Maragliano R.,University of Insubria |
Vanoli A.,University of Pavia |
Albarello L.,San Raffaele Hospital |
Milione M.,Italian National Cancer Institute |
And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2015
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs), although rare, are responsible for about 15% of ectopic Cushing syndrome (CS). They represent a challenging entity because their preoperatory diagnosis is frequently difficult, and clear-cut morphologic criteria useful to differentiate them from other types of PanNETs have not been defined. Ectopic ACTH secretion associated with CS can also be rarely due to pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) and pancreatoblastoma, rare tumor types with morphologic features sometimes overlapping those of PanNETs and, for this reason, representing a diagnostic challenge for pathologists. We herein describe the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of 10 PanNETs and 1 ACC secreting ACTH and associated with CS together with an extensive review of the literature to give the reader a comprehensive overview on ACTH-producing pancreatic neoplasms. ACTH-secreting PanNETs are aggressive neoplasms with an immunohistochemical profile that partially overlaps that of pituitary corticotroph adenomas. They are generally large and well-differentiated neoplasms without distinctive histologic features but with signs of aggressiveness including vascular and perineural invasion. They are more frequent in female individuals with a mean age of 42 years. At 5 and 10 years after diagnosis, 35% and 16.2% of patients, respectively, were alive. ACTH-secreting ACCs and pancreatoblastomas are very aggressive pediatric tumors with a poor prognosis. Using an appropriate immunohistochemical panel including ACTH, β-endorphin, trypsin, and BCL10 it is possible to recognize ACTH-secreting PanNETs and to distinguish them from the very aggressive ACTH-secreting ACCs. Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Squintani G.,Unita Operativa Neurologia |
Bonetti B.,University of Verona |
Paolin A.,Banca Dei Tessuti |
Vici D.,Banca Dei Tessuti |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Neurosurgery | Year: 2013
Object. The use of allografts from cadaveric donors has attracted renewed interest in recent years, and pretreatment with cryopreservation and immunosuppression methods has been investigated to maximize axonal regrowth and minimize allograft rejection. The authors wanted to assess the outcome of treatments of brachial plexus stretch injuries with cryopreserved allografts from cadaveric donors in nonimmunosuppressed patients. Methods. Ten patients with brachial plexus lesions were submitted to electromyography (EMG) testing 1 and 3 months after a traumatic event and 1 week before surgery to localize and identify the type of lesion. Intraoperative EMG recordings were performed for intraoperative monitoring to select the best surgical strategy, and postoperative EMG was used to follow up patients and determine surgical outcomes. If nerve action potentials (NAPs) were present intraoperatively, neurolysis was performed, whereas muscular/nerve neurotization was performed if NAPs were absent. Cryopreserved allografts obtained from selected cadaveric donors and provided by the tissue bank of Treviso were used for nerve reconstruction in patients who were not treated with immunosuppressive drugs. Results. The surgical strategy was selected according to the type and site of the nerve lesion and on the basis of IOM results: 14 cryopreserved allografts were used for 7 muscular neurotizations and for 7 nerve neurotizations, and 5 neurolysis procedures were performed. All of the patients had regained motor function at the 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Conclusions. Some variables may affect functional recovery after allograft surgery, and the outcome of peripheral nerve reconstruction is more favorable when patients are carefully evaluated and selected for the surgery. The authors demonstrated that using cryopreserved allografts from cadaveric donors is a valid surgical strategy to restore function of the damaged nerve without the need for any immunosuppressive treatments. This approach offers new perspectives on procedures for extensive reconstruction of brachial and lumbosacral plexuses. © AANS, 2013.
