Kolekar J.S.,Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital
Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2014
Mucormycosis is an acute often fatal infection caused by fungi of family mucoracea (Kauffman and Malani Curr Infect Dis Rep 9(6):435–440). The principal pathogens in this family are rhizopus, mucor and absidia species. Mucoracea are found in soil, decaying vegetation and other organic matter. Mucormycosis is a polymorphic disease with diverse clinical manifestation. It is divided into rhinocerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous, cardiac, gastrointestinal and disseminated. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis the most commonest manifestation of mucormycosis is usually a fatal fulminant infection. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis can be further divided into rhino-maxillary and rhino-orbito-cerebral. The disease commonly occur in diabetics who have ketoacidosis but is also seen in severely debilitated or immunosuppressed patients. It has also been reported from otherwise normal individuals. Early diagnosis and treatment is mandatory for a successful management of this infection. © 2014, Association of Otolaryngologists of India.
Jasani B.,Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital |
Kabra N.,Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital |
Nanavati R.N.,Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine | Year: 2013
We herewith report a case series of six premature neonates with hemodynamically significant paten ductus successfully treated with oral paracetamol. This is a first case series describing the use of oral paracetamol treatment patent ductus in preterm neonates from India. Further prospective randomized-controlled trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral paracetamol in the treatment of patent ductus in preterm neonates.
Gogtay N.,Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013
Plasmodium vivax is an important cause of malaria in many parts of Asia and South America, and parasite resistance to the standard treatment (chloroquine) is now high in some parts of Oceania. This review aims to assess the current treatment options in the light of increasing chloroquine resistance. To compare artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) with alternative antimalarial regimens for treating acute uncomplicated P. vivax malaria. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) up to 28 March 2013 using "vivax" and "arte* OR dihydroarte*" as search terms. Randomized controlled trials comparing ACTs versus standard therapy, or comparing alternative ACTs, in adults and children with uncomplicated P. vivax malaria. Two authors independently assessed trials for eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We used recurrent parasitaemia prior to day 28 as a proxy for effective treatment of the blood stage parasite, and compared drug treatments using risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used trials following patients for longer than 28 days to assess the duration of the post-treatment prophylactic effect of ACTs. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 14 trials, that enrolled 2592 participants, and were all conducted in Asia and Oceania between 2002 and 2011. ACTs versus chloroquine: ACTs clear parasites from the peripheral blood quicker than chloroquine monotherapy (parasitaemia after 24 hours of treatment: RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.50, four trials, 1652 participants, high quality evidence).In settings where chloroquine remains effective, ACTs are as effective as chloroquine at preventing recurrent parasitaemias before day 28 (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.90, five trials, 1622 participants, high quality evidence). In four of these trials, recurrent parasitaemias before day 28 were very low following treatment with both chloroquine and ACTs. The fifth trial, from Thailand in 2011, found increased recurrent parasitaemias following treatment with chloroquine (9%), while they remained low following ACT (2%) (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.66, one trial, 437 participants).ACT combinations with long half-lives probably also provide a longer prophylactic effect after treatment, with significantly fewer recurrent parasitaemias between day 28 and day 42 or day 63 (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.82, three trials, 1066 participants, moderate quality evidence). One trial, from Cambodia, Thailand, India and Indonesia, gave additional primaquine to both treatment groups to reduce the risk of spontaneous relapses. Recurrent parasitaemias after day 28 were lower than seen in the trials that did not give primaquine, but the ACT still appeared to have an advantage (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.94, one trial, 376 participants, low quality evidence). ACTs versus alternative ACTs: In high transmission settings, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is probably superior to artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and artesunate plus amodiaquine at preventing recurrent parasitaemias before day 28 (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.49, three trials, 334 participants, moderate quality evidence).Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine may also have an improved post-treatment prophylactic effect lasting for up to six weeks, and this effect may be present even when primaquine is also given to achieve radical cure (RR 0.21, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.46, two trials, 179 participants, low quality evidence).The data available from low transmission settings is too limited to reliably assess the relative effectiveness of ACTs. ACTs appear at least equivalent to chloroquine at effectively treating the blood stage of P. vivax infection. Even in areas where chloroquine remains effective, this finding may allow for simplified protocols for treating all forms of malaria with ACTs. In areas where chloroquine no longer cures the infection, ACTs offer an effective alternative.Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is the most studied ACT. It may provide a longer period of post-treatment prophylaxis than artemether-lumefantrine or artesunate plus amodiaquine. This effect may be clinically important in high transmission settings whether primaquine is also given or not.
