Marra M.,Servizio di epidemiologica |
Migliardi A.,Servizio di epidemiologica |
Costa G.,Servizio di epidemiologica |
Costa G.,University of Turin
Epidemiologia e Prevenzione | Year: 2015
OBJECTIVES: To describe systematically unhealthy patterns in nutrition behaviours, with a special focus on the impact of social, gender, geographical, and age inequalities on diet; to evaluate the potential impact of eco nomic crisis on healthy nutrition choices and on health inequalities. DESIGN: cross sectional study within national surveys. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: population &20 years, from representative samples of the Italian population in official national multipurpose surveys, in the periods 2005-2007 and 2009-2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: prevalence, population attributable fraction (PAF), and relative time variation between periods. RESULTS: Wide differences on the prevalence of nutrition healthy behaviour have been found according to social position (low educated have higher consumption of meat, carbohydrates, salty food, higher breakfast skipping rates as well as lower consumption of fish), geographical area (Northern regions have higher consumption of meat, carbohydrates and fats, whereas Southern ones have lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, higher obesity, and overweight rates). Economic crises seems to have had an impact on nutrition (reduction of meat, fruit and vegetable consumption, increase on snack and legumes frequencies, less fish, and meat presence on diet), but lower than expected. Besides, if long period trends seem to increase health inequalities on nutrition, crisis seems to have had an opposite effect. CONCLUSION: unhealthy patterns seem to be present in Italian food behaviour and long time trends appear to increase them, as illustrated by the spread of obesity and overweight. Nevertheless, Mediterranean diet does not seem to be too much at risk. Economic crisis has been frequently recognized as a determinant of nutrition patterns worsening, but it has had different impacts. Furthermore, health inequalities could be decreased in crisis times.