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Vicente-Serrano S.M.,CSIC - Pyrenean Institute of Ecology | El Kenawy A.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | El Kenawy A.,Mansoura University | Azorin-Molina C.,CSIC - Pyrenean Institute of Ecology | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Maps | Year: 2016

This study presents monthly and annual climate maps for relevant hydroclimatic variables in Bolivia. We used the most complete network of precipitation and temperature stations available in Bolivia, which passed a careful quality control and temporal homogenization procedure. Monthly average maps at the spatial resolution of 1 km were modeled by means of a regression-based approach using topographic and geographic variables as predictors. The monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and potential exoatmospheric solar radiation under clear sky conditions are used to estimate the monthly average atmospheric evaporative demand by means of the Hargreaves model. Finally, the average water balance is estimated on a monthly and annual scale for each 1 km cell by means of the difference between precipitation and atmospheric evaporative demand. The digital layers used to create the maps are available in the digital repository of the Spanish National Research Council. © 2015 S.M. Vicente-Serrano.

Vicente-Serrano S.M.,CSIC - Pyrenean Institute of Ecology | Chura O.,Servicio Nacional de Meteorologia SENAMHI | Lopez-Moreno J.I.,CSIC - Pyrenean Institute of Ecology | Azorin-Molina C.,CSIC - Pyrenean Institute of Ecology | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2015

In this study, the spatio-temporal variability and trends of droughts across Bolivia between 1955 and 2012 were investigated using two climate drought indices: the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), which is based on precipitation data, and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), which is based on the difference between the precipitation and the reference evapotranspiration (ETo). We found that the average drought conditions across the country showed a temporal behaviour mainly characterized by decadal variations. The spatial pattern of drought evolution showed marked differences between the Amazonian region and the Bolivian Altiplano. Both regions showed different drought periods, a lower frequency of drought variability in the Amazon region and trends towards drier conditions in the Altiplano, mainly due to a higher atmospheric water demand as a consequence of increased ETo. We also showed that inclusion of ETo, obtained from maximum and minimum temperature records, increased the spatial heterogeneity of the drought evolution in relation to the evolution observed when only precipitation droughts were considered. The SPEI, the calculation of which includes precipitation and ETo, indicated intensification in drought severity in the last years analysed relative to the pattern found when precipitation droughts alone were considered, and also indicated an increase in the magnitude and duration of drought events. The potential for increasing drought conditions under various climate change scenarios is discussed. © 2015 Royal Meteorological Society.

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