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Karsdal M.A.,Nordic Bioscience A S | Bay-Jensen A.C.,Nordic Bioscience A S | Lories R.J.,Skeletal Biology and Engineering Research Center | Lories R.J.,University Hospitals Leuven | And 8 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2014

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritic disease, and a major cause of disability and impaired quality of life in the elderly. OA is a complex disease of the entire joint, affecting bone, cartilage and synovium that thereby presents multiple targets for treatment. This manuscript will summarise emerging observations from cell biology, preclinical and preliminary clinical trials that elucidate interactions between the bone and cartilage components in particular. Bone and cartilage health are tightly associated. Ample evidence has been found for bone changes during progression of OA including, but not limited to, increased turnover in the subchondral bone, undermineralisation of the trabecular structure, osteophyte formation, bone marrow lesions and sclerosis of the subchondral plate. Meanwhile, a range of investigations has shown positive effects on cartilage health when bone resorption is suppressed, or deterioration of the cartilage when resorption is increased. Known bone therapies, namely oestrogens, selective oestrogen receptor modifiers (SERMs), bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate, calcitonin and parathyroid hormone, might prove useful for treating two critical tissue components of the OA joint, the bone and the cartilage. An optimal treatment for OA likely targets at least these two tissue components. The patient subgroups for whom these therapies are most appropriate have yet to be fully defined but would likely include, at a minimum, those with high bone turnover.

Proudfoot J.,Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals | Nosjean O.,Servier Research Institute | Blanchard J.,McMaster University | Wang J.,Rialto Inc. | And 9 more authors.
Pure and Applied Chemistry | Year: 2011

Biomolecular screening is now a crucial component of the drug discovery process, and this glossary will be of use to practitioners in the field of screening and to those who interact with the screening community. The glossary contains definitions related to various aspects of the screening process such as assay types, data handling, and relevant technologies. Many of the terms used in this discipline are not covered by existing glossaries, and where they are, the definitions are often not appropriate for this field. Where appropriate, this document provides new or modified definitions to better reflect the new context. The field of biomolecular screening is multidisciplinary in nature, and this glossary, containing authoritative definitions, will be useful not only for regular practitioners, but also for those who make use of data generated during the screening process. & 2011, IUPAC.

Laurent D.,Novartis | Vinet L.,University of Geneva | Lamprianou S.,University of Geneva | Daval M.,Servier Research Institute | And 16 more authors.
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism | Year: 2016

Diabetes mellitus is a growing worldwide epidemic disease, currently affecting 1 in 12 adults. Treatment of disease complications typically consumes ∼10% of healthcare budgets in developed societies. Whilst immune-mediated destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic β cells is responsible for Type 1 diabetes, both the loss and dysfunction of these cells underly the more prevalent Type 2 diabetes. The establishment of robust drug development programmes aimed at β-cell restoration is still hampered by the absence of means to measure β-cell mass prospectively in vivo, an approach which would provide new opportunities for understanding disease mechanisms and ultimately assigning personalized treatments. In the present review, we describe the progress towards this goal achieved by the Innovative Medicines Initiative in Diabetes, a collaborative public-private consortium supported by the European Commission and by dedicated resources of pharmaceutical companies. We compare several of the available imaging methods and molecular targets and provide suggestions as to the likeliest to lead to tractable approaches. Furthermore, we discuss the simultaneous development of animal models that can be used to measure subtle changes in β-cell mass, a prerequisite for validating the clinical potential of the different imaging tracers. © 2016 John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

Poisnel G.,Therapeutic Strategic Unit Aging Alzheimer Parkinson Stroke | Poisnel G.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses | Poisnel G.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Poisnel G.,Servier Research Institute | And 22 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2012

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by the invariant cerebral accumulation of β-amyloid peptide. This event occurs early in the disease process. In humans, [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is largely used to follow-up in vivo cerebral glucose utilization (CGU) and brain metabolism modifications associated with the Alzheimer's disease pathology. Here, [18F]-FDG positron emission tomography was used to study age-related changes of cerebral glucose utilization under resting conditions in 3-, 6-, and 12-month-old APPSweLon/PS1M146L, a mouse model of amyloidosis. We showed an age-dependent increase of glucose uptake in several brain regions of APP/PS1 mice but not in control animals and a higher [18F]-FDG uptake in the cortex and the hippocampus of 12-month-old APP/PS1 mice as compared with age-matched control mice. We then developed a method of 3-D microscopic autoradiography to evaluate glucose uptake at the level of amyloid plaques and showed an increased glucose uptake close to the plaques rather than in amyloid-free cerebral tissues. These data suggest a macroscopic and microscopic reorganization of glucose uptake in relation to cerebral amyloidosis. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Vayssettes-Courchay C.,Servier Research Institute | Ragonnet C.,Servier Research Institute | Isabelle M.,Servier Research Institute | Verbeuren T.J.,Servier Research Institute
American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology | Year: 2011

Large-artery stiffening is a major risk factor in aging and hypertension. Elevated blood pressure (BP) and vascular wall properties participate in arterial stiffening; we aimed to evaluate their respective role by combining echo-tracking and the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) treated with low doses of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, shown to have arterial stiffening. Normotensive [Wistar-Kyoto (WKY)], SHR, and SHR treated for 2 wk with N G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (SHRLN) were anesthetized; BP and distension (pulsatile displacement) of the aortic walls with the ArtLab echo-tracking device were measured. Stiffness index increased in SHRLN vs. SHR; compliance, distensibility, and the slopes and area of the distension-pressure loop curve decreased. The pulsatile distension and pressure waveforms were strongly altered in SHRLN. Maximal values were decreased and increased, respectively, and the waveform kinetics also differed. Thus the area under the curve adjusted to heart rate (AUC/ms) was calculated. Acute BP reductions were induced by diltiazem in SHR and SHRLN, to levels similar to those of WKY. In SHR, compliance, distensibility, stiffness index, and the ascending slope of the distension-pressure loop reached the values of WKY, whereas they were only partially improved in SHRLN. Aortic distension (maximal value and AUC/ms) and the area of the distension-pressure loop were improved in SHR, but not in SHRLN. These data confirm the aortic stiffening induced by nitric oxide reduction in SHR. They show that the ArtLab system analyzes aortic stiffness in rats, and that the aortic pulsatile distension waveform is a parameter strongly dependent on the vascular wall properties. © 2011 by the American Physiological Society.

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