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Gupta R.K.,Seth GS Medical College & KEM Hospital
Indian journal of pathology & microbiology | Year: 2010

CONTEXT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious and sometimes life-threatening event that occurs as a complication of various cardiopulmonary disorders, of which rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is an important example in our country. The pathogenesis of PH is a complex, multistep process in which "pulmonary endothelial dysfunction" (PED) is widely regarded as the central pathogenetic event. PED is, in turn, influenced by several local and systemic factors, of which nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and endothelin 1 (ET1) are 2 prime candidates, and are the subject of our study. AIMS: Our aim was to study the immunoreactivity of NOS3 and ET1 in the pulmonary vasculature of PH patients of various etiologies, with emphasis on RHD cases. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective, autopsy-based study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 49 autopsy cases (39 patients and 10 controls) were chosen for our study. Of the 39 patients, 20 had PH secondary to RHD, whereas the remaining 19 patients had non-RHD etiologies as the basis of their PH. Lung sections taken from all the 49 cases were subjected to routine H and E, elastic van Gieson, and immunohistochemical staining (with NOS3 and ET1 separately). The intensity of immunostaining in all the cases and controls were then graded as focal/diffuse and weak/strong. RESULTS: Controls showed positivity for both NOS3 (bronchiolar epithelium) and ET1 (endothelium of pulmonary arteries). Characteristic changes of PH on H and E were seen in 14 out of 19 non-RHD cases, which matched with the number of ET1 positivity cases. Similarly, for the RHD cases, 14 out of 20 cases showed changes of PH on H and E, but only 2 cases showed mild, focal positivity for ET1. Surprisingly, NOS3 positivity was largely absent in both the non-RHD and RHD cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed NOS3 negativity and ET1 positivity in the lung vasculature of patients with PH, a conclusion more or less in line with the predominant view of the other investigators in this field. But at the same time, our study could not conclude an unequivocal role of NOS3 in PH, whereas it could, in the case of ET1.

Bhingare P.D.,Government Medical College | Shelke U.R.,Seth GS Medical College & KEM Hospital | Bang Y.A.,Asian Heart Institute
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2016

It is very uncommon for a boar to become aggressive in nature against human unless they are cornered. A wild boar attacked a 24-year-old male from behind in perineal region. At presentation, he had continuous dribbling of urine and fecal matter from perineal wound. On CT-scan, a well defined tract delineated by contrast was seen between postero-lateral aspect of bladder and anterior wall of rectum, and there was contrast extravasation through perineal wound. After resuscitation, fistula was repaired through abdominal approach, and perineal wound was debrided. Emergency physician should be aware of such cases as increasing deforestation and shifting of humans to sub-urban area, have resulted in increased incidences of wild boar attack. Prompt stabilization of patient, treatment of infection with proper antibiotics, prevention of tetanus and rabies infection and emergency surgical interventions are necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality from such trauma. © 2016, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All Rights Reserved.

Bolte S.,Neuropsychiatric Unit | de Schipper E.,Neuropsychiatric Unit | Holtmann M.,Ruhr University Bochum | Karande S.,Seth GS Medical College & KEM Hospital | And 4 more authors.
European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry | Year: 2014

In the study of health and quality of life in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it is of paramount importance to include assessment of functioning. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a comprehensive, universally accepted framework for the description of functioning in relation to health conditions. In this paper, the authors outline the process to develop ICF Core Sets for ADHD. ICF Core Sets are subgroups of ICF categories selected to capture the aspects of functioning that are most likely to be affected in specific disorders. The ICF categories that will be included in the ICF Core Sets for ADHD will be determined at an ICF Core Set Consensus Conference, wherein evidence from four preliminary studies (a systematic review, an expert survey, a patient and caregiver qualitative study, and a clinical cross-sectional study) will be integrated. Comprehensive and Brief ICF Core Sets for ADHD will be developed with the goal of providing useful standards for research and clinical practice, and to generate a common language for the description of functioning in ADHD in different areas of life and across the lifespan. © 2013, The Author(s).

Muranjan M.,Seth GS Medical College & KEM Hospital | Vijayalakshmi P.,Seth GS Medical College & KEM Hospital
Indian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Objectives: To determine the proportion of patients with birth defects receiving indoor medical care and the economic burden incurred by the Institution in terms of cost of hospitalization.Methods: This single center, prospective, observational study recruited children >28 d and <12 y of age with birth defect(s) not attributable to an acquired disease. Demographic data, maternal and antenatal data, nature of the defect and information about current and past hospitalization were recorded. Economic burden was estimated by computing bed charges and daily costs incurred by the Institution.Results: Ninety-eight children (mean age was 3.18 y, M : F ratio was 2.4:1) with 268 birth defects represented 13 % of indoor admissions. The cardiovascular system was involved in 42.9 %. The defect was isolated in 58.2 % of cases and 41.8 % (9.2 % having Down syndrome) had multiple defects. Mean duration of hospital stay (11.23 d) of the birth defect cohort was significantly more (p value = 0.0005) than other children (7.81 d). Average cost of stay for those with birth defects (18.3 % of the total cost) and other indoor patients was INR 23,481 and INR 16,328 respectively.Conclusions: Birth defects are an emerging burden in referral centers, incurring one-fifth of the hospital expenditure, partly due to increased length of stay. The figure is an underestimate as the expenses are highly subsidized in a Public health facility. © 2014, Dr. K C Chaudhuri Foundation.

de Schipper E.,Karolinska Institutet | Lundequist A.,Karolinska Institutet | Coghill D.,University of Dundee | de Vries P.J.,University of Cape Town | And 11 more authors.
Autism Research | Year: 2015

Objective: This study is the first in a series of four empirical investigations to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The objective was to use a systematic review approach to identify, number, and link functional ability and disability concepts used in the scientific ASD literature to the nomenclature of the ICF-CY (Children and Youth version of the ICF, covering the life span). Methods: Systematic searches on outcome studies of ASD were carried out in Medline/PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC and Cinahl, and relevant functional ability and disability concepts extracted from the included studies. These concepts were then linked to the ICF-CY by two independent researchers using a standardized linking procedure. New concepts were extracted from the studies until saturation of identified ICF-CY categories was reached. Results: Seventy-one studies were included in the final analysis and 2475 meaningful concepts contained in these studies were linked to 146 ICF-CY categories. Of these, 99 categories were considered most relevant to ASD (i.e., identified in at least 5% of the studies), of which 63 were related to Activities and Participation, 28 were related to Body functions, and 8 were related to Environmental factors. The five most frequently identified categories were basic interpersonal interactions (51%), emotional functions (49%), complex interpersonal interactions (48%), attention functions (44%), and mental functions of language (44%). Conclusion: The broad variety of ICF-CY categories identified in this study reflects the heterogeneity of functional differences found in ASD—both with respect to disability and exceptionality—and underlines the potential value of the ICF-CY as a framework to capture an individual's functioning in all dimensions of life. The current results in combination with three additional preparatory studies (expert survey, focus groups, and clinical study) will provide the scientific basis for defining the ICF Core Sets for ASD for multipurpose use in basic and applied research and every day clinical practice of ASD. Autism Res 2015, 8: 782–794. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research . © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research

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