Kurelac I.,Dip. di Science Mediche e Chirurgiche |
MacKay A.,The Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Center |
Lambros M.B.K.,The Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Center |
Cesare E.D.,Dip. di Science Mediche e Chirurgiche |
And 10 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2013
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations leading to the disruption of respiratory complex I (CI) have been shown to exhibit anti-tumorigenic effects, at variance with those impairing only the function but not the assembly of the complex, which appear to contribute positively to cancer development. Owing to the challenges in the analysis of the multi-copy mitochondrial genome, it is yet to be determined whether tumour-associated mtDNA lesions occur as somatic modifying factorsor as germ-line predisposing elements. Here we investigated the whole mitochondrial genome sequence of 20 pituitary adenomas with oncocytic phenotype and identified pathogenic and/or novel mtDNA mutations in 60% of the cases. Using highly sensitive techniques, namely fluorescent PCR and allele-specific locked nucleic acid quantitative PCR, we identified the most likely somatic nature of these mutations in our sample set, since none of the mutations was detected in the corresponding blood tissue of the patients analysed. Furthermore, we have subjected a series of 48 pituitary adenomas to a high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization analysis, which revealed that CI disruptive mutations, and the oncocytic phenotype, significantly correlate with low number of chromosomal aberrations in the nuclear genome. We conclude that CI disruptive mutations in pituitary adenomas are somatic modifiers of tumorigenesis most likely contributing not only to the development of oncocytic change, but also to a less aggressive tumour phenotype, as indicated by a stable karyotype. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Dalpiaz G.,University of Bologna |
Piolanti M.,Servizio di Radiologia |
Cancellieri A.,Servizio di Anatomia Patologica |
Barozzi L.,Servizio di Radiologia
Radiologia Medica | Year: 2014
Granulomatous lung diseases include a large number of conditions among granulomas are the pathological hallmark. Some of these conditions are frequently encountered in clinical practice. Differentiating infectious from noninfectious forms is a priority for the different specialists approaching these diseases, given the different implications for management and treatment. However, differential diagnosis is not always straightforward and the diagnosis of granulomatous disease, considering separately the clinical, radiological and pathological aspects, is at times incomplete or uncertain and requires multidisciplinary assessment. In this paper, we propose a combined HRCT-pathological approach to assess both the topographical and morphological features of the lesions. Based on topography, we can distinguish between granulomatous lesions distributed along the lymphatic vessels, with random distribution or centred on the airways. The prototype of the disease with lymphatic granulomas is sarcoidosis. In contrast, diseases exhibiting a random distribution of granulomas are those with haematogenous spread, the most typical of which is miliary tuberculosis (TB). Many diseases have distribution along the airways including hypersensitivity pneumonia and granulomatous bronchiolitis (including infections with bronchial spread, especially mycobacteriosis). The anatomical approach is completed by the assessment of the morphological aspects of the lesions and associated signs, reflecting both the possible mechanisms of spread and the different types of pathological and/or reparative tissue related to the disease. © Italian Society of Medical Radiology 2013.
Poli F.,Organ and Tissue Transplantation Immunology |
Benazzi E.,Organ and Tissue Transplantation Immunology |
Innocente A.,Organ and Tissue Transplantation Immunology |
Nocco A.,Organ and Tissue Transplantation Immunology |
And 4 more authors.
Human Immunology | Year: 2011
The development of solid-phase assays for antibody detection has aided in the frequent detection of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in nonalloimmunized males. Some scientists have reported that these HLA antibodies are produced to pathogens or allergens and the reactivity with HLA coated beads is the result of cross-reactive epitopes. These antibodies may also be directed toward cryptic epitopes exposed on the denatured beads. In this report, we describe the case of a heart transplanted patient who exhibited anti-HLA-A*02:01 donor-specific antibodies detected with a bead-based assay (Luminex) and undetected with the complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) test. Posttransplant monitoring, carried out with CDC and with Luminex on sera from this patient collected at the 2nd, 4th, 8th, and 12th posttransplant weeks and at 1 year confirmed the presence of anti-HLA-A*02:01 in all serum samples. Additional tests carried out with denatured and intact HLA molecules using single antigen beads demonstrated that the antibody was directed toward a cryptic epitope. One year after transplantation the patient is doing well. No sign of antibody-mediated rejection was observed throughout the follow-up. A comprehensive evaluation of the anamnesis and of antibodies is critical to avoid needless exclusion of organ donors. © 2011 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics.
