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Cremona, Italy

Bevilacqua A.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Gerli S.,University of Perugia | Montanino Oliva M.,Center for Reproductive Medicine Research | Devroey P.,Free University of Brussels | And 11 more authors.
Gynecological Endocrinology | Year: 2015

A substantial body of research on mammalian gametogenesis and human reproduction has recently investigated the effect of myo-inositol (MyoIns) on oocyte and sperm cell quality, due to its possible application to medically assisted reproduction. With a growing number of both clinical and basic research papers, the meaning of several observations now needs to be interpreted under a solid and rigorous physiological framework. The 2013 Florence International Consensus Conference on Myo- and D-chiro-inositol in obstetrics and gynecology has answered a number of research questions concerning the use of the two stereoisomers in assisted reproductive technologies. Available clinical trials and studies on the physiological and pharmacological effects of these molecules have been surveyed. Specifically, the physiological involvement of MyoIns in oocyte maturation and sperm cell functions has been discussed, providing an answer to the following questions: (1) Are inositols physiologically involved in oocyte maturation? (2) Are inositols involved in the physiology of spermatozoa function? (3) Is treatment with inositols helpful within assisted reproduction technology cycles? (4) Are there any differences in clinical efficacy between MyoIns and D-chiro-inositol? The conclusions of this Conference, drawn depending on expert panel opinions and shared with all the participants, are summarized in this review paper. © 2015 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Facchinetti F.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Bizzarri M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Benvenga S.,Messina University | D'Anna R.,Messina University | And 11 more authors.
European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology | Year: 2015

In recent years, interest has been focused to the study of the two major inositol stereoisomers: myo-inositol (MI) and d-chiro-inositol (DCI), because of their involvement, as second messengers of insulin, in several insulin-dependent processes, such as metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome. Although these molecules have different functions, very often their roles have been confused, while the meaning of several observations still needs to be interpreted under a more rigorous physiological framework. With the aim of clarifying this issue, the 2013 International Consensus Conference on MI and DCI in Obstetrics and Gynecology identified opinion leaders in all fields related to this area of research. They examined seminal experimental papers and randomized clinical trials reporting the role and the use of inositol(s) in clinical practice. The main topics were the relation between inositol(s) and metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome (with a focus on both metabolic and reproductive aspects), congenital anomalies, gestational diabetes. Clinical trials demonstrated that inositol(s) supplementation could fruitfully affect different pathophysiological aspects of disorders pertaining Obstetrics and Gynecology. The treatment of PCOS women as well as the prevention of GDM seem those clinical conditions which take more advantages from MI supplementation, when used at a dose of 2 g twice/day. The clinical experience with MI is largely superior to the one with DCI. However, the existence of tissue-specific ratios, namely in the ovary, has prompted researchers to recently develop a treatment based on both molecules in the proportion of 40 (MI) to 1 (DCI). © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Micale L.,Medical Genetics Unit | Augello B.,Medical Genetics Unit | Fusco C.,Medical Genetics Unit | Selicorni A.,University of Milan Bicocca | And 35 more authors.
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: Kabuki syndrome (Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome) is a rare, multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome characterized by a peculiar face, short stature, skeletal, visceral and dermatoglyphic abnormalities, cardiac anomalies, and immunological defects. Recently mutations in the histone methyl transferase MLL2 gene have been identified as its underlying cause. Methods. Genomic DNAs were extracted from 62 index patients clinically diagnosed as affected by Kabuki syndrome. Sanger sequencing was performed to analyze the whole coding region of the MLL2 gene including intron-exon junctions. The putative causal and possible functional effect of each nucleotide variant identified was estimated by in silico prediction tools. Results: We identified 45 patients with MLL2 nucleotide variants. 38 out of the 42 variants were never described before. Consistently with previous reports, the majority are nonsense or frameshift mutations predicted to generate a truncated polypeptide. We also identified 3 indel, 7 missense and 3 splice site. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the relevance of mutational screening of the MLL2 gene among patients diagnosed with Kabuki syndrome. The identification of a large spectrum of MLL2 mutations possibly offers the opportunity to improve the actual knowledge on the clinical basis of this multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome, design functional studies to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease, establish genotype-phenotype correlations and improve clinical management. © 2011 Micale et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Novelli A.,Mendel Laboratory | Grati F.R.,TOMA Advanced Biomedical Assays S.p.A. | Ballarati L.,Laboratory of Medical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics | Bernardini L.,Mendel Laboratory | And 16 more authors.
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2012

