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Poli F.,Organ and Tissue Transplantation Immunology | Benazzi E.,Organ and Tissue Transplantation Immunology | Innocente A.,Organ and Tissue Transplantation Immunology | Nocco A.,Organ and Tissue Transplantation Immunology | And 4 more authors.
Human Immunology | Year: 2011

The development of solid-phase assays for antibody detection has aided in the frequent detection of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in nonalloimmunized males. Some scientists have reported that these HLA antibodies are produced to pathogens or allergens and the reactivity with HLA coated beads is the result of cross-reactive epitopes. These antibodies may also be directed toward cryptic epitopes exposed on the denatured beads. In this report, we describe the case of a heart transplanted patient who exhibited anti-HLA-A*02:01 donor-specific antibodies detected with a bead-based assay (Luminex) and undetected with the complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) test. Posttransplant monitoring, carried out with CDC and with Luminex on sera from this patient collected at the 2nd, 4th, 8th, and 12th posttransplant weeks and at 1 year confirmed the presence of anti-HLA-A*02:01 in all serum samples. Additional tests carried out with denatured and intact HLA molecules using single antigen beads demonstrated that the antibody was directed toward a cryptic epitope. One year after transplantation the patient is doing well. No sign of antibody-mediated rejection was observed throughout the follow-up. A comprehensive evaluation of the anamnesis and of antibodies is critical to avoid needless exclusion of organ donors. © 2011 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Source

Dalpiaz G.,Servizio di Radiologia | Piolanti M.,Servizio di Radiologia | Cancellieri A.,Servizio di Anatomia Patologica | Barozzi L.,Servizio di Radiologia
Radiologia Medica | Year: 2014

Granulomatous lung diseases include a large number of conditions among granulomas are the pathological hallmark. Some of these conditions are frequently encountered in clinical practice. Differentiating infectious from noninfectious forms is a priority for the different specialists approaching these diseases, given the different implications for management and treatment. However, differential diagnosis is not always straightforward and the diagnosis of granulomatous disease, considering separately the clinical, radiological and pathological aspects, is at times incomplete or uncertain and requires multidisciplinary assessment. In this paper, we propose a combined HRCT-pathological approach to assess both the topographical and morphological features of the lesions. Based on topography, we can distinguish between granulomatous lesions distributed along the lymphatic vessels, with random distribution or centred on the airways. The prototype of the disease with lymphatic granulomas is sarcoidosis. In contrast, diseases exhibiting a random distribution of granulomas are those with haematogenous spread, the most typical of which is miliary tuberculosis (TB). Many diseases have distribution along the airways including hypersensitivity pneumonia and granulomatous bronchiolitis (including infections with bronchial spread, especially mycobacteriosis). The anatomical approach is completed by the assessment of the morphological aspects of the lesions and associated signs, reflecting both the possible mechanisms of spread and the different types of pathological and/or reparative tissue related to the disease. © Italian Society of Medical Radiology 2013. Source

Squintani G.,Unita Operativa Neurologia | Bonetti B.,University of Verona | Paolin A.,Banca Dei Tessuti | Vici D.,Banca Dei Tessuti | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Neurosurgery | Year: 2013

Object. The use of allografts from cadaveric donors has attracted renewed interest in recent years, and pretreatment with cryopreservation and immunosuppression methods has been investigated to maximize axonal regrowth and minimize allograft rejection. The authors wanted to assess the outcome of treatments of brachial plexus stretch injuries with cryopreserved allografts from cadaveric donors in nonimmunosuppressed patients. Methods. Ten patients with brachial plexus lesions were submitted to electromyography (EMG) testing 1 and 3 months after a traumatic event and 1 week before surgery to localize and identify the type of lesion. Intraoperative EMG recordings were performed for intraoperative monitoring to select the best surgical strategy, and postoperative EMG was used to follow up patients and determine surgical outcomes. If nerve action potentials (NAPs) were present intraoperatively, neurolysis was performed, whereas muscular/nerve neurotization was performed if NAPs were absent. Cryopreserved allografts obtained from selected cadaveric donors and provided by the tissue bank of Treviso were used for nerve reconstruction in patients who were not treated with immunosuppressive drugs. Results. The surgical strategy was selected according to the type and site of the nerve lesion and on the basis of IOM results: 14 cryopreserved allografts were used for 7 muscular neurotizations and for 7 nerve neurotizations, and 5 neurolysis procedures were performed. All of the patients had regained motor function at the 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Conclusions. Some variables may affect functional recovery after allograft surgery, and the outcome of peripheral nerve reconstruction is more favorable when patients are carefully evaluated and selected for the surgery. The authors demonstrated that using cryopreserved allografts from cadaveric donors is a valid surgical strategy to restore function of the damaged nerve without the need for any immunosuppressive treatments. This approach offers new perspectives on procedures for extensive reconstruction of brachial and lumbosacral plexuses. © AANS, 2013. Source

Cassisa A.,Servizio di Anatomia Patologica
Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia | Year: 2013

Adipocytes are the most representative cells of the adipose tissue. For a long time adipocytes have been defined as no more than "fat guys", passively occupying large body regions, often with undesirable cosmetic effects. The apparent structural uniformity of adipose tissue contrasts with the functional complexity that may be documented at different anatomical sites. A growing body of scientific evidence is telling us that adipose tissue is a very sophisticated organ regulating both energy storage and metabolic management of our body, as well as the main branches of immune system. The adipose tissue is strictly linked with our brain and regulates other organ systems. Adipose tissue paracrine activity regulates turnover, regeneration homeostasis of epidermis, dermis and cutaneous appendages. Adipokines, molecules produced by adipocytes play an important role in many skin disease other than in systemic diseases. This review will focus on the pathophysiology of the adipose tissue with special emphasis on recent scientific acquisitions. Improving our knowledge on fat tissue is necessary to develop interesting new perspectives and therapeutic strategies for both systemic and cutaneous diseases. Source

Kurelac I.,Dip. di Science Mediche e Chirurgiche | MacKay A.,The Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Center | Lambros M.B.K.,The Breakthrough Breast Cancer Research Center | Cesare E.D.,Dip. di Science Mediche e Chirurgiche | And 10 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2013

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations leading to the disruption of respiratory complex I (CI) have been shown to exhibit anti-tumorigenic effects, at variance with those impairing only the function but not the assembly of the complex, which appear to contribute positively to cancer development. Owing to the challenges in the analysis of the multi-copy mitochondrial genome, it is yet to be determined whether tumour-associated mtDNA lesions occur as somatic modifying factorsor as germ-line predisposing elements. Here we investigated the whole mitochondrial genome sequence of 20 pituitary adenomas with oncocytic phenotype and identified pathogenic and/or novel mtDNA mutations in 60% of the cases. Using highly sensitive techniques, namely fluorescent PCR and allele-specific locked nucleic acid quantitative PCR, we identified the most likely somatic nature of these mutations in our sample set, since none of the mutations was detected in the corresponding blood tissue of the patients analysed. Furthermore, we have subjected a series of 48 pituitary adenomas to a high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization analysis, which revealed that CI disruptive mutations, and the oncocytic phenotype, significantly correlate with low number of chromosomal aberrations in the nuclear genome. We conclude that CI disruptive mutations in pituitary adenomas are somatic modifiers of tumorigenesis most likely contributing not only to the development of oncocytic change, but also to a less aggressive tumour phenotype, as indicated by a stable karyotype. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

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