Severn Trent Water LTD.

Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom

Severn Trent Water LTD.

Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom
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Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Training Grant | Award Amount: 3.68M | Year: 2014

The UK water sector is experiencing a period of profound change with both public and private sector actors seeking evidence-based responses to a host of emerging global, regional and national challenges which are driven by demographic, climatic, and land use changes as well as regulatory pressures for more efficient delivery of services. Although the UK Water Industry is keen to embrace the challenge and well placed to innovate, it lacks the financial resources to support longer term skills and knowledge generation. A new cadre of engineers is required for the water industry to not only make our society more sustainable and profitable but to develop a new suite of goods and services for a rapidly urbanising world. EPSRC Centres for Doctoral Training provide an ideal mechanism with which to remediate the emerging shortfall in advanced engineering skills within the sector. In particular, the training of next-generation engineering leaders for the sector requires a subtle balance between industrial and academic contributions; calling for a funding mechanism which privileges industrial need but provides for significant academic inputs to training and research. The STREAM initiative draws together five of the UKs leading water research and training groups to secure the future supply of advanced engineering professionals in this area of vital importance to the UK. Led by the Centre for Water Science at Cranfield University, the consortium also draws on expertise from the Universities of Sheffield and Bradford, Imperial College London, Newcastle University, and the University of Exeter. STREAM offers Engineering Doctorate and PhD awards through a programme which incorporates; (i) acquisition of advanced technical skills through attendance at masters level training courses, (ii) tuition in the competencies and abilities expected of senior engineers, and (iii) doctoral level research projects. Our EngD students spend at least 75% of their time working in industry or on industry specified research problems. Example research topics to be addressed by the schemes students include; delivering drinking water quality and protecting public health; reducing carbon footprint; reducing water demand; improving service resilience and reliability; protecting natural water bodies; reducing sewer flooding, developing and implementing strategies for Integrated Water Management, and delivering new approaches to characterising, communicating and mitigating risk and uncertainty. Fifteen studentships per year for five years will be offered with each position being sponsored by an industrial partner from the water sector. A series of common attendance events will underpin programme and group identity. These include, (i) an initial three-month taught programme based at Cranfield University, (ii) an open invitation STREAM symposium and (iii) a Challenge Week to take place each summer including transferrable skills training and guest lectures from leading industrialists and scientists. Outreach activities will extend participation in the programme, pursue collaboration with associated initiatives, promote brand awareness of the EngD qualification, and engage with a wide range of stakeholder groups (including the public) to promote engagement with and understanding of STREAM activities. Strategic direction for the programme will be formulated through an Industry Advisory Board comprising representatives from professional bodies, employers, and regulators. This body will provide strategic guidance informed by sector needs, review the operational aspects of the taught and research components as a quality control, and conduct foresight studies of relevant research areas. A small International Steering Committee will ensure global relevance for the programme. The total cost of the STREAM programme is £9m, £2.8m of which is being invested by industry and £1.8m by the five collaborating universities. Just under £4.4m is being requested from EPSRC

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: WATER-1b-2015 | Award Amount: 9.77M | Year: 2016

SMART-Plant will scale-up in real environment eco-innovative and energy-efficient solutions to renovate existing wastewater treatment plants and close the circular value chain by applying low-carbon techniques to recover materials that are otherwise lost. 7\2 pilot systems will be optimized fore > 2 years in real environment in 5 municipal water treatment plants, inclunding also 2 post-processing facilities. The systems will be authomatisedwith the aim of optimizing wastewater treatment, resource recovery, energy-efficiency and reduction of greenhouse emissions. A comprehensive SMART portfolio comprising biopolymers, cellulose, fertilizersand intermediates will be recoveredand processed up to the final commercializable end-products. The integration of resource recovery assets to system-wide asset management programs will be evaluated in each site following the resource recovery paradigm for the wastewater treatment plant of the future, enabled through SMART-Plant solutions. The project will prove the feasibility of circular management of urban wastewater and environmental sustainability of the systems, to be demonstrated through Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing approaches to prove the global benefit of the scaled-up water solutions. Dynamic modeling and superstructure framework for decision support will be developed and validated to identify the optimum SMART-Plant system integration options for recovered resources and technologies.Global market deployment will be achieved as right fit solution for water utilities and relevant industrial stakeholders, considering the strategic implications of the resource recovery paradigm in case of both public and private water management. New public-private partnership models will be explored connecting the water sector to the chemical industry and its downstream segments such asthe contruction and agricultural sector, thus generating new opportunities for funding, as well as potential public-private competition.

