such as the weather or a popular television show, or pay them a compliment such as, “Love your outfit!” “You can act like you didn't even notice the person harassing the victim,” she says. —Aid the victim. Ask whether he or she needs help; whether it is a ride or calling a friend. —Enlist other bystanders. Often they will join you if you ask. —Record the incident. If it feels safe, photograph or video the scene and the person. Or memorize everything about the attacker and the incident, including the actual words used. “The words used in the commission of the act,” says Los Angeles criminal defense attorney Kacey McBroom, “can be the difference between a regular crime and a hate crime.” Remember that intervening is a personal decision. In such a threatening situation many people feel frightened and freeze. Decisions often have to be made within seconds. A former Navy Seal may decide to act in a way you wouldn’t—and depending on the situation, that might make things better or worse. At a minimum, you can call 911. If you want to be better prepared, Waldman says, there are free or low-cost bystander classes at empowerment self-defense organizations around the country. For additional resources, she recommends the National Women’s Martial Arts Federation Web site. At Artemis, “We have lots of people of all genders in our classes,” she adds. The fact that so many people are distressed by these bias incidents can be seen as a good thing. “The sky is not falling,” says David Lehrer, president of the human rights organization Community Advocates and a former executive of the Anti-Defamation League. “We believe Americans are more tolerant than ever before. The trends are in the right direction.”
Hart F.X.,Sewanee: The University of the South
Bioelectromagnetics | Year: 2010
The physical mechanism by which cells transduce an applied electric field is not well understood. This article establishes for the first time a direct, quantitative model that links the field to cytoskeletal forces. In a previous article, applied electric fields of physiological strength were shown to produce significant mechanical torques at the cellular level. In this article, the corresponding forces exerted on the cytoskeleton are computed and found to be comparable in magnitude to mechanical forces known to produce physiological effects. In addition to the electrical force, the viscous drag force exerted by the surrounding medium and the restoring force exerted by the neighboring structures are considered in the analysis. For an applied electric field of 10 V/m, the force transmitted to the CD44 receptor of a hyaluronan chain in cartilage is about 1 pN at 10Hz and 7 pN at 1 Hz. For an applied electric field of 100 V/m, the force transmitted to the cytoskeleton at one focus of the glycocalyx is about 0.5 pN at 10 Hz and 1.3 pN at 1 Hz. Mechanical forces of similar magnitude have been observed to produce physiological effects. Hence, this electromechanical transduction process is a plausible mechanism for the production of physiological effects by such electric fields. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Fielding R.,Sewanee: The University of the South
Geoforum | Year: 2014
This paper examines ways in which a coastline, specifically the swash zone on a particular Caribbean beach, serves to inform our understanding of liminal spaces. At the precise place where the landscape transitions from sea to land with each wave's ebb and flow, artisanal whalers from the island of St. Vincent unload their day's catch and begin the process of turning animals into food products. The shoreline can be seen as a space to which the marine mammals are brought for the purpose of a multifaceted transition, in which their identities, physical forms, and even status as living organisms are changed. By examining the specific transitions that occur in this space, and by questioning why these transitions do not occur elsewhere, this paper sheds light on concepts of land and sea, life and death, and the gendering of space-all of which undergo a defined transition at the water's edge on this particular coastline. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Hamby S.,Sewanee: The University of the South
Trauma, Violence, and Abuse | Year: 2014
The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current status of scientific knowledge on intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence, with a particular focus on the measurement of gender patterns. A multimethod analysis of estimates for the incidence and prevalence of intimate and sexual aggression reveals consistencies across some methodologies and inconsistencies across others. In particular, self-report using behavioral checklists such as the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales yields results that are very discrepant from other research findings. Contrary to some assertions, self-report studies using simple checklists do not represent "most data" on intimate violence; there are large criminological and public health databases that warrant attention. When these sources are considered and placed in the context of other data on violence and aggression, a clear pattern of gender asymmetry emerges, with males perpetrating more physical and sexual violence than females for virtually every form of violence ever studied. Violence research has been hampered by the conservative forces that affect most social science research, including peer review, grant review, and tenure review processes that discourage methodological innovation and reward incremental research studies. We need to focus resources on scientific and technological innovation to better understand violent phenomena and better serve all those involved in violence. Two examples of self-report methods that do not produce gender symmetry are described. © The Author(s) 2014.