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Marsili D.,Servizio Informatico
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Year: 2013

Notwithstanding a major body of evidence on the carcinogenicity of all asbestos fibres and a general consensus of the scientific community on the health impact of this agent, asbestos is still produced and used in a large number of countries, thus determining further harm for future generations. Prevention of asbestos-related disease requires international cooperation, transfer of know-how and dissemination of successful procedures in order to contrast asbestos exposure in the frame of a global environmental health approach. Source

Michelacci V.,European Reference Laboratory for Escherichia coli | Orsini M.,Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dellAbruzzo e Del Molise G. Caporale | Knijn A.,Servizio Informatico | Delannoy S.,University Paris Est Creteil | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2016

Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains possess a large accessory genome composed of virulence genes existing in multiple allelic variants, which sometimes segregate with specific STEC subpopulations. We analyzed the allelic variability of 91 virulence genes of STEC by Real Time PCR followed by melting curves analysis in 713 E. coli strains including 358 STEC. The 91 genes investigated were located on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), OI-57, and OI-122 pathogenicity islands and displayed a total of 476 alleles in the study population. The combinations of the 91 alleles of each strain were termed allelic signatures and used to perform cluster analyses. We termed such an approach High Resolution Virulence Allelic Profiling (HReVAP) and used it to investigate the phylogeny of STEC of multiple serogroups. The dendrograms obtained identified groups of STEC segregating approximately with the serogroups and allowed the identification of subpopulations within the single groups. The study of the allelic signatures provided further evidence of the coevolution of the LEE and OI-122, reflecting the occurrence of their acquisition through a single event. The HReVAP analysis represents a sensitive tool for studying the evolution of LEE-positive STEC. © 2016 Michelacci, Orsini, Knijn, Delannoy, Fach, Caprioli and Morabito. Source

Bocchinfuso G.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Carrani E.,Servizio Informatico | Dentici M.L.,Ospedale Bambino Gesu | Biamino E.,University of Turin | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2012

Myhre syndrome is a developmental disorder characterized by reduced growth, generalized muscular hypertrophy, facial dysmorphism, deafness, cognitive deficits, joint stiffness, and skeletal anomalies. Here, by performing exome sequencing of a single affected individual and coupling the results to a hypothesis-driven filtering strategy, we establish that heterozygous mutations in SMAD4, which encodes for a transducer mediating transforming growth factor β and bone morphogenetic protein signaling branches, underlie this rare Mendelian trait. Two recurrent de novo SMAD4 mutations were identified in eight unrelated subjects. Both mutations were missense changes altering Ile500 within the evolutionary conserved MAD homology 2 domain, a well known mutational hot spot in malignancies. Structural analyses suggest that the substituted residues are likely to perturb the binding properties of the mutant protein to signaling partners. Although SMAD4 has been established as a tumor suppressor gene somatically mutated in pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and skin cancers, and germline loss-of-function lesions and deletions of this gene have been documented to cause disorders that predispose individuals to gastrointestinal cancer and vascular dysplasias, the present report identifies a previously unrecognized class of mutations in the gene with profound impact on development and growth. © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Source

Rossi S.,Centro Nazionale Of Epidemiologia | Baili P.,Analytical Epidemiology and Health Impact Unit | Capocaccia R.,Centro Nazionale Of Epidemiologia | Capocaccia R.,Evaluative Epidemiology Unit | And 14 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

Background Since 25 years the EUROCARE study monitors the survival of cancer patients in Europe through centralised collection, quality check and statistical analysis of population-based cancer registries (CRs) data. The European population covered by the study increased remarkably in the latest round. The study design and statistical methods were also changed to improve timeliness and comparability of survival estimates. To interpret the EUROCARE-5 results on adult cancer patients better here we assess the impact of these changes on data quality and on survival comparisons. Methods In EUROCARE-5 the survival differences by area were studied applying the complete cohort approach to data on nearly nine million cancer patients diagnosed in 2000-2007 and followed up to 2008. Survival time trends were analysed applying the period approach to data on about 10 million cancer cases diagnosed from 1995 to 2007 and followed up to 2008. Differently from EUROCARE-4, multiple primary cancers were included and relative survival was estimated with the Ederer II method. Results EUROCARE-5 covered a population of 232 million resident persons, corresponding to 50% of the 29 participating countries. The population coverage increased particularly in Eastern Europe. Cases identified from death certificate only (DCO) were on average 2.9%, range 0-12%. Microscopically confirmed cases amounted to over 85% in most CRs. Compared to previous methods, including multiple cancers and using the Ederer II estimator reduced survival estimates by 0.4 and 0.3 absolute percentage points, on average. Conclusions The increased population size and registration coverage of the EUROCARE-5 study ensures more robust and comparable estimates across European countries. This enlargement did not impact on data quality, which was generally satisfactory. Estimates may be slightly inflated in countries with high or null DCO proportions, especially for poor prognosis cancers. The updated methods improved the comparability of survival estimates between recently and long-term established registries and reduced biases due to informative censoring. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Bombelli M.,University of Milan Bicocca | Maloberti A.,University of Milan Bicocca | Rossi S.,University of Milan Bicocca | Rea F.,University of Milan Bicocca | And 4 more authors.
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics | Year: 2015

Objective: Scanty data are available on the accuracy of NT-proBNP in the diagnosis of HF and effects of comorbidities in very elderly patients. Methods: Symptoms, signs, NT-proBNP, eGFR, Ht, CRP and the presence of cardiomegaly and pleuric effusion were assessed in 895 consecutive patients aged 86. ± 4.3 years admitted to Emergency Department and used to define the diagnosis of HF according to Framingham criteria. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were used to calculate diagnostic performance and cutoff of NT-proBNP. Sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were computed for all NT-proBNP cutoffs. Results: Satisfactory diagnostic performance was obtained with a lower threshold of 980. pg/mL (Sn 0.95; NPV 0.90) and a higher threshold of 5340 (Sp 0.85; PPV 0.76) but with 42.4% of patients in the uncertainty area. We determined a second couple of cutoffs (1470-4200) that reduced the gray-area to 27.4%, maintaining an acceptable diagnostic performance compared to commonly used cutoffs (300-1800). Ht, CRP and eGFR all correlated with NT-proBNP in groups with and without HF but none affected diagnostic performance. Conclusion: NT-proBNP performs satisfactorily for the diagnosis of HF in very elderly patients. Proposed threshold couple, compared with the most used cutoffs, showed a gain in Sp and PPV with a slightly lower performance in Sn and NPV and with a decrease in the gray-area with the second one. Our data do not support the use of different NT-proBNP cutoffs depending on eGFR, Ht and CRP. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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