Williams R.J.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | Churchley J.H.,Severn Trent Water Ltd. | Kanda R.,Severn Trent Laboratories | Johnson A.C.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2012

Predicted concentrations of estrone, 17β-estradiol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol generated from a geographical information systems-based model (LF2000-WQX) have previously been used to assess the risk of causing intersex in male fish in the rivers of England and Wales, United Kingdom. Few measured data of sufficient quality and spatial extent have been available to verify this risk assessment. New measured data have been collected from sewage treatment plant effluents and the receiving waters upstream and downstream of these discharges from the Erewash River and the Avon River systems in England. The model results for these rivers were in good agreement with the measured values in terms of estradiol equivalents. Critically, the risk assessment based on the measured data gave a risk assessment nearly identical to that derived from the modeled results. For individual estrogens, 17α-ethinylestradiol was modeled best and estrone worst. Poor simulations reflected poor estimates of the effluent concentrations, which were more variable from day to day and between works of nominally similar type than is assumed in the model. In support of this, model results for the Erewash River, calculated using observed effluent concentrations, were in excellent agreement with the measured data. The model has proved to be adequate in predicting overall estrogenic potency, and therefore risk, along these rivers; however, improvements are possible, particularly in predicting STP removal efficiency and therefore effluent concentrations. © 2012 SETAC.

Knowles P.R.,Aston University | Griffin P.,Severn Trent Water Ltd | Davies P.A.,Aston University
Water Research | Year: 2010

A combination of experimental methods was applied at a clogged, horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) municipal wastewater tertiary treatment wetland (TW) in the UK, to quantify the extent of surface and subsurface clogging which had resulted in undesirable surface flow. The three dimensional hydraulic conductivity profile was determined, using a purpose made device which recreates the constant head permeameter test in-situ. The hydrodynamic pathways were investigated by performing dye tracing tests with Rhodamine WT and a novel multi-channel, data-logging, flow through Fluorimeter which allows synchronous measurements to be taken from a matrix of sampling points. Hydraulic conductivity varied in all planes, with the lowest measurement of 0.1 m d-1 corresponding to the surface layer at the inlet, and the maximum measurement of 1550 m d-1 located at a 0.4 m depth at the outlet. According to dye tracing results, the region where the overland flow ceased received five times the average flow, which then vertically short-circuited below the rhizosphere. The tracer break-through curve obtained from the outlet showed that this preferential flow-path accounted for approximately 80% of the flow overall and arrived 8 h before a distinctly separate secondary flow-path. The overall volumetric efficiency of the clogged system was 71% and the hydrology was simulated using a dual-path, dead-zone storage model. It is concluded that uneven inlet distribution, continuous surface loading and high rhizosphere resistance is responsible for the clog formation observed in this system. The average inlet hydraulic conductivity was 2 m d-1, suggesting that current European design guidelines, which predict that the system will reach an equilibrium hydraulic conductivity of 86 m d-1, do not adequately describe the hydrology of mature systems. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Jarvis P.,Cranfield University | Sharp E.,Severn Trent Water Ltd. | Pidou M.,University of Queensland | Molinder R.,University of Leeds | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2012

Coagulation in drinking water treatment has relied upon iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) salts throughout the last century to provide the bulk removal of contaminants from source waters containing natural organic matter (NOM). However, there is now a need for improved treatment of these waters as their quality deteriorates and water quality standards become more difficult to achieve. Alternative coagulant chemicals offer a simple and inexpensive way of doing this. In this work a novel zirconium (Zr) coagulant was compared against traditional Fe and Al coagulants. The Zr coagulant was able to provide between 46 and 150% lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC) residual in comparison to the best traditional coagulant (Fe). In addition floc properties were significantly improved with larger and stronger flocs forming when the Zr coagulant was used with the median floc sizes being 930 μm for Zr; 710 μm for Fe and 450 μm for Al. In pilot scale experiments, a similar improved NOM and particle removal was observed. The results show that when optimised for combined DOC removal and low residual turbidity, the Zr coagulant out-performed the other coagulants tested at both bench and pilot scale. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Autin O.,Cranfield University | Romelot C.,University of Poitiers | Rust L.,TU Berlin | Hart J.,Severn Trent Water LTD. | And 4 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2013