Mehta J.,Seth Gs Medical College And Kem Hospital
Tropical gastroenterology : official journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation | Year: 2010
Using CA 19-9 and CEA (elevated > 2 times of normal) as predictors in determining operability and survival in pancreatic tumors. Levels of CA 19-9 and CEA were measured (pre and post operatively) in 49 patients of pancreatic malignancy. CECT was performed for diagnosis and staging. An experienced surgeon determined the operability. The levels of tumor markers were correlated with the operability and the survival based on CECT and intra-operative findings. 16/24 (67%) patients with CA 19-9 levels (< 2 times) and 19/24 (79%) patients with CEA levels (< 2 times) were found to be resectable. 22/25 (88%) patients having elevated CA 19-9 levels (p = 0.0002-t) and 17/25 (70%) patients having elevated CEA levels (p = 0.003) were found to be non-resectable. Of the 27 patients, found resectable on CECT, 5 were non-resectable intra-operatively. All of these had elevated levels of CA 19-9 and 4/5 (80%) had elevated levels of CEA. Only 5/21 (23%) non-resectable patients, with elevated levels of CA 19-9 reported at 1 year follow up. None of the non-resectable patients with CA 19-9 levels > 1000 U/ml reported at 6 month follow-up. None of the resectable patients pre-operatively showed evidence of recurrence. All achieved normal values post surgery. Elevated levels of CA 19-9 and CEA (> 2 times) predict increased chances of inoperability and poor survival in pancreatic tumors. Levels > 3 times had increased risk of inoperability even in patients deemed resectable on CT-Scan. Diagnostic laparoscopy would be beneficial in these patients. Levels of CA 19-9 (> 1000 U/ml) indicate a dismal survival in non-resectable group of patients.
Silvanus V.,Seth Gs Medical College And Kem Hospital
Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ | Year: 2012
A crossectional field study was carried out in an urban slum in order to assess the prevalence and nature of mental morbidity and identify stressors in the community. A face to face interview was conducted with the help of a questionnaire. The interview consisted of three sections as follows: Data identifying the informant by age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, age at marriage, number of members, children and monthly income. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 5- item version used as a screening instrument to assess the present mental health status of the informant and data of past illnesses in self or family and questions framed to elicit perceptions regarding mental illness, alcoholism, their causation and treatment. The subjects who scored above 2 ie 3,4,and 5 in the GHQ were requested to follow up at the Mental Health OPD and subjected to a standardized psychiatric interview by a Psychiatrist. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Third Revised (DSM 3 R) criteria were used for diagnosis. After the interview and examination, the appropriate treatment was instituted. A total of 443 individuals were screened. The overall prevalence rate of mental illness in the community was 61 per thousand. It is estimated that the case rate ranges from 38 to 84 per thousand within 95% confidence limits. The overall severity ranged from mild to severe morbidity. The prevalence of severe mental morbidity which includes psychosis, depressive illness, mental retardation was 22.5 per thousand. Neurosis (63.31%) especially Major Depression and Adjustment disorder, Psychosis (10.00%), Somatization disorder (6.66%) and Psychiatric symptoms secondary to physical illness were the major groups of illness. Women were found to have more mental health problems than men. The morbidity pattern also differs significantly with the gender. Neurosis was seen more among the female subjects. There was a significant association of mental health problems with low educational status, unemployment and large family size. Financial problems, marital conflicts, interpersonal conflicts and housing problems were the major stressors as perceived by the respondents. There exists significant mental health problems in the community which can be due to deleterious sociocultural factors and we recommend the integration of mental health care with general health care.