A precise guideline establishing chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) applications and platforms in the prenatal setting does not exist. The controversial question is whether CMA technologies can or should soon replace standard karyotyping in prenatal diagnostic practice. A review of the recent literature and survey of the knowledge and experience of all members of the Italian Society of Human Genetics (SIGU) Committee were carried out in order to propose recommendations for the use of CMA in prenatal testing. The analysis of datasets reported in the medical literature showed a considerable 6.4% incidence of pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs) in the group of pregnancies with sonographically detected fetal abnormalities and normal karyotype. The reported CNVs are likely to have a relevant role in terms of nosology for the fetus and in the assessment of reproductive risk for the couple. Estimation of the frequency of copy number variations of uncertain significance (VOUS) varied depending on the different CMA platforms used, ranging from 0-4%, obtained using targeted arrays, to 9-12%, obtained using high-resolution whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. CMA analysis can be considered a second-tier diagnostic test to be used after standard karyotyping in selected groups of pregnancies, namely those with single (apparently isolated) or multiple ultrasound fetal abnormalities, those with chromosomal rearrangements, even if apparently balanced, and those with supernumerary marker chromosomes. Copyright © 2012 ISUOG. Source

Lalatta F.,UOSD di Genetica Medica | Folliero E.,UNITA di GENETICA CLINICA | Cavallari U.,Servizio di Genetica | Di Segni M.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Medica | And 6 more authors.
Italian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2012

Background: An increasing number of foetuses are recognized as having double Y because of the widespread use of prenatal screening using chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis. 47, XYY karyotype occurs in about one out of 1,000 newborn males, but it is not often detected unless it is diagnosed during prenatal testing. Despite the fact that unbiased follow-up studies demonstrate largely normal post-natal development of young men with 47, XYY, there is a scarcity of controlled studies about the neurological, cognitive and behavioural phenotype which remains the main reason for anxiety and anticipatory negative attitudes of parents. Furthermore, prejudices still exist among professionals and the general population concerning the relationship between this sex chromosome aneuploidy and aggressive and antisocial behaviours. Methods. We report on the clinical follow-up of children diagnosed prenatally with a 47,XYY karyotype, whose parents received multidisciplinary counselling and support at time of diagnosis. The specific focus of our study is on auxology, facial features, developmental milestones, behaviour, detection of aggressiveness as well as the evaluation of parental attitudes toward prenatal counselling. Clinical evaluations including auxological measurements and dysmorphological descriptions were as conducted on 13 boys aged 9 month -7 years. The Child Behavior Check List test specific for age and a 15 item questionnaire were administered to both parents. An update of ongoing problems was carried out by means of a telephone interview two years later. Results: Our results show that, from birth, weight, height and head circumference were above average values while some facial features such mild hypertelorism are overrepresented when compared to parents' facial features. Language delay was detected in 8 out of 11 children older than 20 months. Parental attitudes were found to be favourable toward prenatal diagnoses of sexual chromosome aneuploidies. Conclusions: Our data, although limited, is similar to other observational studies, and serves to alert clinicians about opportunities to delineate new and appropriate educational interventions that target the specific learning challenges of XYY boys. Our experience better defines the early manifestation of XYY and should aid those involved in prenatal counselling and paediatric surveillance. © 2012 Lalatta et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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