Caminati A.,U.O. Pneumologia e Terapia Semi Intensiva Respiratoria |
Graziano P.,Servizio di Anatomia Patologica |
Sverzellati N.,University of Parma |
Harari S.,U.O. Pneumologia e Terapia Semi Intensiva Respiratoria
Pathologica | Year: 2010
In pulmonary pathology, a wide spectrum of morphological changes is related to the consequences of smoking, and recognizing them on surgical specimens and on small transbronchial biopsies represents a challenge for the pathologist. Respiratory bronchiolitis, also referred to as smoker's bronchiolitis, is a common histologic feature found in the lung tissue of cigarette smokers. When identified as the sole histopathologic finding in the clinical setting of symptomatic interstitial lung disease, a diagnosis of respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease is made. Since smoking is recognized to cause a variety of histologic patterns encompassing respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitisinterstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary Langerhans cell hystiocytosis, smoking-related interstitial lung disease may be a useful concept to keep in mind for the pathologists. The relationship of smoking with each of these entities has been largely established on the basis of epidemiologic evidence. Although they have been retained as distinct and separate conditions in various classifications of interstitial lung diseases, these entities share a number of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features suggesting that they represent a spectrum of patterns of interstitial lung disease occurring in predisposed individuals who smoke. Evaluation of histologic features, particularly in surgical lung biopsy samples, is important in making the distinction between these disorders. However, even after tissue biopsy, it may sometimes be difficult to clearly separate these entities. Recently, respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease with fibrosis has been described and postulated that this is a smoking-related condition distinct from fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia.
Bajocchi G.,Unita Operativa di Reumatologia |
Piro R.,Unita Operativa di Pneumologia |
Lombardini C.,Servizio di Anestesia e Rianimazione |
Cavazza A.,Servizio di Anatomia Patologica |
Facciolongo N.,Unita Operativa di Pneumologia
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology | Year: 2012
We present the case of a 48-year-old male with an acute respiratory distress syndrome which later proved to be an unexpected and initial manifestation of antisynthetase syndrome. Recognising this as a rare combination of an acute respiratory failure and a connective tissue disease in a previously asymptomatic subject is possible only by means of diagnostic exclusion. Based on similar case reports, the only way to reverse the disease and minimise the sequelae is to begin long-term immunosuppressive therapy as soon as possible once the diagnosis has been made. A review of similar cases with antibody anti-Jo-1 is presented with the aim of providing clinicians with useful indications for promptly recognising this poorly-defined and life-threatening emergency. © Clinical and experimental rheumatology 2012.
Cassisa A.,Servizio di Anatomia Patologica
Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia | Year: 2013
Adipocytes are the most representative cells of the adipose tissue. For a long time adipocytes have been defined as no more than "fat guys", passively occupying large body regions, often with undesirable cosmetic effects. The apparent structural uniformity of adipose tissue contrasts with the functional complexity that may be documented at different anatomical sites. A growing body of scientific evidence is telling us that adipose tissue is a very sophisticated organ regulating both energy storage and metabolic management of our body, as well as the main branches of immune system. The adipose tissue is strictly linked with our brain and regulates other organ systems. Adipose tissue paracrine activity regulates turnover, regeneration homeostasis of epidermis, dermis and cutaneous appendages. Adipokines, molecules produced by adipocytes play an important role in many skin disease other than in systemic diseases. This review will focus on the pathophysiology of the adipose tissue with special emphasis on recent scientific acquisitions. Improving our knowledge on fat tissue is necessary to develop interesting new perspectives and therapeutic strategies for both systemic and cutaneous diseases.
