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Sachdeva S.,NIMS University | Singh M.,Haryana Engineering College | Singh U.P.,Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering and Technology JMIT | Arora A.S.,Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering And Technology
Advances in Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2011

Today, it is very important for developed and developing countries to consume electricity more efficiently. Though developed countries do not want to waste electricity and developing countries cannot waste electricity. This leads to the concept: load forecasting. This paper is written for the short-term load forecasting on daily basis, hourly, or half-hourly basis or real time load forecasting. But as we move from daily to hourly basis of load forecasting, the error of load forecasting increases. The analysis of this paper is done on previous year's load data records of an engineering college in India using the concept of fuzzy methods. The analysis has been done on Mamdani-type membership functions and OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) transmission scheme. To reduce the error of load forecasting, fuzzy method has been used with Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and OFDM transmission is used to get data from outer world and send outputs to outer world accurately and quickly. The error has been reduced to a considerable level in the range of 2-3. For further reducing the error, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) can be used with Reed-Solomon (RS) encoding. Further studies are going on with Fuzzy Regression methods to reduce the error more. © 2011 Sandeep Sachdeva et al. Source

Tyagi A.,National Dairy Research Institute | Kumar A.,Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering and Technology JMIT | Yadav A.K.,National Dairy Research Institute | Chandola Saklani A.,Apeejay Stya University | And 2 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Recombinant goat chymosin (RGC), a promising alternate of bovine/calf chymosin, has better catalytic, proteolytic and thermostable characteristics. Limited information exists about its expression in different hosts. Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) has ability to grow to very high cell densities and improved protein production has been demonstrated in scale up studies. A modified methanol feeding strategy based on flask level optimizations was successfully used for expressing the goat prochymosin in recombinant methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris Mut+ bioreactor cultures. Additionally, a comparative analysis of RGC expression in flask versus bioreactor cultures was performed. Bioreactor cultures yielded an approximate 8 times increase in cell density compared to flask cultures prior to induction and an increase of 24% in expression level of chymosin was also recorded. Functional characterization demonstrated that the enzyme produced even at early stages was found to be correctly folded, intact and functional. The recombinant enzyme preparation has 42.4% residual activity at 60 °C and retained 69% activity at pH 6.5. An expression strategy for scale up production of RGC, which can act as a lead for production of industrially viable enzyme preparation, is outlined in the present study. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hussain S.K.A.,National Dairy Research Institute | Srivastava A.,National Dairy Research Institute | Tyagi A.,National Dairy Research Institute | Shandilya U.K.,National Dairy Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
3 Biotech | Year: 2016

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA), a fatty acid with high nutraceutical value is produced in rumen by resident bacterial species, especially Butyrivibrio spp. The present study was undertaken to examine the diversity of indigenous Butyrivibrio spp. from rumen liquor of Indian ruminants. The isolates were screened for their CLA production capability at different level of linoleic acid (LA) (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 μg/ml) at different time intervals (0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h). A total of more than 300 anaerobic cultures were isolated and 31 of them were identified as Butyrivibrio spp. based on morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization. Further, molecular characterization revealed that a large portion (67.7 %) of isolated Butyrivibrio belonged to Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (B. fibrisolvens) species which is considered to be the most active bacteria amongst the rumen bacteria populace in terms of CLA production. Bacterial isolate VIII (strain 4a) showed highest CLA production ability (140.77 μg/ml) when incubated at 200 μg/ml LA for 2 h, which is 240 % higher than the isolate XXVII, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus (B. proteoclasticus) showing lowest CLA production (57.28 μg/ml) amongst the screened isolates. It was evident from the observations recorded during the course of experiments that CLA production ability is strain specific and thus did not follow a single pattern. CLA production also varied with time of incubation and concentration of free linoleic acid supplemented in the growth medium. The results of these findings put forward a strain that is high CLA producer and can be further exploited as an additive for enhancing meat and milk quality in ruminants. © 2016, The Author(s). Source

Bogra P.,Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering and Technology JMIT | Kumar A.,Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering and Technology JMIT | Kuhar K.,Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering and Technology JMIT | Panwar S.,Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering and Technology JMIT | Singh R.,Seth Jai Parkash Mukand Lal Institute of Engineering and Technology JMIT
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2013

Clarity of fruit juices is desirable to maintain an aesthetically pleasing quality and international standards. The most commonly used enzymes in juice industries are pectinases. A partially-purified pectinmethylesterase from tomato was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and used for juice clarification. The activity yield was maximum at 1 % (w/v) CaCl2 and 2.5 % (w/v) alginate. The immobilized enzyme retained ~55 % of its initial activity (5.7 × 10-2 units) after more than ten successive batch reactions. The Km, pH and temperature optima were increased after immobilization. The most effective clarification of fruit juice (%T620 ~60 %) by the immobilized enzyme was at 4 °C with a holding time of 20 min. The viscosity dropped by 56 % and the filterability increased by 260 %. The juice remains clear after 2 months of storage at 4 °C. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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