Gogtay N.J.,Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital
Indian journal of medical ethics | Year: 2011
Warning letters (WLs) issued by the US FDA (United States Food and Drug Administration) mention the nature of violations by clinical investigators and institutional review boards (IRBS) and can help as training tools. WLs issued by the US FDA between January 2005 and December 2010 to clinical investigators and IRBs were reviewed for various violation themes. A total of 129 WLs were issued to investigators and 40 to IRBs. Among the WLs issued to investigators, 67 (51.95%) were issued for drug-related research and 62 (48.06%) were for device-related research. For investigators, deviation from the investigational plan was the most common violation (81%) followed by failure to maintain accurate and adequate case histories (58.1%) and then informed consent issues (48.06%). Among WLs issued to IRBs, failure to have and follow standard operating procedures (SOPs) was seen in 93.89% followed by issues pertaining to membership (59.4%). When compared to a similar study published in 2004, for clinical investigators, no improvement was seen with respect to deviation from the investigational plan and study supervision. However, a significant improvement was seen in reporting of adverse events to IRBs, and some improvement was seen in the area of informed consent. For IRBs, no improvement was seen in most areas which included maintaining and following SOPs, membership, quorum requirements, misuse of expedited review and informed consent. WLs serve as indicators of an active regulatory agency which should translate into greater safety for participants in clinical trials. For developing countries with weak regulatory systems, these can serve as useful learning tools to help improve systems and put in patient safeguards.
Bandgar T.R.,Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital
Journal of the Indian Medical Association | Year: 2011
Dyslipidaemia is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for coronary disease. Despite the availability of highly effective lipid-modifying agents, many patients still do not reach lipid targets established by national guidelines. This, in turn, has prompted a resurgence of the search for drugs and algorithms that favourably affect the lipid profile. The preventive efforts made so far have demonstrated that lowering low density lipoprotein-cholestrol is one action that individuals and populations can do with significant success in delaying the onset of clinical events, but at the same time one should not neglect high density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels as they also play a significant role in the risk of developing complications. Combination regimens should be considered for use in patients who fail to meet target values and are compliant with their current therapy. Although the use of combination therapy varies considerably across the globe, this treatment strategy is becoming increasingly more common as treatment guidelines recommend more aggressive therapy in order to achieve lower target cholesterol goals.
Aswani Y.,Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital |
Hira P.,Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital
Journal of the Pancreas | Year: 2015
Pancreatitis is notorious to cause vascular complications. While arterial complications include pseudoaneurysm formation with a propensity to bleed, venous complications can be quite myriad. Venous involvement in pancreatitis often presents with thrombosis. From time to time case reports and series of unusual venous complications associated with pancreatitis have, however, been described. In this article, we review multitudinous venous complications in the setting of pancreatitis and propose a system to classify pancreatitis associated venous complications. © 2015, E.S. Burioni Ricerche Bibliografiche. All rights reserved.
Balikar R.,Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital
BMJ case reports | Year: 2013
This is a case of a patient who presented with generalised weakness, dysphagia and ptosis. Upon evaluating the patient, she was found to have myasthenia gravis (MG) with anaemia and hypothyroidism. Further evaluation for the cause of anaemia revealed that the patient had pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). CT thorax revealed a thymoma. The patient was given packed cell transfusions, steroids and pyridostigmine. The patient improved symptomatically. Her haemoglobin level at follow-up was 9.5 gm/dl. The patient has been posted for thymectomy. This is a rare case of PRCA seen in a patient with MG, with thymoma associated with hypothyroidism.
Gogtay N.,Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2010
In most areas in life, it is difficult to work with populations and hence researchers work with samples. The calculation of the sample size needed depends on the data type and distribution. Elements include consideration of the alpha error, beta error, clinically meaningful difference, and the variability or standard deviation. The final number arrived at should be increased to include a safety margin and the dropout rate. Over and above this, sample size calculations must take into account all available data, funding, support facilities, and ethics of subjecting patients to research.