Martinho Campos, Brazil
Martinho Campos, Brazil

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Passos M.A.,Severino Sombra University | Portari-Filho P.E.,Gafree Guinle Hospital UNIRIO
Arquivos brasileiros de cirurgia digestiva : ABCD = Brazilian archives of digestive surgery | Year: 2016

Background: : Elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy has very low risk for infectious complications, ranging the infection rate from 0.4% to 1.1%. Many surgeons still use routine antibiotic prophylaxis.Aim: : Evaluate the real impact of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomies in low risk patients.Method:: Prospective, randomized and double-blind study. Were evaluated 100 patients that underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy divided in two groups: group A (n=50), patients that received prophylaxis using intravenous Cephazolin (2 g) during anesthetic induction and group B (n=50), patients that didn't receive any antibiotic prophylaxis. The outcome evaluated were infeccious complications at surgical site. The patients were reviewed seven and 30 days after surgery.Results:: There was incidence of 2% in infection complications in group A and 2% in group B. There was no statistical significant difference of infectious complications (p=0,05) between the groups. The groups were homogeneous and comparable.Conclusion:: The use of the antibiotic prophylaxis in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in low risk patients doesn't provide any significant benefit in the decrease of surgical wound infection.Racional: : A colecistectomia laparoscópica eletiva apresenta risco muito baixo para complicações infecciosas, com média de infecção entre 0,4% a 1,1%. Muitos cirurgiões ainda utilizam de rotina profilaxia antibiótica.Objetivo: : Avaliar a real necessidade de profilaxia antibiótica em colecistectomias laparoscópicas eletivas em pacientes de baixo risco para infecção do sítio cirúrgico.Método: : Estudo prospectivo, randomizado e duplo-cego, em pacientes submetidos à colecistectomia laparoscópica eletiva, envolvendo 100 pacientes em dois grupos: A (n=50), que receberam profilaxia com cefazolina 2 g intravenoso na indução anestésica; B (n=50), não foi utilizado antibiótico. O desfecho avaliado foi presença de complicações infecciosas de sítio cirúrgico. Os pacientes foram revisados em sete e 30 dias no pós-operatório.Resultados: : As taxas de complicações infecciosas foi de 2% no grupo A e de também 2% no grupo B. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa (p>0,05) entre os grupos que foram homogêneos e comparáveis.Conclusão:: A antibioticoprofilaxia na colecistectomia laparoscópica em pacientes de baixo risco não apresenta nenhum benefício significativo na redução da incidência de infecção do sítio cirúrgico.

Bortolon P.C.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca | de Andrade C.L.T.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca | de Andrade C.A.F.,Institute Pesquisa Clinica Evandro Chagas | de Andrade C.A.F.,Severino Sombra University
Cadernos de Saude Publica | Year: 2011

Osteoporosis is a multifactorial syndrome of the skeletal system, and hip fracture is the most serious consequence for the elderly, due to the high mortality and cost. This article describes osteoporotic hip fractures in Brazilian elderly in 2006-2008. Secondary data were obtained from the Authorization Forms for Hospital Admissions (AIH) and allowed the creation of indicators for hip fracture in elders. The proportion of elderly patients hospitalized for hip fractures in the Unified National Health System was 1%. The percentages of hospital admissions and deaths were higher in females, and increased with age. Hip fractures accounted for approximately 2% of health care expenditures for persons 60 years or older. Length of hospital stay ranged from one to seven days, 50.1% occurred in charity hospitals, and 42.7% occurred outside the county of residence. The findings emphasize the need for greater attention to osteoporosis and show the relevance of costs in hospital admissions for elderly with osteoporotic hip fractures. Understanding such hospitalizations can contribute to the formulation of health policies to address this issue.