There is growing interest in using light emitting diodes (LEDs) as alternative to traditional mercury lamps for the removal of micropollutants by advanced oxidation processes due to their low energy consumption and potential for high efficiency and long lifetime. This study investigates the penetration and coverage of the light emitted by LEDs in order to build an optimised LED collimated beam apparatus. From the experimental data, cost analysis was conducted in order to identify when LEDs will become economically viable. It was observed that if their development follows the predictions, LEDs should be a viable alternative to traditional lamps within 7yr for both UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 processes. However, parameters such as wall plug efficiency and input power need to improve for LEDs to become competitive. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Filby A.L.,University of Exeter | Shears J.A.,University of Exeter | Drage B.E.,AquaRite Ltd. | Churchley J.H.,Severn Trent Water Ltd. | Tyler C.R.,University of Exeter
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Whether the implementation of additional treatments for the removal of estrogens from wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) effluents will eliminate their feminizing effects in exposed wildlife has yet to be established, and this information is crucial for future decisions on investment into WwTWs. Here, granular activated carbon (GAC), ozone (O3), and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) were investigated for their effectiveness in reducing steroidal estrogen levels in a WwTW effluent and assessments made on the associated estrogenic and reproductive responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed for 21 days. All treatments reduced the estrogenicity of the standard-treated (STD) effluent, but with different efficacies; ranging between 70-100% for total estrogenicity and 53-100% for individual steroid estrogens. In fish exposed to the GAC- and ClO2- (but not O3-) treated effluents, there was no induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) or reduction in the weight of the fatpad, a secondary sex character in males, as occurred for fish exposed to STD effluent. This finding suggests likely benefits of employing these treatment processes for the reproductive health in wild fish populations living in rivers receiving WwTW discharges. Exposure of pair-breeding minnows to the GAC-treated effluent, however, resulted in a similar inhibition of egg production to that occurring for exposure to the STD effluent (34-40%). These data, together with a lack of effect on egg production of the estrogen, ethinylestradiol (10 ng/L), alone, suggest that chemical/physical properties of the effluents rather than their estrogenicity were responsible for the reproductive effect and that these factor(s) were not remediated for through GAC treatment. Collectively, our findings illustrate the importance of assessing integrative biological responses, rather than biomarkers alone, in the assessment and improvement of WwTW technologies for the protection of wild fish populations. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Autin O.,Cranfield University | Hart J.,Severn Trent Water Ltd | Jarvis P.,Cranfield University | MacAdam J.,Cranfield University | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2013

The impact of background constituents on the degradation of trace levels of micropollutants by two advanced oxidation processes: UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 was studied. Experimental results demonstrated that the background scavenging rate rather than the concentration of micropollutant controls the required UV irradiation dose. The character of the natural organic matter had a limited impact on scavenging when the water source remains unchanged, however, a periodic bleed of hydrophobic material may substantially increase the minimum UV dose required to reach the desired micropollutant concentration. Moreover, in the case of UV/TiO2, high concentrations of background organic matter do not only act as scavengers but also saturate the TiO2 surface. Alkalinity inhibits the efficacy of UV/TiO2 photocatalysis due to the formation of large TiO2 aggregates. The study also demonstrated that the use of synthetic waters for treatability test purposes was an acceptable approach as long as both the background organic matter and the alkalinity were matched to that of the projected application. Finally spiking micropollutants at higher concentrations does not alter the significance of the findings as long as the background constituents represent more than 85% of the total scavenging rate. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Autin O.,Cranfield University | Hart J.,Severn Trent Water Ltd. | Jarvis P.,Cranfield University | MacAdam J.,Cranfield University | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2012

The kinetics of photodegradation of the pesticide metaldehyde by UV/H 2O 2 and UV/TiO 2 in laboratory grade water and a natural surface water were studied. Experiments were carried out in a bench scale collimated beam device using UVC radiation. Metaldehyde was efficiently degraded by both processes in laboratory grade water at identical rates of degradation (0.0070 and 0.0067 cm 2 mJ -1 for UV/TiO 2 and UV/H 2O 2 respectively) when optimised doses were used. The ratio between oxidant and metaldehyde was significantly higher for H 2O 2 due to its low photon absorption efficiency at 254 nm. However, the presence of background organic compounds in natural water severely affected the rate of degradation, and whilst the pseudo first-order rate constant of degradation by UV/H 2O 2 was slowed down (0.0020 cm 2 mJ -1), the degradation was completely inhibited for the UV/TiO 2 process (k' = 0.00007 cm 2 mJ -1) due to the blockage of active sites on TiO 2 surface by the background organic material. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

SEVERN TRENT WATER Ltd | Date: 2014-05-22

A device and method for permanent sealing of a connection between a larger diameter water pipe and a smaller diameter water pipe provided by a valved fitting. The device includes a first member and a second member for securing the first member to the larger diameter pipe. The first member defines a chamber for receiving the valved fitting and has a profile for engagement with the external surface of the larger diameter pipe surrounding the valved fitting and an inlet to the chamber for introducing a settable sealing material.

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