Ciccocioppo R.,University of Pavia |
Racca F.,University of Pavia |
Paolucci S.,SS Virologia Molecolare Science Virologia e Microbiologia |
Campanini G.,SS Virologia Molecolare Science Virologia e Microbiologia |
And 6 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015
AIM: To evaluate the best diagnostic technique and risk factors of the human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: A cohort of 40 IBD patients (17 refractory) and 40 controls underwent peripheral blood and endoscopic colonic mucosal sample harvest. Viral infection was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, and correlations with clinical and endoscopic indexes of activity, and risk factors were investigated. RESULTS: All refractory patients carried detectable levels of HCMV and/or EBV mucosal load as compared to 13/23 (56.5%) non-refractory and 13/40 (32.5%) controls. The median DNA value was significantly higher in refractory (HCMV 286 and EBV 5.440 copies/105 cells) than in non-refractory (HCMV 0 and EBV 6 copies/105 cells; P < 0.05 and < 0.001) IBD patients and controls (HCMV and EBV 0 copies/105 cells; P < 0.001 for both). Refractory patients showed DNA peak values ≥ 103 copies/ 105 cells in diseased mucosa in comparison to non-diseased mucosa (P < 0.0121 for HCMV and < 0.0004 for EBV), while non-refractory patients and controls invariably displayed levels below this threshold, thus allowing us to differentiate viral colitis from mucosal infection. Moreover, the mucosal load positively correlated with the values found in the peripheral blood, whilst no correlation with the number of positive cells at immunohistochemistry was found. Steroid use was identified as a significant risk factor for both HCMV (P = 0.018) and EBV (P = 0.002) colitis. Finally, a course of specific antiviral therapy with ganciclovir was successful in all refractory patients with HCMV colitis, whilst refractory patients with EBV colitis did not show any improvement despite steroid tapering and discontinuation of the other medications. CONCLUSION: Viral colitis appeared to contribute to mucosal lesions in refractory IBD, and its correct diagnosis and management require quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay of mucosal specimens. © The Author(s) 2015.
Manzi G.,Instituto Ortopedico Irccs Galeazzi |
Romano D.,Instituto Ortopedico Irccs Galeazzi |
Moneghini L.,Servizio di Anatomia Patologica |
Romano C.L.,Instituto Ortopedico Irccs Galeazzi
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders | Year: 2012
Background: Osteopetrosis is a rare, inherited, bone disorder, characterized by osteosclerosis, obliteration of the medullary cavity and calcified cartilage. The autosomal dominant form is compatible with a normal life span, although fractures often result from minimal trauma, due to the pathologic nature of bone. Osteomyelitis is common in patients with osteopetrosis because of a reduced resistance to infection, attributed to the lack of marrow vascularity and impairment of white cell function. Only one case of osteomyelitis of the proximal third of the femur has been previously reported, treated with several repeated debridements and finally with femoral head resection. Here we present for the first time a case of a staged implant of a cementless total hip prosthesis for the treatment of a septic hip in femoral neck nonunion in osteopetrosis. Case presentation. A 36-years-old woman, affected by autosomal dominant osteopetrosis was referred to our department because of a septic hip arthritis associated with femoral neck septic non-union, with draining fistulas. The infection occurred early after a plate osteosynthesis for a closed perthrocanteric fracture of the femur and persisted in spite of osteosynthesis removal, surgical debridement and external fixation. In our hospital the patient underwent accurate debridement, femoral head and greater trochanter resection, preparation of the diaphyseal intramedullary canal and implant of an antibiotic-loaded cement spacer. The spacer was exchanged after one month, due to infection recurrence and four months later, a cementless total hip arthroplasty was implanted, with no clinical and laboratory signs of infection recurrence at two years follow-up. Conclusions: In case of hip septic arthritis and proximal femur septic non-union, femoral head resection may not be the only option available and staged total hip arthroplasty can be considered. © 2012 Manzi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.