PubMed | Servico de Biotecnologia Vegetal, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz and Severino Sombra University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medical entomology | Year: 2017

Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a mosquito species that has adapted to urban environments and is the main vector of dengue viruses. Because of the increasing incidence of dengue, a more environmentally acceptable insecticide needs to be found. Natural products have been and continue to be an important source of leading compounds that can be modified in order to develop new drugs. The lignan family of natural products includes compounds with a diverse spectrum of biological activity. Podophyllotoxin and its related lignans represent an exciting class of natural products that can be targeted at different types of biological activity and are therefore worth exploring further. This study had the aim of evaluating the larvicidal activity of an ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of Podophyllum hexandrum (PM-3) and its isolated lignans, podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2), on the larvae of the mosquito vector Ae. aegypti. The PM-3 extract and the compounds (1) and (2) were dissolved in a mixture of acetone and dimethylsulfoxide at final concentrations of 1, 10, 30, 50, 100, and 200g/ml. After dilution, the solutions were applied (g/ml) to the larvae-rearing medium. Overall, the ethanolic extract from the rhizomes and roots of P. hexandrum and the compounds (1) and (2) showed larvicidal activity against the larvae of Ae. aegypti According to the results from this study, it can be concluded that podophyllotoxone (1) and desoxypodophyllotoxin (2) exhibited significant toxicity toward Ae. aegypti larvae.

PubMed | Federal University of Fluminense, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Federal University of Piauí, Severino Sombra University and University Center Serra dos Orgaos
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neurology international | Year: 2016

The motor imagery (MI) has been proposed as a treatment in the complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1), since it seems to promote a brain reorganization effect on sensory-motor areas of pain perception. The aim of this paper is to investigate, through an integrative critical review, the influence of MI on the CRPS-1, correlating their evidence to clinical practice. Research in PEDro, Medline, Bireme and Google Scholar databases was conducted. Nine randomized controlled trials (level 2), 1 non-controlled clinical study (level 3), 1 case study (level 4), 1 systematic review (level 1), 2 review articles and 1 comment (level 5) were found. We can conclude that MI has shown effect in reducing pain and functionality that remains after 6 months of treatment. However, the difference between the MI strategies for CRPS-1 is unknown as well as the intensity of mental stress influences the painful response or effect of MI or other peripheral neuropathies.

Soares G.P.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Soares G.P.,Severino Sombra University | Dias Brum J.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | de Oliveira G.M.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | And 2 more authors.
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia | Year: 2013

Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death in Brazil. Objective: To correlate cardiovascular mortality rates in the states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul, and in their capitals, between 1980 and 2008, with socioeconomic indicators collected from 1949 onwards. Methods: Population and death data were obtained from the Brazilian Unified Health System databank (Datasus). Mortality rates due to the following were calculated and adjusted by use of the direct method and compensated for poorly defined causes: ischemic heart diseases; cerebrovascular diseases; cardiovascular diseases; poorly defined causes; and all causes. Child mortality data were obtained from state and municipal health secretariats and from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Information on gross domestic product (GDP) and educational level was obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Applied Economic Research (Ipea). The mortality rates and socioeconomic indicators were correlated by using the estimation of Pearson linear coefficients to determine optimized year lag. The inclination coefficients of the regression between the dependent variable "disease" and the independent variable "socioeconomic indicator" were estimated. Results: The three states showed a reduction in mortality, which was especially due to a decrease in cardiovascular mortality, mainly of cerebrovascular diseases. The decrease in cardiovascular mortality was preceded by a reduction in child mortality, an elevation in the per capita GDP, and an increase in the educational level, and a strong correlation between indicators and mortality rates was observed. Conclusion: The three indicators showed an almost maximum correlation with the reduction in cardiovascular mortality. Such relationship indicates the importance of improving quality of life to reduce cardiovascular mortality.

