Azuma T.,Setsunan University |
Morita T.,University of Kentucky |
Takeuchi S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014
It is expected that the Gregory-Laflamme (GL) instability in the black string in gravity is related to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability in fluid mechanics. Especially, the orders of the phase transitions associated with these instabilities depend on the number of the transverse space dimensions, and they are of first and second order below and above the critical dimension. Through the gauge-gravity correspondence, the GL instability is conjectured to be thermodynamically related to the Hagedorn instability in large-N gauge theories, and it leads to a prediction that the order of the confinement-deconfinement transition associated with the Hagedorn instability may depend on the transverse dimension. We test this conjecture in the D-dimensional bosonic D0-brane model using numerical simulation and the 1/D expansion, and confirm the expected D dependence. © 2014 American Physical Society.
Shimada Y.,Setsunan University |
Matsuoka Y.,Kyoto University
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2011
Most household fuels used in Asian countries are solid fuels such as coal and biomass (firewood, crop residue and animal dung). The particulate matter (PM), CO, NOx and SOx produced through the combustion of these fuels inside the residence for cooking and heating has an adverse impact on people's health. PM 2.5 in particular, consisting of particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5μm or less, penetrates deep into the lungs and causes respiratory system and circulatory system diseases and so on. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) established guideline values for this type of particulate matter in 2005. In this study, the authors focused on PM 2.5 and estimated indoor exposure concentrations for PM 2.5 in 15 Asian countries. For each environment used for cooking, eating, heating and illumination in which people are present temporarily (microenvironment), exposure concentrations were estimated for individual cohorts categorized according to sex, age and occupation status. To establish the residence time in each microenvironment for each of the cohorts, data from time use surveys conducted in individual countries were used. China had the highest estimate for average exposure concentration in microenvironment used for cooking at 427.5μg/m 3, followed by Nepal, Laos and India at 285.2μg/m 3, 266.3μg/m 3 and 205.7μg/m 3, respectively. The study found that, in each country, the PM2.5 exposure concentration was highest for children and unemployed women between the ages of 35 and 64. The study also found that the exposure concentration for individual cohorts in each country was greatly affected by people's use of time indoors. Because differences in individual daily life activities were reflected in the use of time and linked to an assessment of exposure to indoor air-polluting substances, the study enabled detailed assessment of the impact of exposure. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Takebayashi H.,Kobe University |
Moriyama M.,Setsunan University
Solar Energy | Year: 2012
The relationships between the properties of urban canopy components and the radiant environment in an urban street canyon are examined considering the introduction of appropriate urban heat island mitigation technologies. Radiant heat transfers between walls and roads are calculated according to Gebhart's radiant absorption coefficients and using the Monte Carlo method. Roads are classified as either north-south or east-west; intersections are also considered. The key property of an urban street canyon is expressed by its aspect ratio W/. H. A simple street canyon model and two actual urban street canyon areas are used as the objects of examination. Distributions of surface temperatures and solar radiation gains on street canyon roofs, roads, and walls are analyzed. The top priority for the implementation of urban heat island mitigation measures concerns the buildings with large roof areas. The other high-priority areas for implementing mitigation measures focus on smaller roofs and roads for which the street canyon aspect ratio W/. H is greater than 1.5; the lowest-priority area is the walls. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Nabe T.,Setsunan University
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2014
Interleukin (IL)-33, a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines, is produced when epithelial and endothelial cells are exposed to stimuli. Hematopoietic cells such as macrophages also produce IL-33. IL-33 is considered to function as an 'alarmin', activating various immune cells through its receptor ST2, which leads to the production of various molecules. The IL-33-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines is a critical event that aggravates atopic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and pollenosis and suggests that IL-33-blocking agents could represent new therapeutic drugs. The anti-IL-33 antibody was effective in allergic models, whereas the anti-ST2 antibody has yielded controversial results because soluble ST2 functions as a decoy receptor for IL-33. IL-33-mediated pulmonary inflammation may be glucocorticoidresistant especially when other cytokines act synergistically. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α therapy may also be effective against IL-33-mediated diseases. ERK1/2 inhibitors have also been shown to suppress the production of IL-33. On the other hand, activation of β2-receptors enhanced the expression of IL-33 mRNA in dendritic cells by activating protein kinase A (PKA), suggesting that PKA inhibitors may be candidates for IL-33-blocking agents. The effects of IL-33-blocking agents on atopic diseases need to be pharmacologically assessed in experimental and clinical studies. © The Japanese Pharmacological Society.
Aizawa H.,Setsunan University
Journal of Applied Crystallography | Year: 2010
The structures of micelles of the surfactant polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) in 0-50% aqueous dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions (pH 7.2, ionic strength 2.44 mM) were investigated by means of small-angle X-ray scattering. At DMSO concentrations of 0-20%, core-shell cylinder micelles formed, and at 30-50% DMSO, core-shell discus micelles formed, that is, changing the hydrophobicity of the DMSO solvent mixture changed the micelles from core-shell cylinder micelles to core-shell discus micelles. © 2010 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore - all rights reserved.