Valenca A.M.,Federal University of Fluminense | Valenca A.M.,Severino Sombra University | Mendlowicz M.V.,Federal University of Fluminense | Nascimento I.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Nardi A.E.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2011

The objective of the study was to describe and discuss the cases of two women who faced criminal charges, one for attempting to murder her three children and the other for killing her 1-year-old boy. After a forensic psychiatric assessment of their level of criminal responsibility, these patients were considered not guilty by reason of insanity and were committed to forensic mental hospitals. These two patients received a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia, according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. In both cases, psychotic symptoms were present before the manifestation of violent behavior, in the form of persecutory delusions, auditory hallucinations, and pathological impulsivity. The investigation into cases of filicide may contribute powerfully to expand our understanding of motivational factors underlying this phenomenon and enhance the odds for effective prevention. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

Nunez E.,Severino Sombra University | Couri M.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia | Year: 2012

The unique species of Uruleskia Townsend, 1934 (Diptera, Tachinidae) - U. aurescens Townsend, 1934 - is recorded only from Brazil. Its holotype and paratypes are herein redescribed with illustration of male terminalia. The examination of a material mainly from Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brazil) enabled the description of four new species - Uruleskia alba sp. nov., Uruleskia extremipilosa sp. nov., Uruleskia infima sp. nov. and Uruleskia parcapilosa sp. nov. A key to the identification of all five species is also presented.

PubMed | University of Nevada, Reno, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz and Severino Sombra University
Type: | Journal: Forensic science international | Year: 2016

A species-specific complex mixture of highly stable cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) covers the external surface of all insects. Components can be readily analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to obtain a cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which may be used as an additional tool for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and also for the determination of the age and sex of adult and immature forms. We used GC-MS to identify and quantify the CHCs of female and male Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from one to five days old. CHCs ranged from C21 to C35 for females and from C21 to C37 in males. Major compounds were the same for both sexes and were 2-MeC28, C29:1, n-C29, 15-,13-MeC29, 2-MeC30, C31:1, n-C31 and 15-,13-MeC31. The relative abundance of each component, however, varied with age. Cluster Analysis using Bray-Curtis measure for abundance showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are a strong and useful tool for the determination of age in adult C. putoria.

Monteiro J.M.,University Hospital | Monteiro G.M.,Severino Sombra University | Caroli-Bottino A.,University Hospital | Pannain V.L.,University Hospital
Analytical Cellular Pathology | Year: 2014

Themorphological features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) range fromsteatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Liver biopsy remains the main tool for NASH diagnosis and many histological systems to diagnose and gradeNAFLD were proposed. We evaluated the relationship among NAFLD activity score (NAS), histological diagnoses (non-NASH, possible NASH, and definite NASH), and histological algorithm proposed by Bedossa et al.; additionally the degrees of morphological features were semiquantified and correlated with non-NASH and NASH. Seventy-one liver biopsies were studied. The agreement among the three systems considering NASH and non-NASH was excellent (K = 0.96). Among the 22 biopsies with NAS 3-4, 72.7% showed to be NASH according to Bedossa's algorithm. The degree of steatosis, ballooning, lobular inflammation, and fibrosis stage were correlated with NASH (K < 0.001). Fibrosis stage 1 was also found in non-NASH. Over the spectrum of NAFLD, no association was observed between intensity of steatosis and fibrosis grade.The degrees of lobular inflammation showed association with fibrosis stage (K < 0.0001). In conclusion, there is agreement among different NAFLD classifications and NAS >4 may be a better cutoff from which to consider NASH diagnosis; besides the highest degrees of steatosis, ballooning, inflammation, and fibrosis are associated with NASH. Copyright © 2014 Juliana Maya Monteiro et al.

Benedictine monks, who settled in Portuguese America in the late sixteenth century, made it their tenet to always have death in mind. The article describes diverse aspects of the Benedictine approach towards death as displayed at an eighteenth-century monastery in Rio de Janeiro. Relying on documentation stored at the monastery and highlighting performance-like activities, the article analyzes hierarchical arrangements, the ways death was represented, and the forms of sociability manifested at the time of burials. Focusing on the relations that were established, including the reciprocities that were invented and re-invented throughout the rituals, it is demonstrated that these events provided a basis for the distinction earned by clerics in a society ruled in part by the logics of the Ancién Regime.

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